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Encyclopedia > Iranian Constitutional Revolution

The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. The revolution marked the beginning of the end of Iran's feudalistic society and led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia (Iran). 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The Persian Constitutional Revolution was the first event of its kind in the Middle East. The Revolution opened the way for cataclysmic change in Persia, heralding the modern era. It saw a period of unprecedented debate in a burgeoning press. The revolution created new opportunities and opened up seemingly boundless possibilities for Persia’s future. Many different groups fought to shape the course of the Revolution, and all sections of society were ultimately to be in some way changed by it. The old order, which Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar had struggled for so long to sustain, finally passed away, to be replaced by new institutions, new forms of expression, and a new social and political order. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Nasser-al-Din Shah The Shah, on his European tour, in The Royal Albert Hall, London Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (Persian: ناصرالدین شاه قاجار; also Nassereddin Shah or Nassiruddin Shah) (July 16, 1831 - May 1, 1896) was the Shah of Persia from September 17, 1848 until his death on May 1, 1896. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ...


The system of constitutional monarchy created by the decree of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah that was established in Persia as a result of the Revolution ultimately came to an end in 1925 with the dissolution of the Qajar dynasty and the ascension of Reza Shah Pahlavi to the throne. Mozaffareddin Shah Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (also Mozaffareddin Shah) (1853 – 1907) was the Shah of Persia between 1896 and 1907. ...


It should be noted that the movement, however, did not end with the Revolution and was followed by the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan. Mirza Kuchek, the leader of the movement. ...

100th anniversary of Persian constitutional revolution.(Tehran 2006)
100th anniversary of Persian constitutional revolution.(Tehran 2006)

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Context

In 1905 Persia (Iran) was still under the rule of the Qajar Dynasty who had ruled Persia since 1781. Over the duration of Qajar rule, Persia had gradually become a victim of Russian and British imperial policies in The Great Game. This international rivalry had caused successive central governments to become increasingly weak and corrupt. The country's management was often handled by powerful regional nobles who paid their token respects to the monarchy. In effect, this resulted in the central government relying on these nobles for both income, justice, and security. The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Central Asia, circa 1848 The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Conolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ...


This was particularly true of the brief reign of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (1896-1907), during whose rule the Constitutional Revolution began. Mozzafar-al-Din Shah often relied on his chancellor to manage his decentralised state, he had also taken out several major loans from Russia and Britain to pay for his extravagant lifestyle and the costs of the central government. Despite some attempts to reform the central treasury during his reign he was continually undermined by both Russia and Britain. His dire financial situation caused him to sign many concessions to foreign powers, an example being the D'arcy oil concession which provided oil to Britain for 60 years at an extremely low price.


As concessions were granted with increasing frequency on an expanding list of trade items ranging from weapons to tobacco, the established noble classes, religious authorities, and educated elite began to demand a curb on royal authority and the establishment of the rule of law as their concern over foreign, and especially Russian, influence grew [1].


History

Members of the First Majlis (October 7, 1906 — June 23, 1908).
Members of the First Majlis (October 7, 1906June 23, 1908).

Following the defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, constitutional governments were put under the spotlight of success (Russia being the only European nation at the time without a constitution and Japan being the only Asian country with a constituion). In December, 1905, Two Iranian merchants were punished in Tehran for charging exhorbitant prices. They were bastinadoed (a humiliating punishment where the soles of one's feet are hit) in public. An uprising of the merchant class in Tehran ensued, the clergy following suit as a result of the alliance formed in the 1892 Tobacco Rebellion. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 343 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (561 × 981 pixel, file size: 562 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Members of the First Majlis (Iranian Parliament), October 7, 1906 — June 23, 1908. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 343 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (561 × 981 pixel, file size: 562 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Members of the First Majlis (Iranian Parliament), October 7, 1906 — June 23, 1908. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The two protesting groups sought sanctuary in a mosque in Tehran, but the government violated this sanctuary and entered the mosque and dispersed the group. This violation of the sanctity of the mosque created an even larger movement which sought refuge in a shrine outside Tehran. The Shah had no choice, and was forced to agree to the concessions demanded by this larger movement: a "House of Justice".


In a scuffle in early 1906 the Government killed a seyyed (descendant of the prophet Muhhamed), and a large number of clergy sought sanctuary in the holy city Qom. Many merchants went to the British embassy for refuge.


In the summer of 1906 approximately 12,000 men camped out in the gardens of the British Embassy. Many gave speeches, many more listened. It is here that the demand for a parliament was born, the goal of which was to limit the power of the Shah. In August 1906, Mozaffareddin Shah agreed to allow a parliament, and in the fall, the first elections were held. In all, 156 members were elected, with an overwhelming majority coming from Tehran and the merchant class.


October 1906 marked the first meeting of parliament, who immediately gave themselves the right to make a constitution, thereby becoming a Constitutional Assembly. The Shah was getting old and sick, however, and the his son, Muhammed Ali, was not privy to constitutionalism. Therefore they had to work fast, and by December 31, 1906 the Shah signed the constitution, modeled primarily from the Belgium Constitution. The Shah was from there on "under the rule of law, and the crown became a divine gift given to the Shah by the people.


Aftermath

Within the decade following the establishment of the new majles a number of critical events took place. Many of these events can be viewed as a continuation of the struggle between the constitutionalists and the Shahs of Persia, many of whom were backed by foreign powers against the majles.


In summary (to be expanded):

  • Persia tried to keep free from Russian influence through resistance via the majles to the Shah's policies.
  • Majles brought in Morgan Shuster to reform treasury against initial desires of Russia+Shah. Russia kicked him out.
  • Russian & Bakhtiari troops landed and forced majles to temporarily cease when their plans did not come to fruition.
  • Reza Shah seized power and curtailed the power of the majles. He effectively turned it into a rubber stamp organisation.

Notable individuals

Women and Persian constitutional revolution

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Constitutionalists

Aref Qazvini (عارف قزوینی; in Persian; 1882 — January 21, 1934) was an Iranian poet, and , writer . ... Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Obeid Zakani was a famous 14th century poet of Persia noted for his satire and obscene verses. ... A picture of Sattar Khan. ... Bagher Khan (1870s , Tabriz - November , 1911, Persian: باقر خان), honorarily titled Sālār-e Melli (Persian: سالار ملی meaning Leader of the Nation), was one of the key figures in the Persian Constitutional Revolution Constitutionalists of Tabriz The two men in the center are Sattar Khan & Bagher Khan [edit] See also Persian Constitutional... Mirza Kuchek Khan before starting the rebellion (around 1914). ... Mirza Malkom Khan was an Iranian proponent of freemasonry active during the period leading up to the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. ... Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi was a notable Persian writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures in Iranian womens movement. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Bahars tomb in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ... Sayyed Hasan Teqizadeh - سيدحسن تقي زاده Sayyed Hasan[1] Taqizadeh[2] (سيدحسن تقي زاده) (September, 1878, Tabriz, Iran — January, 1970, Tehran, Iran)[3] was an influential politician and diplomat[4] during the Qajar dynasty under the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah, as well as the Pahlavi dynasty under the reign of Reza Shah[5] and Mohammad... Abdolhossein Teymourtash. ...

Monarchists

  • Mozzafar-al-Din Shah - Shah of Persia who signed the constitution, thereby creating a constitutional monarchy.
  • Mohammad Ali Shah - Son of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah. Attempted to crush the constitution.
  • Sheikh Fazlollah Noori - a cleric who backed the king and stood against the constiuional revilution. After the victory of the ICM he was hanged.
  • Liakhoff- a Russian colonel who was the right hand man of Mohammad Ali Shah.
  • Arfah-aldullah
  • Mokhber-aldullah
  • Ein-aldullah

Mozaffareddin Shah Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (also Mozaffareddin Shah) (1853 – 1907) was the Shah of Persia between 1896 and 1907. ... Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (Persian: محمدعلی شاه قاجار)‎ (1872 - 1925) was the shah of Iran from January 8, 1907 to July 16, 1909. ... Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (Persian: محمدعلی شاه قاجار)‎ (1872 - 1925) was the shah of Iran from January 8, 1907 to July 16, 1909. ...

Religious figures

  • Mohammad Kazem Khorasani, pro-constitutionalism.
  • Seyyed Kazem Yazdi, against constitutionalism.
  • Sheikh Fazlollah Noori, against constitutionalism.
  • Mirza Hossein Na'eeni, pro-constitutionalism.

Further reading

  • Browne, Edward G. The Persian Revolution of 1905-1909. Mage Publishers (July 1995). ISBN 0-934211-45-0
  • Afary, Janet. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906-1911. Columbia University Press. 1996. ISBN 0-231-10351-4

See also

Mirza Kuchek, the leader of the movement. ... Dariush Shayegan. ... The Tobacco Protest, a Shia clerical-led revolt against tobacco concessions granted to Western nations, occurred in Persia (Iran) in 1891. ... 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reform programs launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran, His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ...

External links

  • Images of Revolution. The Constitutionalist Revolution: 1906-1909. [1]
  • [2] - Photographs of revolutionaries in Tabriz

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iranian Constitutional Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1781 words)
The revolution marked the beginning of end of Iran's feudalistic society and led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia.
The system of constitutional monarchy created by the decree of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah that was established in Persia as a result of the Revolution ultimately came to an end in 1925 with the dissolution of the Qajar dynasty and the ascension of Reza Shah Pahlavi to the throne.
This was particularly true of the brief reign of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (1896-1907), during whose rule the Constitutional Revolution began.
THE IRANIAN: Histoey, Constitutional Revolution, Janet Afary (2181 words)
Chapter 1 explores the background to the revolution and the destabilizing ramifications of greater political and economic interaction with the capitalist world-economy in the late nineteenth-century Iran.
The December 1906 constitution reduced the powers of the shah and his ministers, gave administrative autonomy to the provinces, granted limited suffrage to adult men, established the groundwork for a new secular legislature, and guaranteed freedom of the press.
Iranian exile intellectuals in Europe reached a broad audience and called for the reinstitution of the constitutional government in Iran.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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