FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Iran naming dispute

Iran has been the subject of a naming dispute in common Western usage. The two possible names for this country are Iran and Persia; their adjectives being Iranian and Persian, respectively. Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ...

Contents

History of the debate

A Persepolis sculpture dating back to the Achaemenid period, when the country was referred to as Aryanam.

Serious argument on this matter began in the 1980s, when Professor Ehsan Yarshater (editor of the Encyclopædia Iranica) started to publish articles on this matter (in both English and Persian) in Rahavard Quarterly, Pars Monthly, Iranian Studies Journal, etc. After him, a few Persian scholars and researchers such as Prof. Kazem Abhary, Prof. Jalal Matini and Pejman Akbarzadeh followed the issue. Several times since then, Persian magazines and websites have published articles from those who agree or disagree with usage of 'Persia' and 'Persian' in English. Image File history File linksMetadata Persepolis_-_The_Sculptures_3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Persepolis_-_The_Sculptures_3. ... Persepolis aerial view. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Ehsan Yarshater, of Columbia University, is one of the worlds leading Iranologists. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia University started in 1974 at its Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies with the goal to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... RAHAVARD (in Persian: رهاورد), is a Los Angeles-based Persian language quarterly, edited by Hassan Shahbaz. ... بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم خدمت امام سید علی حسینی سیستانی نام من (اسلام) وطلبه( حوزه علمیه حضرت امام اباالفضل(ع) ) (مشهد))هستم.ودر ارتش حضرت ولی عصر در خدمت ام .از شما Ù…ÛŒ خواهم Ú©Ù‡ برای بنده حقیر دعا فرمایید رییس حزب التوابین .اسلام ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pejman Akbarzadeh (Persian پژمان اكبرزاده, born 1980) is a Persian (Iranian) musician and researcher. ...


In view of many of these articles, it seems that the subject has not been explained sufficiently. Some think the name Persia belongs to antiquity, and ought not to be used now. Others believe that "Persia" includes only one province within Iran, and should not be used for the whole country. Also, some people from Afghanistan or Pakistan call themselves Persians, referring to the ancient empire which covered those lands. There are also many Persians (Iranians) and non-Persians in the West who prefer "Persia" and "Persian" as the English names for the country and nationality, similar to the usage of La Perse/persan in French. An English-speaking example would be "Persian rugs" and "Persian food", which are specifically Iranian rugs and foods.


Many countries and languages have different names in other languages (see Exonym). For example, Germans call their country "Deutschland" but in English people call it "Germany", in French "Allemagne", in Spanish "Alemania" (after Alamannia), in Finnish "Saksa", in Estonian "Saksamaa" (after the Saxons), in Lithuanian "Vokietija", and in Polish, "Niemcy". People of Greece, Armenia, Finland, India, Albania, Egypt, Algeria, Japan and China call their countries, respectively Ellas, Hayastan, Suomi, Bhārat, Shqipëria, Mesr, al-Jaza'ir, Nippon or Nihon, and Zhōnggúo or Chung-kuo in their respective languages. Similarly, the native name of "Persia" is "Iran". An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... Alamannia was the territory inhabited by the Alamanni after their break through the Roman Limes in 213. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ...


Etymology of Persia

Modern reconstruction of the ancient world map of Eratosthenes from c. 200 BC, using the names Ariana and Persis

Starting from c. 600 BC, the Greeks began to use the name Persis for Cyrus the Great's empire. Persis was taken from Old Persian Pars or Pārsa - the name of the people whom Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid dynasty first ruled (before he inherited or conquered other Persian Kingdoms) and amongst whom he is counted. This tribe gave its name to the region where they (ethnic Persians) lived (the modern day province is called Fars/Pars). Image File history File links Iran. ... Image File history File links Iran. ... Eratosthenes (Greek ; 276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KÅ«ruÅ¡,[1] modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (c. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KÅ«ruÅ¡,[1] modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (c. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


In Latin, the name for the land was Persia. The name "Persia" until 1935 was the "official" name of Iran in the world, but Persian people inside their country since the Sassanid period have called it "Iran" meaning "the land of Aryans", the older version of which had been "Aryānām" (the genitive plural of the word Aryan, a cognate form of which is seen in "Airyanem Vaejah" ) as seen in ancient Persian texts. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ...


Re-introducing the name "Iran"

In 1935, Reza Shah Pahlavi announced that all Western countries should use the name of "Iran" in their languages too. Opponents claim that this act brought cultural damage to the country and separated Iran from its past in the West, and caused many people to confuse it with Iraq (an Arab state west of Iran). During World War II, in fact, Winston Churchill ordered that the name "Persia" be used for all government documents so as to avoid this confusion. For many westerners, "Persia" became a dead empire that does not exist anymore. Members of the Persian intelligentsia were not happy with this decree either, because of the pro-Nazi incentive behind it.[1] After Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, the Nazi Economics minister, commented on the Aryan origin of Persians, Reza Shah's ambassador in Germany encouraged him to issue the above mentioned decree asking all foreign delegates to use the word "Iran" (meaning "Land of the Aryans") instead of "Persia" in formal correspondence.[2] 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970) was a German financial expert and Minister of Economics from 1935 until 1937. ...


As the New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country. In its decision it was influenced by the Nazi revival of interest in the so-called Aryan races, cradled in ancient Persia. As the Ministry of Foreign Affairs set forth in its memorandum on the subject, 'Perse,' the French designation of Persia, connoted the weakness and tottering independence of the country in the nineteenth century, when it was the chessboard of European imperialistic rivalry. 'Iran,' by contrast, conjured up memories of the vigor and splendor of its historic past."[3] This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Norouz (also spelled Norooz, Noruz, Naw-Rúz or Nowrouz) is the traditional Iranian festival of the New Year which starts at the exact moment of the vernal equinox, commencing the start of the spring. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


The defenders of this name point out that the designation Iran was used by the Greek historian Eratosthenes and derives from the old Persian word ariya, akin to the Sanskrit Aryavarta. The Sassanids also called their empire Ēran-shahr ("empire of the Iranians") or Ēran-zamin ("land of the Iranians"). Subsequent and modern usage derives from this precedent.[4] Eratosthenes (Greek ; 276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The vedic name for India, meaning Categories: Indo-European language stubs ...


After some Persian scholars protested the name changing announcement, in 1959 Prof. Ehsan Yarshater formed a committee to look into this matter. The committee announced that "changing the name is not justified", so Mohammad Reza Shah announced that both 'Persia' and 'Iran' could be used interchangeably.[5] Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ehsan Yarshater, of Columbia University, is one of the worlds leading Iranologists. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until...


In 2006, a large collection of historical maps of Iran was published in the Netherlands entitled "Historical Maps of Persia". Also, in modern times, many of those exiled or alienated by the post-revolution Iranian government now refer to themselves mostly as Persians, this is done to separate themselves from the current government of Iran.


Persian language

Defying the general conversion in usage, the term "Iranian" with reference to the language of Iran has never gained currency in the west; it is invariably called either "Persian" or "Farsi." Farsi is another form of pronunciation of the original word (Parsi) meaning Persian. Farsi has been the local name for the language ever since the Arab invasion, whereby they were forced to speak Arabic for several centuries. In Arabic the phoneme /p/ does not exist, hence the pronunciation being altered to an /f/. In linguistic usage, the term "Iranian" refers more broadly to the Iranian languages, a larger family of languages of which Persian is a member. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


See also

Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...

References

  • Akbarzadeh, Pejman: What is the English Name of Our Country? Iran or Persia?, Rahavard Quarterly, Los Angeles, Spring 2004
  • Bring back Persia by G. Motamedi
  • Iran or Persia? Farsi or Persian? by Pejman Akbarzadeh
  • A Particular Iranian Identity Crisis by Amir Rostam Beigie
  • The History of the Idea of Iran, A. Shapur Shahbazi in Birth of the Persian Empire by V. S. Curtis and S. Stewart, 2005, ISBN 1845110625

Pejman Akbarzadeh (Persian پژمان اكبرزاده, born 1980) is a Persian (Iranian) musician and researcher. ...

Notes

  1. ^ G. Motamedi (2001-02-26). Bring back Persia. The Iranian. Abadan Publishing Co.. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “[A]ccording to anecdotal reports ... There were significant activities by the Nazis and their organized supporters in Tehran. As witnessed by many Iranians studying in Germany at the time, the Nazis honored Persians because of their "Aryan roots".... It is believed that close advisors to the Reza Shah suggested replacing Persia with Iran (which possibly derives from "Aryan") as a show of solidarity with the Germans.”
  2. ^ The History of Iran, Elton Daniel, p.3
  3. ^ Oliver McKee Jr., New Names of Places: Change of Santo Domingo to Trujillo City Recalls Others, The New York Times, 26 June 1933, p. XX9.
  4. ^ The Persians, Gene R. Garthwaite, p.2
  5. ^ Pejman Akbarzadeh (2005-09-20). A Note on the terms "Iran" and "Persia". Payvand's Iran News. NetNative. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. “After some Persian scholars protested this announcement, in 1959 Prof. Ehsan Yarshater made a committee to research this matter. The committee announced that "changing the name has not been right", so Mohammad Reza Shah announced ...”

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Pejman Akbarzadeh (Persian پژمان اكبرزاده, born 1980) is a Persian (Iranian) musician and researcher. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Publication of General Maps of Persia (Iran) in The Netherlands

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iran - Crystalinks (504 words)
The term Persia is the name used for this country by European countries since the Persian Empire of the Achaemenids in the 6th century BC.
Iran traces its national origin to Persia, an empire that emerged in the 6th century BC under the Achaemenid dynasty.
Indeed, the name Persia is derived from Persis, the ancient Greek name for the empire.
Iran - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (7816 words)
Iran borders Armenia, Azerbaijan (including its Nakhichevan exclave) and Turkmenistan to the north, Pakistan and Afghanistan to the east, and Turkey and Iraq to the west.
Iran is one of the world's most mountainous countries, its landscape is dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaus from one another.
From 1950 to 2002 the urban proportion of the population increased from 27% to 60%.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m