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Encyclopedia > Iranian Constitution of 1906

The Iran Constitution of 1906[1] was Persia's and later Iran's first constitution that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution after more than 5000 years of recorded history. It is divides into five chapters with many articles that developed over several years. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ...


Major revisions went into effect after the ouster of Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953.[citation needed] Iran was historically known to the West as Persia until 21 March 1935. Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ...

Contents

I. THE FARMÁN (ROYAL PROCLAMATION) OF AUGUST 5, 1906

Mozzafar al-Din Shah creates this first constitution "for the peace and tranquility of all the people of Persia." Muhammad Ali Shah Qajar is credited with chapters 4 and 5. Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (1853 - 1907) was the Shah of Persia between 1896 and 1907. ...


2. THE ELECTORAL LAW OF SEPTEMBER 9, 1906

Disenfranchised

Article 3 of this chapter states that (1) women, (2) foreigners, (3) those under 25, (4) "persons notorious for mischievous opinions," (5) those with a criminal record, (6) active military personnel, and a few other group are not permitted to vote.


Election qualifications

Article 4 states that the elected must be (1) fully literate in Persian, (2) "they must be Persian subjects of Persian extraction," (3) "be locally known," (4) "not be in government employment," (5) be between 30 and 70 years old, and (6) "have some insight into affairs of State."


Article 7 asserts, "Each elector has one vote and can only vote in one [social] class."


3. THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF DECEMBER 30, 1906

Bicameral legislature

Article 1 establishes the National Consultative Assembly[2] based "on justice." Article 43 states, "There shall be constituted another Assembly, entitled the Senate." مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ...


4. THE SUPPLEMENTARY FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF OCTOBER 7, 1907

Article 1 establishes Islám as the official religion of Persia.


Rights

Article 7 disallows suspension of the constitution. Article 8 affords "equal rights before the Law."


Article 9 accords "All individuals (including foreigners per Article 6) are...safeguarded in respect to their lives, property, homes, and honor, from every kind of interference...." Articles 15-17 provide further security to land-owners.


With regard to the press, Article 20 promulgates, "All publications, except heretical books and matters hurtful to the perspicuous religion [of Islám] are free." Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...


Tribunals of Justice

Article 71 entrenches "judicial tribunals...for the redress of public grievances, while judgment in all matters falling within the scope of the Ecclesiastical Law is vested in just mujtahids [mullahs] possessing the necessary qualifications." This means that there is both a secular and religious court system. ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ...


5. THE NEW ELECTORAL LAW OF JULY 1, 1909

Widespread misconceptions

There is a widespread misconception among Americans[3], Iranian democratic activists[4], and a host of other people around the world that the 1906 constitution was secular and democratic. However, neither these two words nor their concepts are found in the text of the constitution. For example, "THE ELECTORAL LAW OF SEPTEMBER 9, 1906," Article 5, debarred from being elected those punished "conformably with the Islamic Law." Many articles grant the mullahs ("Doctors of Divinity") great respect and require public officials to seek their advice. However, Reza Pahlavi — with an iron fist — modernized Iran (like his contemporary Ataturk) and marginalized the land-owning Shia clergy. For example, he put an end to stoning and "unveiled women." Reza Pahlavi secularized Iran by blatantly ignoring the religious constitution entirely. Nonetheless, his critics call him a "dictator" and very few credit him due to their misunderstanding of the actual constitution. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... See also Akhoond, alternate title for such an individual Shaykh Categories: | | | | | ... Reza Shah the Great, also Reza Pahlavi (Persian: ‎) (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), styled His Imperial Majesty, was Shah of Persia from December 15, 1925 until 1935 (at which time he requested that the international community refer to the country by its local name, Iran) and Shah of Iran... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881—November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Stoning or lapidation is a form of capital punishment in which the criminal is put to death by having stones thrown at him or her. ...


Nothwithstanding this, one could argue that the 1979 constitution was more religious than the 1906 version.


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Iranian Constitution of 1906
Preceding: No constitution; monarchical decrees
Subsequent: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Enlightened Absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism or enlightened despotism) is a term used to describe the actions of absolute rulers who were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Image File history File links Steps. ... The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Recognizing the centennial anniversary109th CONGRESS, 2d Session, H. RES. 942, 25 July 2006
  2. ^ This became known as the Islamic Consultative Assembly after the Islamic Revolution.
  3. ^ See the text of 109th CONGRESS, 2d Session, H. RES. 942
  4. ^ Like member of the National Front (Iran).

July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Iranian National Front was a nationalist coalition of political parties in Iran during the late 1940s and early 1950s that suppported oil nationalization. ...

External links

  • A version for 1906-1955 without later revisions. This externally linked document may differ from the 1979 Pahlavi constitution.
  • Constitutional Revolution from Iran Chamber Society

 
 

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