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Encyclopedia > Iran Iraq War
Iran-Iraq War
Part of {{{partof}}}

Date: September 22, 1980August 20, 1988
Location: Persian Gulf
Result: stalemate; United Nations-mandated cease-fire
Casus belli:
Territory changes: {{{territory}}}
Combatants
Iran Iraq
Commanders
Strength
Casualties
Est. 450,000-950,000 (incl. 100,000 Kurds) Est. 450,000-950,000
{{{notes}}}

The Iran-Iraq War, also called the First Persian Gulf War, or the Imposed War (جنگ تحمیلی) in Iran, was a war between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran lasting from September 1980 to August 1988. It was commonly referred to as the (Persian) Gulf War until the Iraq-Kuwait conflict (199091), which became known as the Second Persian Gulf War and later simply the Persian Gulf War. September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ... Main articles: League of Nations and History of the United Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... Casus belli is a Latin expression from the international law theory of Jus ad bellum. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... An act of war - the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombs over Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 people. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... This article is about the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It has been called "the longest conventional warfare of the 20th century", and cost 1 million casualties and $US 1.19 Trillion. (D. Hiro)


The war began when Iraq invaded Iran on September 22, 1980 following a long history of border disputes. The conflict saw early successes by the Iraqis, but before long they were repulsed and the conflict stabilized into a long war of attrition. The United Nations Security Council called upon both parties to end the conflict on multiple occasions, but a ceasefire was not agreed to until August 20, 1988, and the last prisoners of war were not exchanged until 2003. The war irrevocably altered politics in the area, playing into wider global politics and leading to the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Background

Iraqi commemorative stamp depicting the victorious Battle of al-Qādisiyyah in the Islamic conquest of Iran and its parallel during the Iran-Iraq war.

Although the Iran-Iraq war of 1980–1988 was a war over dominance of the Persian Gulf region, the roots of the war go back many centuries. There has always been rivalry between various kingdoms of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and Persia (Iran). Image File history File links Iraqi_stamp. ... The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


Before the Ottoman empire, Iraq was part of Persia ruled under the Aq Qoyunlu dynasty. The rising power of the Ottomans put an end to this when Murad IV annexed what is today Iraq from the weakening Safavid Persia in 1638. The border disputes between Persia and the Ottomans never ended however: between 1555 and 1975(?), Persia and Turkey signed no less than 18 treaties re-addressing their disputed borders. Modern Iraq was created with the British involvement in the region and the final collapse of the Ottoman empire, hence inheriting all the disputes with Persia. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... ... Sultan Murad IV Murad IV (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


More precisely, the origins of the Iran-Iraq war of 1980–1988 go back to the question of sovereignty over the resource-rich province of Khuzestan. Khuzestan, home to Iran's Elamite Empire, was an independent non-Semitic speaking kingdom whose capital was Susa. Khuzestan has, however, been attacked and occupied by various kingdoms of Mesopotamia (the precursors of modern Iraq) many times. Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Semitic is a linguistic term referring to a subdivision of largely Middle Eastern Afro-Asiatic languages, the Semitic languages, as well as their speakers corresponding cultures, and ethnicities. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ...


On 18 December 1959, Abdul Karim Qassim, who had just taken control over Iraq by a coup d'etat, openly declared: "We do not wish to refer to the history of Arab tribes residing in Al-Ahwaz and Mohammareh [Khorramshahr]. The Ottomans handed over Mohammareh, which was part of Iraqi territory, to Iran." The Iraqi regime's dissatisfaction over Iran's possession of oil-rich Khuzestan province was not limited to rhetorical statements; Iraq started supporting secessionist movements in Khuzestan, and even raised the issue of its territorial claims in the next meeting of the Arab League, without any success. Iraq showed reluctance in fulfilling existing agreements with Iran, especially after the death of Egyptian President Gamal Nasser and the rise of the Ba'ath Party, when Iraq decided to take on the role of "leader of the Arab world". December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abdul Karim Qassim (Arabic: عبد الكريم قاسم ) (also various other spellings; including Kassem, Quasim; popularly known as az-Za’im (Arabic: الزعيم ) the leader) (1914 - 9 February 1963) was an Iraqi military officer involved in the 1958 military coup détat. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... Nodding donkey pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Flag of the League of Arab States The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية), is an organization of Arab states - compare Arab world. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر; also transliterated Jamal Abd an-Nasr and other variants) ‎ (January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... The Arab world The Arab world consists of more than twenty countries stretching from Mauritania in the west to Oman in the east. ...


In 1969, the deputy prime minister of Iraq openly declared: "Iraq's dispute with Iran is in connection with Arabistan [Khuzestan] which is part of Iraq's soil and was annexed to Iran during foreign rule." Soon Iraqi radio stations began exclusively broadcasting into "Arabistan", encouraging Iranian Arabs and even Baluchis to revolt against Iran's central government. Basra TV stations even started showing Iran's Khuzestan province as part of Iraq's new province called Nassiriyeh, renaming all Iranian cities with Arabic names. To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... The Baloch (بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Location of Basra Basra (also spelled Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes written Busra, Busrah, and the early form Bassorah; Arabic: , Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


In 1971, Iraq broke off diplomatic relations with Iran after claiming sovereignty rights over the islands of Abu Musa, Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb in the Persian Gulf, following the withdrawal of the British. Iraq then expelled 70,000 Iranians from Iraq after complaining to the Arab League, and the UN, without any success. Abu Musa or Gap-Sabzu (in Persian ابوموسی) is an island in the eastern Persian Gulf that now belongs to Iran. ... The Greater and Lesser Tunbs (in Persian: تنب بزرگ و تنب کوچک Tunb-e Buzurg & Tunb-e Kuchak) (tunb is Persian for hilly place) are two islands in the eastern Persian Gulf. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


One of the factors contributing to hostility between the two powers was a dispute over full control of the Shatt al-Arab waterway at the head of the Persian Gulf, an important channel for the oil exports of both countries. In 1975, United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had sanctioned that Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, attack Iraq over the waterway, which was under Iraqi control at the time; soon afterward both nations signed the Algiers Accord, in which Iraq made territorial concessions, including the waterway, in exchange for normalized relations. The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in southern Iraq. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... The Seal of the United States Department of State The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Henry Kissinger circa 1970s. ... Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا شاه پهلوی) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the last Shah of Iran. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... The Algiers Accord was signed on 6th March, 1975 in Algeria by the Shah of Iran and Saddam Hussein as Vice-President of Iraq and Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council or RCC. It stated: Carry out a final delineation of their land boundaries in accordance with the Constantinople...


Iraq had staged a battle against Iranian forces a year earlier in 1974, resulting in heavy casualties on both sides. Iran attempted to destabilize Iraq and encouraged Kurdish nationalists to break up the country, in answer to Iraq's similar activities in Iran's Khuzestan province. Iran's embassy in London was subsequently attacked by Iraqi terrorist forces a few months prior to the war in 1980, in what came to be known as The Iranian Embassy Siege. Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian Embassy in London, United Kingdom. ...


Iraq's president, Saddam Hussein, was eagerly interested in elevating Iraq to a strong regional power. A successful invasion of Iran would make Iraq the dominating force in the Persian Gulf region and its lucrative oil trade. Such lofty ambitions were not that far-fetched. Severe officer purges (including several executions ordered by Sadegh Khalkhali, the post-revolution Sharia ruler) and spare part shortages for Iran's American-made equipment had crippled Iran's once mighty military. The bulk of the Iranian military was made up of poorly armed, though committed, militias. Iran had minimal defenses in the Arvand/Shatt al-Arab river. Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic ), born April 28, 1937 , was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhali (صادق خلخالی in Persian) (1927? - November 26, 2003) was a hardline Shia cleric of the early years of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ...


Saddam on numerous occasions alluded to the Islamic conquest of Iran in propagating his anti-Persian position against Iran. For example, on 2 April 1980, a half-year before the outbreak of the war, in a visit by Saddam to al-Mustansiriyyah University in Baghdad, drawing parallels to the 7th-Century defeat of Persia in the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah he announced: The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... 2 April is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ...

"In your name, brothers, and on behalf of the Iraqis and Arabs everywhere we tell those [Persian] cowards and dwarfs who try to avenge Al-Qadisiyah that the spirit of Al-Qadisiyah as well as the blood and honor of the people of Al-Qadisiyah who carried the message on their spearheads are greater than their attempts." (See Saddam, E3)

The aftermath of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 was central to the conflict. The Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was threatening to export Islamic revolution to the rest of the Middle East, even though Iran was hardly in any position to do so militarily, for most of the Shah's army had already been disbanded. The Khomeinist camp despised Iraq's Ba'athist secularism in particular, and believed that the oppressed Shi'ites in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait could follow the Iranian example and turn against their governments. At the same time the revolution in Iran, the destabilization of the country and its alienation from the West made it a tempting target to the expansionist Saddam Hussein. In particular he felt that Iranian Sunni citizens would rather join a powerful Sunni-led Iraq than remain in the Shia dominated Iran. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله) is a high rank given to major Shia clerics. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the Islamic Republic of Iran Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (Persian:آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia Muslim cleric, and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Shia Islam or Shi`ism (from the Arabic word شيعة, short for the historic phrase shi`at `Ali شيعة علي, meaning the advocates of Ali) is the second-largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic ), born April 28, 1937 , was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Thus both sides entered the war believing that citizens of the southern portions of the enemy's country - Sunnis in Iran and Shia in Iraq - would join the opposing forces. Neither seems to have fully appreciated the powers of nationalism over historically clan-centered differences, nor the power of the central state apparatus who controlled the press. In the end both were surprised to find their expected allies turning against them as invaders.


The UN Secretary General report dated 9 December 1991 (S/23273) explicitly states "Iraq's aggression against Iran" in starting the war and breaching International security and peace. (See also "Who started the Iran-Iraq war?" by R.K. Ramazani, The Virginia Journal of International Law 33, Fall 1992, pp. 69–89) The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Invasion and repulse

The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage in Iran alone.
The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage in Iran alone.

The two nations severed diplomatic relations in June 1980, and sporadic border clashes increased. On September 17, Iraq declared the Shatt al-Arab part of its territory. Iraq launched a full-scale invasion of Iran on September 22, 1980, claiming as a pretext, an Iranian assassination attempt on Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz. Iran-Iraq war. ... Iran-Iraq war. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister who helps form the governmental foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Tariq Aziz, also Tareq Aziz (Arabic طارق عزيز) (b. ...


The objectives of Iraq's invasion of Iran were summed as follow:

  1. Acquisition of the Arvand/Shatt al-Arab waterway as part of Iraqi territory (Iraq's only port connection to The Persian Gulf).
  2. Acquisition of the three islands of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs, on the unilateral behalf of the UAE.
  3. Annexing Khuzestan (or "Arabistan") as part of Iraqi territory.

The surprise offensive advanced quickly against the still disorganized Iranian forces, advancing on a wide front into Iranian territory along the Mehran-Khorramabad axis in Central Iran and towards Ahvaz in the oil-rich southern province of Khuzestan. The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in southern Iraq. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Abu Musa or Gap-Sabzu (in Persian ابوموسی) is an island in the eastern Persian Gulf that now belongs to Iran. ... The Greater and Lesser Tunbs (in Persian: تنب بزرگ Ùˆ تنب Ú©ÙˆÚ†Ú© Tunb-e Buzurg & Tunb-e Kuchak) (tunb is Persian for hilly place) are two islands in the eastern Persian Gulf. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Blitzkrieg relies on close co-operation between infantry and panzers (tanks). ... Military branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Regular Forces (Artesh) include Ground Forces, the Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces). ... Mehran is a city in Iran, near the countrys western border. ... Khorramabad (or Khorram Abad) is the capital of Lorestan, a province in western Iran. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ...

Iranian soldiers protecting their territory.
Iranian soldiers protecting their territory.

Iraq encountered unexpected resistance, however. Rather than turning against the Ayatollah's government as exiles had promised, the people of Iran rallied around their revolution and mounted far stiffer resistance; an estimated 100,000 volunteers arrived at the front by November. An Iraqi Air Force attack on Iranian airfields was ineffective, and the Iraqis soon found the Iranian military was not nearly as depleted as they had thought. In June of 1982, a successful Iranian counter-offensive recovered the areas previously lost to Iraq. Iran-Iraq war. ... Iran-Iraq war. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Most of the fighting for the rest of the war occurred on Iraqi territory, although some have interpreted the Iraqi withdrawal as a tactical ploy by the Iraqi military. By fighting just inside Iraq, Saddam Hussein could rally popular Iraqi patriotism. The Iraqi army could also fight on its own territory and in well- established defensive positions. The Iranians continued to employ unsophisticated human wave attacks, while Iraqi soldiers remained, for the most part, in a defensive posture. Tactics is the collective name for methods of winning a small-scale conflict, performing an optimization, etc. ...

Upon invading Iran on 22 September 1980, then-Iraqi President Saddam Hussein boasted he would be in Tehran in 3 days.
Upon invading Iran on 22 September 1980, then-Iraqi President Saddam Hussein boasted he would be in Tehran in 3 days.

Iraq offered a cessation of hostilities in 1982, but Iran's insistence from July 1982 onward to destroy the Iraqi government prolonged the conflict for another six years of static warfare. Iraqi government propaganda poster of Saddam Hussein in full uniform This work is copyrighted. ... Iraqi government propaganda poster of Saddam Hussein in full uniform This work is copyrighted. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The newly declassified US intelligence (SNIE 34/36.2-82 available at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB167/) which explores both the domestic and foreign implications of Iran's apparent (in 1982) victory over Iraq in their then two-year old war shows how US was behind the prolonged conflict to keep Iran from winning the war for numerous reasons which were against the interests of the US. Iran especially had the opportunity to cut off Iraq from the Persian Gulf at Faw Peninsula and win the war in the late stages of the conflict. Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Al-Faw peninsula, Iraq This article is about the Iraqi peninsula. ...


The Tanker War and U.S. entanglement

The United States had been wary of the Tehran regime since the Iranian Revolution, not least because of the detention of its Tehran embassy staff in the 1979–81 Iran hostage crisis. Starting in 1982 with Iranian success on the battlefield, the U.S. made its backing of Iraq more pronounced, supplying it with intelligence, economic aid, normalizing relations with the government (broken during the 1967 Six-Day War), and allegedly also supplying weapons [1]. Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day period during which the new regime of Iran after the Iranian Revolution held hostage 66 diplomats and citizens of the United States. ... The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים transliteration: Milhemet Sheshet Hayamim), also known as the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Six Days War, or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


Starting in 1981, both Iran and Iraq attacked oil tankers and merchant ships, including those of neutral nations, in an effort to deprive the opponent of trade. After repeated Iraqi attacks on Iran's main exporting facility on Khark Island, Iran attacked a Kuwaiti tanker near Bahrain on May 13, 1984, and a Saudi tanker in Saudi waters on May 16. Attacks on ships of noncombatant nations in the Persian Gulf sharply increased thereafter, and this phase of the war was dubbed the "Tanker War." A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... Bushehr is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ...


Lloyd's of London, a British insurance market, estimated that the Tanker War damaged 546 commercial vessels and killed about 430 civilian mariners. The largest of attacks were directed by Iran against Kuwaiti vessels, and on November 1, 1986, Kuwait formally petitioned foreign powers to protect its shipping. The Soviet Union agreed to charter tankers starting in 1987, and the United States offered to provide protection for tankers flying the U.S. flag on March 7, 1987 (Operation Earnest Will and Operation Prime Chance). Under international law, an attack on such ships would be treated as an attack on the U.S., allowing the U.S. to retaliate militarily. This support would protect ships headed to Iraqi ports, effectively guaranteeing Iraq's revenue stream for the duration of the war. Lloyd’s Building, London (with the blue cranes). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of potential financial loss. ... Street markets such as this one in Rue Mouffetard, Paris are still common in France. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A flag of convenience is a flag of one country, flown by a ship owned by a citizen of another country. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mess Management Specialist 2nd Class Williams Hendrickson scans for mines from the bow of the U.S. Navy guided missile frigate USS Nicolas (FFG-47) during an Earnest Will convoy mission. ... Operation Prime Chance (August 1987-June 1989) was a U.S. Special Operations Command operation intended to protect U.S.-flagged oil tankers from Iranian attack during the Iran-Iraq War. ... International law, is the body of law that regulates the activities of entities possessing international personality. Traditionally, that meant the conduct and relationships of states. ...


An Iraqi plane accidentally attacked the USS Stark, a Perry class frigate on May 17, killing 37 and injuring 21. But U.S. attention was on isolating Iran; it criticized Iran's mining of international waters, and sponsored UN Security Council Resolution 598, which passed unanimously on July 20, under which it skirmished with Iranian forces. In October 1987, the U.S. attacked Iranian oil platforms in retaliation for an Iranian attack on the U.S.-flagged tanker Sea Isle City. USS Stark (FFG-31), twenty-third ship of the Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for Admiral Harold Rainsford Stark (1880–1972). ... The USS McInerney (FFG 8), an Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate. ... Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On April 14, 1988, the frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts was badly damaged by an Iranian mine. U.S. forces responded with Operation Praying Mantis on April 18, the United States Navy's largest engagement of surface warships since World War II. Two Iranian ships were destroyed, and an American helicopter was shot down, killing the two pilots. April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... --> USS (FFG-58) is one of the final vessels in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ... An aerial view of the Iranian frigate IS Alvand (71) burning on 18 April 1988 after being attacked by aircraft of U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing 11 in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG 58). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII or World War Two), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the...


In the course of these escorts by the U.S. Navy, the cruiser USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 with the loss of all 290 passengers and crew on July 3, 1988. The American government claimed that the airliner had been mistaken for an Iranian F-14 Tomcat, and that the Vincennes was operating in international waters at the time and feared that it was under attack. It has since emerged, however, that the Vincennes was in fact in Iranian territorial waters, and that the Iranian passenger jet was turning away and increasing altitude after take-off. The U.S. paid compensation but never apologised. The fourth USS Vincennes (CG-49) is a U.S. Navy Ticonderoga class AEGIS guided missile cruiser. ... The USS Vincennes shot down an Iran Air passenger aircraft similar to this Iran Air Airbus, killing all 290 passengers and crew on board. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... Sailors prepare an F-14 Tomcat for flight on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003). ...


Through all of this members of the Reagan Administration had, at the same time, also been secretly selling weapons to Iran; first indirectly (possibly through Israel) and then directly. It claimed that the administration hoped Iran would, in exchange, persuade several radical groups to release Western hostages. (for details see the Iran-Contra Affair). The money from the sales was channeled to equip the Nicaraguan contrarevoluciones (contras in the US), right-wing rebels. President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... A TIME Magazine cover of Oliver North testifying in front of the U.S. Congress. ...


"War of the Cities"

Toward the end of the war, the land conflict regressed into stalemate largely because neither side had enough self-propelled artillery or airpower to support ground advances.


The relatively professional Iraqi armed forces could not make headway against the far more numerous Iranian infantry. But the Iranians were overmatched in towed and self-propelled artillery, which left their tanks and troops vulnerable. What followed was a blood bath with the Iranians substituting infantry for artillery. Both sides turned to more brutal weapons and tactics.


Iraq's air force soon began strategic bombing against Iranian cities, chiefly Tehran, starting in 1985. In response to these, Iran began launching SS-1 "Scud" missiles against Baghdad. Iraq did not respond in kind against Tehran until early 1988, able to deploy only air raids against the Iranian capital up until that point. In October 1986, Iraqi aircraft attacked civilian passenger trains and aircraft, including an Iran Air Boeing 737 airliner unloading passengers at Shiraz International Airport. 34 elementary and high schools were attacked by Iraqi warplanes in 1986 alone, killing hundreds of children. (source: IRNA archives) Polish missile wz. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: , from Persian بغداد , meaning given by angels) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Province. ... An Iranair Boeing 747-100 lands over the houses at London (Heathrow) Airport Iran Air is the national and international airline of Iran, based in Tehran. ... Shiraz Airport is found in Shiraz, Iran. ... The Islamic Republic News Agency, or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


In retaliation for the successful Iranian Karbala-5 operation in the fronts, during the course of 42 days, Iraq attacked 65 cities in 226 sorties, bombing civilian neighborhoods. Eight Iranian cities came under the attack of Iraqi missiles. Sixty-five children were killed during bombings in an elementary school in Borujerd alone. These events became known as "the war of the cities". (Source: ibid.) Borujerd is a city in the Lorestan province in western Iran. ...


The war saw the use of chemical weapons, especially tabun, by Iraq. International antipathy to the Tehran regime meant Iraq suffered few repercussions despite these attacks. The UN eventually condemned Iraq for using chemical weapons against Iran, after the war. Chemicals weapons had not been used in any major war since World War I. Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ...


Iraq financed, with foreign assistance, the purchase of more technologically advanced weapons, and built more modern, well-trained armed forces. After setbacks on the battlefield it offered to return to the 1975 border. Iran was internationally isolated and facing rising public discontent. Finally, a cease-fire was agreed to on August 20, 1988. August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arming the combatants

Iraq's army was primarily armed with weaponry it had purchased from the Soviet Union and its satellites in the preceding decade. During the war, it purchased billions of dollars worth of advanced equipment from the Soviets and the French [2], as well as from the People's Republic of China, Egypt, Germany, and other sources (including Europe and facilities for making and/or enhancing chemical weapons). Germany [3] along with other Western countries (among them United Kingdom, France, Spain (Explosivos Alaveses), Italy and the United States) provided Iraq with biological and chemical weapons technology and the precursors to nuclear capabilities. Much of Iraq's financial backing came from other Arab states, notably oil-rich Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Iraqi soldiers from the 2nd Iraqi Army Brigade, train on cordon and search procedures at Diyala Regional Training Facility in August 2005. ... Satellite state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ...


The source of Iraqi arms purchases between 1970 and 1990 (10 % of the world market during this period) are estimated to be:

Suppliers in Billions (1985 $US) % of total
Soviet Union 19.2 61
France 5.5 18
People's Republic of China 1.7 5
Brazil 1.1 4
Egypt 1.1 4
Other countries 2.9 6
Total 31.5 100.0

Iran's foreign supporters included Syria and Libya, through which it obtained Scuds. It purchased weaponry from North Korea and the People's Republic of China, notably the Silkworm antiship missile. Iran acquired weapons and parts for its Shah-era U.S. systems through covert arms transactions from officials in the Reagan Administration, first indirectly (possibly through Israel) and then directly. It was hoped Iran would, in exchange, persuade several radical groups to release Western hostages, though this did not result; proceeds from the sale were diverted to the Nicaraguan Contras in what became known as the Iran-Contra Affair. Silkworm missile stored at Umm Qasr in Iraq. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios, meaning counter-revolutionaries) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the ending of the Somoza familys 43-year rule. ... A TIME Magazine cover of Oliver North testifying in front of the U.S. Congress. ...


Aircraft

Iraqi Aircraft attacking Iranian territory.
Iraqi Aircraft attacking Iranian territory.

During war, Iran operated U.S.-manufactured F-4 Phantom and F-5 Freedom Fighter fighters, as well as AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters. It also operated a number of F-14 Tomcat fighters, which, according to a few sources, proved devastating to the Iraqis in the early phases of the war. However, due to the Iranian government's estrangement, spare parts were difficult to obtain. Despite this the Iranians managed to maintain a constant presence with their Tomcats during the entire conflict, mostly due to a combination of spare parts aquired on the black market and parts made in Iran. These were supported by KC-135s, a refueling tanker based on the Boeing 707.[4] Image File history File links Iraqi_airforce1. ... Image File history File links Iraqi_airforce1. ... F-4 re-directs here; for alternate uses, see F4 The F-4 Phantom II (simply F-4 Phantom after 1990) is a two-place (tandem), supersonic, long-range, all-weather fighter-bomber built by (originally McDonnell Aircraft Corporation) McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ... The F-5 Freedom Fighter (or Tiger II) is a fighter aircraft, designed and built by Northrop in the USA, beginning in 1962. ... The AH-1 Cobra, called the Huey Cobra, Cobra, or Snake, is an attack helicopter, designed by Bell Helicopter Textron. ... The Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors (propellers). ... Sailors prepare an F-14 Tomcat for flight on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003). ... The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft, first manufactured in 1956 and expected to remain in service into the 2020s It is a derivative of the Boeing 707 jetliner. ... USAF KC-135R Stratotanker, two F-15s (twin fins) and two F-16s, on an aerial refueling training mission Aerial refueling, also called in-flight refueling (IFR) or air-to-air refueling (AAR), is the practice of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight. ... BOAC 707 at London Heathrow Airport in 1964 The Boeing 707 is a four engined commercial passenger jet aircraft developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ...


Iraq's air force used Soviet weapons and reflected Soviet training, although it expanded and upgraded its fleet considerably as the war progressed. It conducted strategic bombing using Tupolev Tu-16 Badgers. Its fighters included the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, later supplemented by large purchases of Sukhoi Su-22s and French Dassault Mirage F1s. It also deployed the Anglo-French Aérospatiale Gazelle attack helicopter and the Exocet antiship missile.[5] The Tupolev Tu-16 (NATO codename: Badger) was a twin-engine jet bomber used by the Soviet Union. ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (МиГ-21 in Cyrillic script) (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... Two aircraft share the designation Su-17 The Sukhoi Su-17 (NATO reporting name Fitter) was a Soviet attack aircraft developed from the Su-7 fighter-bomber. ... The Dassault Mirage F1 is a single-seat air-superiority fighter and attack aircraft built by Dassault of France. ... The Gazelle is a helicopter developed as part of an Anglo-French venture between the Westland and Aérospatiale companies in 1968. ... In older English literature there are some uses of exocet to mean flying fish. The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile made in various versions capable of being launched from surface ships and boats, submarines, and airplanes. ...


U.S.-Iraqi arms transfers in the war

Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam on 19 – 20 December 1983. Rumsfeld visited again on 24 March 1984; the same day the UN released a report that Iraq had used mustard and Tabun nerve gas against Iranian troops. The NY Times reported from Baghdad on 29 March 1984, that "American diplomats pronounce themselves satisfied with Iraq and the U.S., and suggest that normal diplomatic ties have been established in all but name." NSA Archive Source
Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam on 19 – 20 December 1983. Rumsfeld visited again on 24 March 1984; the same day the UN released a report that Iraq had used mustard and Tabun nerve gas against Iranian troops. The NY Times reported from Baghdad on 29 March 1984, that "American diplomats pronounce themselves satisfied with Iraq and the U.S., and suggest that normal diplomatic ties have been established in all but name." NSA Archive Source

Western support for Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war has clearly been established. It is no secret that the Soviet Union, West Germany, France, many western companies, and Britain provided military support and even components of Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction program. The role the United States played in the war against Iran however, although minor in comparison, is not as well known. Still image of news archive (broadcast in several countries) of Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam Hussein, December 19-20, 1983, Baghdad. ... Still image of news archive (broadcast in several countries) of Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam Hussein, December 19-20, 1983, Baghdad. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a US politician currently serving as the 21st United States Secretary of Defense since January 20, 2001, under President George W. Bush. ... (Redirected from 19 December) December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the revolution, with the Ayatollahs in power and levels of enmity between Iran and the U.S. running high, early on during the Iran-Iraq war, realpolitikers in Washington came to the conclusion that Saddam was the lesser of the two evils, and hence efforts to support Iraq became the order of the day, both during the long war with Iran and afterward. This led to what later became known as the Iraq-gate scandals. Realpolitik (German for realistic politics) is foreign politics based on practical concerns (political expediency) rather than theory or ethics. ...


Much of what Iraq received from the West, however, were not arms per se, but so-called dual-use technology— mainframe computers, armored ambulances, helicopters, chemicals, and the like, with potential civilian uses as well as military applications. It is now known that a vast network of companies, based in the U.S. and elsewhere, fed Iraq's warring capabilities right up until August 1990, when Saddam invaded Kuwait [6].


The Iraq-gate scandal revealed that an Atlanta branch of Italy's largest bank, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, relying partially on U.S. taxpayer-guaranteed loans, funneled $5 billion to Iraq from 1985 to 1989. In August 1989, when FBI agents finally raided the Atlanta branch of BNL, the branch manager, Christopher Drogoul, was charged with making unauthorized, clandestine, and illegal loans to Iraq—some of which, according to his indictment, were used to purchase arms and weapons technology. Nickname: The Horizon City, Hotlanta, The Big Peach Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Official FBI Seal The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force and intelligence agency which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Beginning in September, 1989, the Financial Times laid out the first charges that BNL, relying heavily on U.S. government-guaranteed loans, was funding Iraqi chemical and nuclear weapons work. For the next two and a half years, the Financial Times provided the only continuous newspaper reportage (over 300 articles) on the subject. Among the companies shipping militarily useful technology to Iraq under the eye of the U.S. government, according to the Financial Times, were Hewlett-Packard, Tektronix, and Matrix Churchill, through its Ohio branch [7]. The Financial Times (FT) is an international business newspaper printed on distinctive salmon pink semi-broadsheet paper. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Tektronix is a United States corporation that is currently a major presence in the test, measurement, and measuring industry. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus (largest metropolitan area is Cleveland) Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 355 km 355 km 8. ...


Even before the Persian Gulf War started in 1990, the Intelligencer Journal of Pennsylvania in a string of articles reported: "If U.S. and Iraqi troops engage in combat in the Persian Gulf, weapons technology developed in Lancaster and indirectly sold to Iraq will probably be used against U.S. forces ... And aiding in this ... technology transfer was the Iraqi-owned, British-based precision tooling firm Matrix Churchill, whose U.S. operations in Ohio were recently linked to a sophisticated Iraqi weapons procurement network." [8] See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


Aside from the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, and ABC's Ted Koppel, the Iraq-gate story never picked up much steam, even though The U.S. Congress became involved with the scandal. FAS report


In December 2002, Iraq's 1,200 page Weapons Declaration revealed a list of Western corporations and countries—as well as individuals—that exported chemical and biological materials to Iraq in the past two decades. Many American names were on the list. Alcolac International, for example, a Maryland company, transported thiodiglycol, a mustard gas precursor, to Iraq. A Tennessee manufacturer contributed large amounts of a chemical used to make sarin, a nerve gas implicated in so-called (Persian) Gulf War Syndrome. A full list of those companies and their involvements in Iraq [9] [10]. Official language(s) None Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 42nd 32,160 km² 145 km 400 km 21 37°53N to 39°43N 75°4W to 79°33W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 19th 5,296,486 165... State nickname: Volunteer State Official languages English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 2. ...


On 25 May 1994, The U.S. Senate Banking Committee released a report in which it was stated that pathogenic (meaning disease producing), toxigenic (meaning poisonous) and other biological research materials were exported to Iraq, pursuant to application and licensing by the U.S. Department of Commerce. It added: These exported biological materials were not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction. [11] May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs has jurisdiction over matters related to banks and banking, price controls, deposit insurance, export promotion and controls, federal monetary policy, financial aid to commerce and industry, issuance of redemption of notes, currency and coinage, public and private housing, urban...


The report then detailed 70 shipments (including anthrax bacillus) from the United States to Iraqi government agencies over three years, concluding It was later learned that these microorganisms exported by the United States were identical to those the UN inspectors found and recovered from the Iraqi biological warfare program. See another list here, and another here.


843 companies has been listed as being involved in the arming of Iraq. [12] Twenty-four U.S. firms exported arms and materials to Baghdad [13].


Donald Riegle, Chairman of the Senate committee that made the report, said, "UN inspectors had identified many United States manufactured items that had been exported from the United States to Iraq under licenses issued by the Department of Commerce, and [established] that these items were used to further Iraq's chemical and nuclear weapons development and its missile delivery system development programs." He added, "the executive branch of our government approved 771 different export licenses for sale of dual-use technology to Iraq. I think that is a devastating record." Donald Wayne Riegle Jr. ... The United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs has jurisdiction over matters related to banks and banking, price controls, deposit insurance, export promotion and controls, federal monetary policy, financial aid to commerce and industry, issuance of redemption of notes, currency and coinage, public and private housing, urban...


The U.S. Centers for Disease Control sent Iraq 14 agents "with biological warfare significance," including West Nile virus, according to Riegle's investigators [14] [15]. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ...


The Simon Wiesenthal Center, a Jewish organization dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust, released a list of U.S. companies and their exports to Iraq. See page 11 of this report: p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6 p7 p8 p9 p10 p11 The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Child survivors of the Holocaust filmed during the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp by the Red Army. ...


A timeline of U.S. support for Saddam against Iran. Another timeline. For the Statement of Henry B. Gonzalez, Chairman, House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs on Iraq-gate, see links given on this page.


More sources:

  • University of Missouri School of Journalism database
  • University of Sussex report
  • A Global Policy Forum Report
  • Text of the U.S. Senate Riegle Report
  • NSA Archives
  • Sydney Morning Herald report

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Iran suffered heavy casualties from Saddam's chemical weapons.
Enlarge
Iran suffered heavy casualties from Saddam's chemical weapons.

With more than 100,000 Iranian victims[16] of Iraq's chemical and biological weapons during the eight-year war, Iran is, after Japan, one of the world's top afflicted countries by Weapons of Mass Destruction. Image File history File links Iran-iraq-war-gas-masks. ... Image File history File links Iran-iraq-war-gas-masks. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ...


The official estimate does not include the civilian population contaminated in bordering towns or the children and relatives of veterans, many of whom have developed blood, lung and skin complications, according to the Organization for Veterans of Iran.


Nerve gas agents killed about 20,000 Iranian soldiers immediately, according to official reports. Of the 90,000 survivors, some 5,000 seek medical treatment regularly and about 1,000 are still hospitalized with severe, chronic conditions. Many others were hit by mustard gas.


Furthermore, 308 Iraqi missiles were launched at population centers inside Iranian cities between 1980 and 1988 resulting in 12,931 casualties.[17]


There is great resentment in Iran that the international community helped Iraq develop its chemical weapons arsenal and armed forces, and also that the world did nothing to punish Iraq for its use of chemical weapons against Iran throughout the war — particularly since the US and other western powers later felt obliged to oppose the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and eventually invade Iraq itself to remove Hussein.


Also see The Chemical Attack on Halabja. The Halabja poison gas attack was an incident on 15 March-19 March 1988 during a major battle in the Iran-Iraq war when chemical weapons were used, allegedly by Iraqi government forces, to kill a number of people in the Iraqi Kurdish town of Halabja (population 80,000). ...


Further reading on surviving veterans of these weapons:

  • The New Jersey Star Ledger, report
  • The South Africa Star, report
  • The NY Times report
  • MSNBC report
  • Report: Iranian WMD Veterans sue Germany
  • Vets suing the U.S.
  • NPR report on Iranian WMD veterans (audio)
  • Medical reports


^  Center for Documents of The Imposed War, Tehran.


Human Wave Attacks in the Iran-Iraq War

Many people claim that the Iran-Iraq conflict spawned a particularly gruesome variant of the "human wave" attack. The Iranian clergy, with no professional military training, were slow to adopt and apply professional military doctrine. The country at that time lacked sufficient equipment to breach Iraqi minefields and were not willing to risk their small tank force. Therefore, Pasdaran forces and Basij volunteers were often used to sweep over minefields and entrenched positions developed by the more professional Iraqi military. Allegedly, unarmed human wave tactics involving children as young as 9 were employed. One unnamed East European journalist is reported to have seen "tens of thousands of children, roped together in groups of about 20 to prevent the faint-hearted from deserting, make such an attack."[18] Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (Persian سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی - Sepah Pasdaran Enghaleb Islam-e), often shortened to Revolutionary Guards, or called by its Persian name Sepah, translated to English as Pasdaran, is a military organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Basij (or Baseej) is an Iranian voluntary force (similar to Boy Scout), which was founded by the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in May of 1979. ...


There has been a suggestion that girls were more commonly used for frontline mine clearance, and boys for unarmed "assaults." Reliable firsthand accounts of the use of children in human wave attacks are rare, however. The most serious contemporary firsthand account recently surfaced at the end of an article[19] by the technology journalist Robert X. Cringely, who relates the experience of a trip to the front for an unconnected Penthouse magazine assignment. In recent years, however, Cringely's credibility has been questioned, after the San Francisco Chronicle and Stanford University revealed in 1998 that Cringely falsely claimed to hold a Ph.D. from Stanford University. Cringely also falsely claimed to be a former Stanford professor. (The Stanford Daily, 11 November 1998) Robert X. Cringely is the pen name of Mark Stephens, a computer journalist and broadcaster. ... Jesse Capelli on Penthouse magazine cover Penthouse is a mens magazine founded by Bob Guccione, combining urban lifestyle articles and soft-core pornographic pictorials, that eventually, in the 1990s evolved into hard-core. ... The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a privately-funded American university in Stanford, California. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Aftermath

The Hands of Victory triumphal arch in Baghdad has 5000 helmets of killed Iranian soldiers piled at the base of the swords, and alludes to the Islamic conquest of Iran where the Persian empire fell to invading Arab forces.
The Hands of Victory triumphal arch in Baghdad has 5000 helmets of killed Iranian soldiers piled at the base of the swords, and alludes to the Islamic conquest of Iran where the Persian empire fell to invading Arab forces.

The war was disastrous for both countries, stalling economic development and disrupting oil exports. It cost Iran an estimated 1.5 million casualties (1, p. 206), and $350 billion (1, p. 1). Iraq was left with serious debts to its former Arab backers, including US$14 billion loaned by Kuwait, a debt which contributed to Saddam's 1990 decision to invade. http://www. ... The Hands of Victory is a pair of triumphal arches in central Baghdad, Iraq. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic ), born April 28, 1937 , was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This article is about the year. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


Much of both sides' oil industry was damaged in air raids. Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ...


The war left the borders unchanged. Two years later, as war with the western powers loomed, Saddam recognized Iranian rights over the eastern half of the Shatt al-Arab, a reversion to the status quo ante bellum that he had repudiated a decade earlier. Border has several different, but related meanings: // Generic borders A border can consist of a margin around the edge of something, such as a lawn, garden, photograph, or sheet of paper. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al...


The war was extremely costly, one of the deadliest wars since the Second World War. (Conflicts since 1945 which have surpassed the Iran-Iraq War in terms of casualties include the Vietnam War, Korean War, the Second Sudanese Civil War, and the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN, or North Vietnam), allied with the Communist World, namely the Soviet Union and Red China against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam), and its allies — notably the United States military in... The Korean War, from June 25, 1950 to cease-fire on July 27, 1953 (the war has not ended officially), was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... The Second Sudanese Civil War started in 1983, although it is most accurately a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War of 1955 to 1972. ... The Second Congo War was a conflict that took place largely in the territory of Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). ...


Final ruling

On 9 December 1991, the UN Secretary-General reported the following to the UN Security Council: December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

That Iraq's explanations do not appear sufficient or acceptable to the international community is a fact. Accordingly, the outstanding event under the violations referred to is the attack of 22 September 1980, against Iran, which cannot be justified under the charter of the United Nations, any recognized rules and principles of international law or any principles of international morality and entails the responsibility for the conflict. September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Even if before the outbreak of the conflict there had been some encroachment by Iran on Iraqi territory, such encroachment did not justify Iraq's aggression against Iran—which was followed by Iraq's continuous occupation of Iranian territory during the conflict—in violation of the prohibition of the use of force, which is regarded as one of the rules of jus cogens.


On one occasion I had to note with deep regret the experts' conclusion that "chemical weapons ha[d] been used against Iranian civilians in an area adjacent to an urban centre lacking any protection against that kind of attack" (s/20134, annex). The Council expressed its dismay on the matter and its condemnation in resolution 620 (1988), adopted on 26 August 1988. August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

List of successful Iranian operations during the war

  1. 27 September 1981: Operation Thamen-ol-A'emeh.
  2. 29 November 1981: Operation Tarigh ol-Qods.
  3. 21 March 1982: Operation Fath-ol-Mobeen.
  4. 30 April 1982: Operation Beit-ol-Moqaddas.
  5. 14 July 1982: Operation Ramadhan.
  6. 9 April 1983: Operation Valfajr-1.
  7. 19 October 1983: Operation Valfajr-4.
  8. 22 February 1984: Operation Kheibar.
  9. 10 March 1985: Operation Badr.
  10. 9 February 1986: Operation Valfajr-8.
  11. 2 June 1986: Operation Karbala-1.
  12. 1 September 1986: Operation Karbala-2.
  13. 9 January 1986: Operation Karbala-5.
  14. 21 June 1987: Operation Nasr 4.
  15. 16 March 1988: Operation Valfajr-10.
  16. 27 July 1988: Operation Mersad.

September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining, as the last day in April. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of every year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in Leap years). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Martsching, Brad. "Iran-Iraq War and Waterway Claims," American University Inventory of Conflict & Environment, May 1998.
  • Center for Strategic and International Studies: The Lessons of Modern War: Volume Two - The Iran-Iraq Conflict, with Abraham R. Wagner, Westview, Boulder, 1990.
  • Center for Strategic and International Studies: Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iran and Iraq , March 27, 2000.
  • GlobalSecurity.org: Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
  • The Iran-Iraq war: the politics of aggression. Farhang Rajaee. Gainesville : University Press of Florida, 1993.
  • UN Secretary General report to the UNSC: p1 p2 * p3.
  • United States Marine Corps: FMFRP 3-203 - Lessons Learned: Iran-Iraq War, 10 December 1990.
  • Saddām Husayn. 'Address given'. Baghdād, Voice of the Masses in Arabic, 1200 GMT 02 April 1980. FBIS-MEA-80-066. 03 April 1980, E2-3.
  • D. Hiro. The Longest War. 1991. ISBN 0-415-90406-4
  • A list of Iraq's wars and conflicts.

American University (AU) is an internationally-known private university in the United States located at Ward Circle, straddling the Spring Valley and American University Park areas of Northwest Washington, D.C.. Roughly 5,000 undergraduate students and the same number of graduate students are currently enrolled. ... The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... This article is about the year 2000. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

See also

  • Iran-Israel relations
  • US-Iran relations
  • Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
  • History of Iran
  • History of Iraq
  • Al-Faw Peninsula
  • Mostafa Chamran, Minister of Defense killed during the Iran-Iraq war.

Israel (blue color), Arab League states (light green), and Iran (dark green) on the map Iran-Israel relations have alternated from close political alliances between Iran and Israel during the times of the modern Shahs to hostility following the rise of the modern Ayatollahs. ... Morgan Shuster and US officials at Atabak Palace, Tehran, 1911. ... The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ... The history of Iran (Persia) covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilization on the Iranian plateau, Mannaeans civilization in Azerbaijan, Shahr-e sookhteh in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft followed by the kingdom of Elam and the Achaemenid, the Parthian, the Sassanian and following Empires to the modern... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Al-Faw peninsula, Iraq This article is about the Iraqi peninsula. ... Mostafa Chamran was a minister and revolutionary leader of Iran. ...

External links and further reading

Wikisource has several original texts related to:
Iran-Iraq War
  • Video footage from the war
  • Paul Reynolds. How Saddam could embarrass the West, BBC, December 16, 2003. (regarding foreign powers which armed Iraq)
  • Global map of countries who took sides in the Iran-Iraq war
  • Kendal Nezan. When our 'friend' Saddam was gassing people, Le Monde Diplomatique, March 1998.
  • Robert Fisk. Poison gas from Germany, Inependent, December 30, 2000.
  • Lev Lafayette. Who armed Saddam?, World History Archives, July 26, 2002.
  • Norm Dixon. How the U.S. armed Saddam with Chemical Weapons, Green Left Weekly, August 28, 2002.
  • Neil Mackay, F. Arbuthnot. How did Saddam get his Chemical Weapons?, Sunday Herald, September 8, 2002.
  • U.S. helped Saddam acquire Biological Weapons, Congressional Record, September 20, 2002.
  • Eric Margolis. British helped Saddam develop biological weapons, The American Conservative, October 7, 2002.
  • Robert Fisk. America wants us to forget about the sources of Saddam's WMD, Inependent UK, October 8, 2002.
  • Robert Fisk. Did Saddam's army test poison gas on missing 5000?, Independent UK, December 13, 2002.
  • Elaine Sciolino. Iraq WMD condemned, but West once looked the other way, New York Times, February 13, 2003.
  • Paul Bond. British built Chemical Weapons plant in Iraq, World Socialist Web Site, March 13, 2003.
  • Iraqi scientist reports on German, other help for Iraq Chemical Weapons program, Al-Zaman, December 1, 2003.
  • Elaine Sciolino. Saddam's gas victims blame the West, New York Times, February 14, 2003.
  • Eddie Davers. Australia's support for Saddam in the 1980s, Overland, Autumn 2003.
  • Joseph Kay, A. Lefebvre. The diplomacy of imperialism: Washington-Saddam connection, World Socialist Web Site, March 19, 2004.
  • Alex Lefebvre. The diplomacy of imperialism: Reagan administration deepens ties with Saddam, World Socialist Web Site, March 24, 2004.
  • Alex Lefebvre. The diplomacy of imperialism: U.S. financial assistance for Saddam in the 1980s, World Socialist Web Site, March 26, 2004.
  • Joseph Kay. The diplomacy of imperialism: The end of the Iran-Iraq war, World Socialist Web Site, March 29, 2004.
  • Joseph Kay, A. Lefebvre. The diplomacy of imperialism: American policy after the Iran-Iraq war, World Socialist Web Site, April 2, 2004.
  • Robert Fisk. When I reported Saddam's use of mustard gas, British government told me to stop criticizing our ally, Saddam, Independent UK, April 10, 2004.
  • Norm Dixon. How Reagan armed Saddam with Chemical Weapons, CounterPunch, June 17, 2004.
  • Jacob Hornberger. Reagan’s WMD connection to Saddam, Future of Freedom Foundation, June 18, 2004.
  • Aaron Glantz. The West should go on trial with Saddam, Inter Press Service, June 18, 2004.
  • Eric Margolis. Put Saddam's backers on trial, Foreign Correspondent, December 20, 2004.
  • Jeff Moore. Saddam: Made in the USA, Bainbridge Neighbors for Peace.
  • Shaking hands with Saddam: U.S. supports for Iraq in the 1980s, U.S. National Security Archive.
  • Saddam's Trial and Iran-Iraq War
  • Arms sales to Iraq 1973-1990

File links The following pages link to this file: Abraham Lincoln Aristotle Ayn Rand Adolf Hitler Al Gore A Modest Proposal Articles of Confederation Arthur Schopenhauer Albert Einstein Amhrán na bhFiann Arthur Conan Doyle Ada programming language Antarctic Treaty System Andrew Jackson Andrew Johnson Adam Smith Bill Clinton Bible... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of primary source texts, along with translations of source-texts into any language and other supporting materials. ... On his trial, Saddam Hussein will face many charges, as invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and chemical attack on the Kurdish village of Halabja in 1988. ... The Soviet Union and her satellites were the main suppliers of arms to Iraq following the 1972 signing of the Soviet-Iraqi Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. ...

Iranian sources

  • John King. Arming Iraq: A Chronology of U.S. Involvement, Iran Chamber Society, March 2003.
  • Iran Veterans Affairs Organization
  • Memoirs, photos, and essays about the war, Iranian.com.
  • Isfahan's War Veterans Foundation
  • Islamic Republic News Agency, Sacred Defense Epic
  • Martyr Avini's website. A prominent photographer of the war.

The Islamic Republic News Agency, or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...




 
 

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