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Encyclopedia > Iranian Azerbaijan

Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c.34,280 sq mi (88,785 sq km), is a region in northwestern Iran. The terms Southern Azerbaijan or South Azerbaijan (Azeri: گوني اذربایجان, Güney Azərbaycan) are also sometimes used, though this terminology is considered controversial and politically loaded [1] [2]. Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fārsi or پارسی Pārsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of Republic of Azerbaijan and the second language of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Region can be used to mean either: any more or less well-defined geographical area of a country or continent, defined by geography, culture or history in political geography, an administrative subdivision of a country or of the European Union. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of Republic of Azerbaijan and the second language of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...

Contents


Geography

Iranian Azerbaijan has an area of 176,512 square kilometers and a population of about 16 million (estimates vary) the Azerbaijanis make up the majority of the population. Iranian Azerbaijan is famous for its great natural beauty. There are 17 rivers and two lakes in the region. Cotton, nuts, textiles, tea, machinery and electrical equpiments are main industries. The region, which includes Lake Urmia, is mountainous, with deep valleys and fertile lowlands. Lake Urmia from space, October 1984 Satellite image of Lake Urmia, taken in November 2003 Lake Urmia (37. ...


Economy

Grains, fruits, cotton, rice, nuts, and tobacco are grown. Wool, carpets, and metalware are produced. Industries include food processing, cement, textiles, electric equipment, and sugar milling. An oil pipeline runs through the region.


People

The majority of the people of Azarbaijan are Azeris, who are Shi'a Muslims. There are also Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Jews, and Persians. Iranian Azerbaijan is divided into the provinces of East Azarbaijan (1996 pop. 3,325,540), West Azarbaijan (1996 pop. 2,496,320), Ardebil. (1996 pop. 1,168,011), and Zanjan. The chief cities include Tabriz (the capital of East Azarbaijan), Urmia (the capital of West Azarbaijan), Ardebil (the capital of Ardabil), Maragheh, Marand, Zanjan, and Khoy (Khvoy). The region is bounded in the north by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan (and is also known as Aran, from which it is separated by the Aras River) and in the West by Turkey and Iraq. Azerbaijanis (Azerbaijani: AzÉ™rbaycanlılar), also known as Azeri Turks (AzÉ™ri TürklÉ™ri) or simply Azeris (Azeriler), are an ethnic group numbering ca. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... // Headline text Assyrians are a bunch of lazy people that want to be more like Iranians. ... The Kurds are an ethnolinguistic group inhabiting parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey (a region commonly referred to as Kurdistan). ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... West Azarbaijan (in Persian, آذربایجان ØºØ±Ø¨ÛŒ Azarbāyejān-e-Qarbi; in Kurdish, Azerbaycanî Rojawa; in Azerbaijani, QÉ™rbi AzÉ™rbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Sheikh Safis Tomb Ardabil (in Persian: اردبیل other name: Ardebil ancient name: Artavil ) is one of 30 provinces of Iran. ... Zanjan (زنجان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia Urmia Persian: ارومیه, Kurdish: Wurmê), previously called Rezaiyeh (رضائیه), is a city in northwestern Iran, and the capital of the West Azarbaijan province, situated on the western side of Lake Urmia. ... Ardabil (in persian: اردبیل other name: Ardebil ancient name: Artavil ) a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the East Azarbaijan Province of Iran, on the Safi River. ... Marand is among major cities in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. ... Zanjan Province ... Khoy (خوی in Persian and Xoy in Kurdish), also spelt Khoi or Khvoy, is a city in West Azarbaijan, Iran. ... The placename Aran may refer to: The Aran Islands or the largest island in that group Aran, a historical region that is a part of modern Republic of Azerbaijan (Caucasia) The Isle of Arran in Scotland. ...


History and Culture

In ancient times, before the Aryan migration to Iranian Plateau, Azarbaijan was dominated by the kings of Van and Urartu (in Armenia). By the 8th century BC, it had been settled by Medes, and it later formed the province of Media Minor in the Persian Empire. After Alexander the Great conquered Persia, he appointed (328 BC) as governor the Persian general Atropates, who eventually established an independent dynasty. Later, the region, which came to be called Atropatene or Media Atropatene, was much disputed. In the 2nd century BC, it was liberated from Seleucid domination by Mithradates I of Arsacid dynasty, and c. AD 226 it became part of the Sassanid Empire of Ardashir I. Shapur II enlarged Azarbaijan by adding territory in the north known as Arran or Aran (today known as the Republic of Azerbaijan). Aryan is an English word derived from the Indian Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya-. Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians... The Iranian plateau is major geologic formation in the Middle East and the southern Eurasian Plate. ... Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in eastern Anatolia, centred in the mountainous region around Lake Van (present-day Turkey), which existed from about 1000 BC, or earlier, until 585 BC. The name may correspond to the Biblical Ararat. ... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Iran Under the Arsacid Dynasty. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (in Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the third Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ...


Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, briefly held the region in the 7th century, just before the Islamic Conquest of Iran; Arab invaders converted most of its people to Islam and made it part of the caliphate. The Persianized Seljuk Turks dominated the region in the 11th and 12th centuries, and the Mongols under Hulagu Khan established (13th century) their capital at Maragheh. After being conquered by Timur in the 14th century, Tabriz became an important provincial capital of the Timurid empire. It was out of Ardebil (Ancient Artavilla) that the Safavid dynasty arose (c. 1500) to renew the state of Persia. There was fierce fighting between the Ottoman Empire and Persia for Azarbaijan. After brief Ottoman control, Shah Abbas the Great, regained control of the region in 1603. Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the East Azarbaijan Province of Iran, on the Safi River. ... Timur (Chagatai Turkish: تیمور) (also known as Temur, Taimur, Timur Lenk, Timur i Leng, Tamerlane, Tamburlaine, or Taimur-e-Lang, which translates to Timur the Lame, as he was lame after sustaining an injury in battle) (1336–February 1405) was a great 14th century Turkic-Mongol conqueror, ruler of the Timurid... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Timur (Chagatai Turkish: تیمور) (also known as Temur, Taimur, Timur Lenk, Timur i Leng, Tamerlane, Tamburlaine, or Taimur-e-Lang, which translates to Timur the Lame, as he was lame after sustaining an injury in battle) (1336–February 1405) was a great 14th century Turkic-Mongol conqueror, ruler of the Timurid... Ardabil (in persian: اردبیل other name: Ardebil ancient name: Artavil ) a historical city in north-western Iran. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ...


Azarbaijan hails from a rich culture from Azari traditions. Many local dances and folk music continue to survive among the various peoples of the provinces. As a longstanding province of Persia, Azarbaijan is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literature by Iran's greatest authors and poets. Examples: Persian literature is literature written in Persian. ... The list is not comprehensive but is continuously being expanded, and is not geographically of what today is Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and India. ...


گزیده هر چه در ایران بزرگان
زآذربایگان و ری و گرگان


All the nobles and greats of Iran,
Choose from Azarbaijan, Ray, and Gorgan.
--Vis o Ramin Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan, formerly called Astrabad or Asterabad): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of... Vis O Ramin is an ancient love story in Persian Literature. ...


از آنجا بتدبیر آزادگان
بیامد سوی آذرآبادگان


From there the wise and the free,
set off to Azarbaijan
--Nizami External links The Legend of Leyli and Majnun Nizami, Jamal al-Din Ilyas. ...


بیک ماه در آذرآبادگان
ببودند شاهان و آزادگان


For a month's time, The Kings and The Free,
Would choose in Azarbaijan to be
--Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...


Ethnic status in Iran

It is often claimed that Iranian Azeris (Azaris) are not allowed to freely speak their language, propagate their culture, or have their own ethnic media.


This is not fully accurate however: Iran's claimed government policy in the past 30 years has been one of pan-Islamism, which excludes ethnicities (including Persians) altogether from the equation as a variable. Persian language is thus merely used as the lingua franca of the country to keep the republic functioning, and the centralized authority model of government is one with a long precedent in Iran's past. Pan-Islamism is the loose unification of all Islamic countries and peoples. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Furthermore, Article 15 of Iran's constitution reads:

"The use of regional and tribal languages in the press and mass media, as well as for teaching of their literature in schools, is allowed in addition to Persian."[3]

Famous Azeris of Iran

Azeris (Azaris), more than any other minority of Iran, have participated in Iran's history and politics, and continue to do so. Some of the most famous Azeris of Iran involved on national levels are:

Parviz Fattah is Irans Minister of Energy. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای; born July 15, 1939) in Mashhad, in Razavi Khorasan province, is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Sassanid king, Bahram Gur is a great favourite in Persian tradition and poetry. ... Abu Mansur Qatran Adudi ( 1009 - 1072) was a royal Persian poet. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Samad Behrangi (صمد بهرنگی) (July?, 1939 – 1967) was an Azeri Iranian writer. ... . Sattar Khan (1868 - November 9, 1914) was born in the north-west Persian (Iranian) city of Tabriz. ... Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh (born on 23 April, 1942 in Tabriz, Iran), is an analytic philosopher of medicine. ... Parvin Etesami is one of Irans greatest poetesses. ... Karim Bagheri(کريم باقري in Persian) (born February 24, 1974 in Tabriz, Iran) is a professional soccer attacking midfielder. ... Ali Daei (علی دایی in Persian) (born March 21, 1969) is an Iranian footballer who is a striker for Saba Battery Tehran and the Iran national football team. ... Iraj Mirzas tombstone in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ... Maqsud Ali Tabrizi was a 17th century Persian physician from Tabriz. ... Haji Mirza Hassan Tabrizi (میرزا حسن تبریزی; July 5, 1851–December 10, 1944), famously known as Hassan Roshdiyyeh (حسن رشدیه), was a Persian cleric, teacher, politican, and journalist, introducing some methods of modern teaching methods in Iran, specially methods about teaching the alphabet, which are still used to some degree in primary schools of Iran. ... Shams ud-Din Tabraiz in a copy circa 1503 of his disciple Rumi´s poem, the Diwan-e Shams-e Tabriz-i Shams Tabraiz (or Shams Tabriz or Shams Tabrez or Shamas Tabraiz). ... Ali Soheili in royal court uniform Ali Soheili (1896 – 1958) was a Prime Minister of Iran. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Ibrahim Hakimi (1871 – October 19, 1959) was a Prime Minister of Iran. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Jam was one of the more successful of the Iranian Primiers Mahmud Jam (1880 – 1969) was a Prime Minister of Iran. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... h Hossein Derakhshan (حسين درخشان; born January 7, 1975), also known as Hoder, is an Iranian-Canadian journalist and weblogger, based in Toronto. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Azerbaijan (549 words)
In both of the Iranian Azerbaijan provinces Azeris dominate, while Kurds and Armenians are important minorities.
Orumiyeh is the capital of West Azerbaijan and has 435,000 inhabitants (10th largest Iranian city) (all of the 1996 census).
Azerbaijan is a mountainous land, and part of the Zagros Mountains, but with fertile lowlands.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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