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Encyclopedia > Iran hostage crisis
Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media.
Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media.[1]

The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 53 U.S. diplomats were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of students took over the American embassy in support of Iran's revolution.[2] Image File history File links Ahmadinejad_alleged. ... Image File history File links Ahmadinejad_alleged. ... This article is about negotiations. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


In Iran, the incident was seen by many as a blow against U.S. influence in Iran and its support of the recently fallen Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who had been restored to power by a CIA-funded coup in 1953 and who had recently been allowed into the United States for cancer treatment. In the United States, the hostage-taking was widely seen as an outrage violating a centuries-old principle of international law granting diplomats immunity from arrest and diplomatic compounds sovereignty in the territory of the host country they occupy.[3] Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... CIA redirects here. ... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments, which ensures that diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host countrys laws (although they can be expelled). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


The ordeal reached a climax when the United States military attempted a rescue operation, Operation Eagle Claw, on April 24, 1980, which resulted in an aborted mission and the deaths of eight American military men. The crisis ended with the signing of the Algiers Accords in Algeria on January 19, 1981. The hostages were formally released into United States custody the following day, just minutes after the new American president Ronald Reagan was sworn in. Belligerents United States Iran Commanders Col. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Algiers Accords of January 19, 1981 were brokered by the Algerian government between the USA and Iran to resolve the situation that arose by the detention of American citizens in the American embassy in Tehran. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


In America, the crisis is thought by some political analysts to be the primary reason for U.S. President Jimmy Carter's defeat in the November 1980 presidential election.[4] In Iran, the crisis is thought to have strengthened the prestige of the Ayatollah Khomeini and consolidated the hold of anti-Americanism and Iranian radicals who supported the hostage taking. The crisis also marked the beginning of American legal action, or sanctions, that economically separated Iran from America. Sanctions blocked all property within US jurisdiction owned by the Central Bank and Government of Iran.[5] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ...

Contents

Background

Further information: Operation Ajax and Iranian Revolution

For several decades, the United States had been an ally and backer of Iran’s Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. During World War II, Allied powers Britain and the Soviet Union occupied Iran to prevent it from allying with the Axis Powers, and forced the reigning monarch, Reza Shah, to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad.[6] After WWII and during the Cold War, Iran allied itself with the U.S. against the Soviet Union, Iran’s neighbor and occasional enemy and occupier. America provided the Shah with military and economic aid. Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Political relations between Iran (Persia) and the United States began when the Shah... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


In the midst of this era, however, Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh, an Iranian nationalist and political opponent of the Shah, nationalized Iran’s foreign-owned and -managed oil producer, the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. The nationalization was highly popular in Iran, and a forerunner of similar third world nationalist movements. The company’s furious British owners withdrew employees and ceased oil production and royalty payments to the Iranian government which seriously harmed Iran's economy. In its Cold War solidarity with the UK the American government refused to break the UK boycott and insisted Iran negotiated with Britain. As domestic disatisfaction grew, so did American concern about Soviet influence in Iran. Working with Iranian opponents of Mossadegh, in 1953 the CIA and British intelligence launched Operation Ajax, orchestrating a coup d’état to overthrow the elected prime minister and replace him with a pro-Western one. In subsequent decades this foreign intervention, along with other economic, cultural and political issues, united opposition against the Shah and led to his overthrow. The Shah’s regime fell in the Iranian revolution of 1978-79, and the Shah left the country in January 1979.[7][8][9] Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Derafsh Kaviani, one of the nationalist symbols introduced by Ferdowsi. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was founded in 1909 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6)[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Coup redirects here. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


The Carter administration attempted to mitigate the damage by finding a new relationship with the de facto Iranian government and by continuing military cooperation in hopes that the situation would stabilize. On October 22, 1979, however, the U.S. permitted the Shah, who was ill with cancer, to come to the Mayo Clinic for medical treatment. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Mayo Clinic is a medical practice based in Rochester, Minnesota, USA, integrated with hospital facilities and a medical school. ...


The American embassy in Tehran had vigorously opposed the request, understanding the political delicacy, but after pressure from influential figures including former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Council on Foreign Relations chairman David Rockefeller, the Carter administration decided to grant the Shah’s request.[10] For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... David Rockefeller, Sr. ...


Among the revolutionary factions, the Shah's admission to the US intensified their anti-Americanism and spawned rumors of another U.S.-backed coup and re-installation of the Shah. Revolutionary leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini heightened rhetoric against the “Great Satan”, the United States, talking of what he called “evidence of American plotting.”[11] Khomeini had been exiled by the Shah in 1964, living outside Iran for 15 years. Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ...


The hostage takers were “convinced that the embassy was a center of opposition to the new government” and thus their action was connected to the 1953 U.S.-backed coup against the democratically-elected government of Prime Minister Mosaddeq.

"You have no right to complain, because you took our whole country hostage in 1953.”

said one of the hostage takers to Bruce Laingen, chief U.S. diplomat in Iran at the time.[12] Some Iranians were concerned that the U.S. was plotting another coup against their country in 1979 from the American embassy and wanted to prevent it. [13]


A later study found that there been no plots for the overthrow of the revolutionaries by the United States, and that a CIA intelligence gathering mission at the embassy was “notably ineffectual, gathering little information and hampered by the fact that none of the agents spoke the local language, Farsi.” Its work was “routine, prudent espionage conducted at diplomatic missions everywhere.”[14] Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ...


It is also argued that connections of Chase Manhattan Bank and its chairman, Rockefeller, to the Shah played a role in the hostage-taking.[15][16] The Chase Manhattan Bank, now part of JPMorgan Chase, was formed by the merger of the Chase National Bank and the Bank of the Manhattan Company in 1955. ...


Planning

The seizure of the American embassy was initially planned in September 1979 by Iranian politician Ebrahim Asgharzadeh. He consulted with the heads of the Islamic associations of Tehran’s main universities, including the University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology (Polytechnic of Tehran) and Iran University of Science and Technology. Ebrahim Asgharzadeh Ebrahim Asgharzadeh (Persian:ابراهیم اصغرزاده) has served as a member of the 3th Majlis (Irans legislature) during 1989-1993 and as member of the first City Council of Tehran during 1999-2003. ... Tehran University is the largest university in Iran, with 32,000 students. ... Sharif University of Technology (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی شریف Dāneshgāh-e Sanati-ye Sharif), formerly named Aryamehr University of Technology (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی آریامهر Dāneshgāh-e Sanati-ye Ä€ryāmehr) is a public university of technology, engineering and science in Iran. ... Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT, دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر), formerly named Tehran Polytechnic, is a leading research university in Iran. ... The Iran University of Science and Technology (دانشگاه علم Ùˆ صنعت ایران) is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran, offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies. ...


Asgharzadeh later said there were five students at the first meeting, two of whom wanted to target the Soviet embassy because the USSR was “a Marxist and anti-God regime.” But two others, Mirdamadi and Habibolah Bitaraf, supported Asgharzadeh’s chosen target—the United States. "Our aim was to object against the American government by going to their embassy and occupying it for several hours," Asgharzadeh said. "Announcing our objections from within the occupied compound would carry our message to the world in a much more firm and effective way."[17] Mirdamadi told an interviewer, "we intended to detain the diplomats for a few days, maybe one week, but no more."[18] Masoumeh Ebtekar, spokewoman for the Iranian students during the crisis, said that those who rejected Asgharzadeh's plan did not participate in the subsequent events.,[19] Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Mohsen Mirdamadi is the secretary general of IIPF, since September of 2006. ... Habibolah Bitaraf was Power Minister for 8 years in Mohammad Khatami peresidency. ... Masoumeh Ebtekar (Persian: معصومه ابتکار; born 1960) is an Iranian scientist and politician. ...


The group denied that Khomeini had incited the plan,[20] but they wanted to inform him through Ayatollah Musavi Khoeyniha. They said they thought he already knew their plan. Khoeyniha, however, was unable to inform Khomeini, who only became aware of the plan after the hostages were taken. Later, Khomeini supported the seizure and called it "the second revolution" and a take-over of the "American spy den in Tehran." For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha is an Iranian cleric and secretary general of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics. ...


One week after the Shah was admitted (22 Oct. 1979) into the United States, Khomeini urged his supporters to demonstrate against United States and Israeli interests. Khomeini denounced the American government as the "Great Satan" and "Enemy of Islam."


The takeover was aided by revolutionaries who observed the security procedures of the U.S. Marine guards from nearby rooftops overlooking the embassy. They also used experiences from the recent revolution, during which the U.S. embassy grounds were briefly occupied. Notably, protest crowds outside the fence were increasingly common, and Iranian police had become less and less helpful to the embassy staff.


Takeover

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Documents Seized from the US Embassy in Tehran

Around 6:30 a.m. on November 4, the ringleaders gathered between 300 and 500 selected students, thereafter known as Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, and briefed them on the battle plan. A female student was given a pair of metal cutters to break the chains locking the embassy's gates, and she hid them beneath her chador.[21] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Muslim student followers of the Imams line (fa:دانشجویان مسلمان پیرو خط امام) were the students (from science and technology universities) of some of the major universities of Tehran including University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology(polythechnic of Tehran), Iran University of Science and Technology gathered. ... A chador (Persian چادر) is an outer garment worn by some Iranian women when they venture out into public; it is one possible way in which a Muslim woman may follow the Islamic ħijāb dress code. ...


The crowd overran the soldiers and staff and paraded them blindfolded in front of photographers. Six American diplomats avoided capture when the embassy was seized and found refuge at the nearby Canadian and Swedish embassies in Tehran for three months. They fled Iran using Canadian passports on January 28, 1980.[22] is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


444 days hostage

A group photograph of the former hostages in the hospital. The 52 hostages are spending a few days in the hospital after their release from Iran prior to their departure for the United States.
A group photograph of the former hostages in the hospital. The 52 hostages are spending a few days in the hospital after their release from Iran prior to their departure for the United States.

The hostage-takers, declaring their solidarity with other "oppressed minorities" and "the special place of women in Islam," released 13 women and Americans of African descent in the middle of November 1979. One more hostage, Richard Queen, was released in July 1980 after he was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. The remaining 52 hostages were held captive until January 1981. Image File history File links DF-SN-82-06759. ... Image File history File links DF-SN-82-06759. ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... Richard Ivan Queen (b. ...


Although the hostage takers declared that the hostages were actually "guests of the Ayatollah", the "guests'" treatment was not always kind. They were often paraded blindfolded before local crowds and television cameras, "experienced long periods of solitary confinement, and for months were forbidden to speak to one another."[14]


The initial takeover plan was to hold the embassy for only a few hours, but it soon changed. Khomeini made no comment on the occupation for several days, waiting first to gauge American reaction to the hostage taking, which he feared might be violent.[23] It was not. Some attribute the Iranian decision not to release the hostages quickly to the soft line of U.S. President Jimmy Carter; his immediate response was to appeal for the release of the hostages on humanitarian grounds and to share his hopes of a strategic anti-communist alliance with the Islamic Republic.[24] Iran's moderate prime minister Mehdi Bazargan and his cabinet resigned under pressure just days after the event. Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ...


In the United States, the crisis led to daily news updates.[25] Public opinion was almost unanimously outraged against the perpetrators' taking hostages. The action was seen "not just as a diplomatic affront," but as a "declaration of war on diplomacy itself."[26] Carter applied economic and diplomatic pressure on Iran: oil imports from Iran were ended on November 12, 1979, and through the issuance of Executive Order 12170, around US$8 billion of Iranian assets in the U.S. were frozen by the Office of Foreign Assets Control on November 14. Many Iranians in the U.S. were also expelled. is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Executive Order 12170 Issued by American president Jimmy Carter during the Iranian hostage crisis. ... USD redirects here. ... The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the United States Department of the Treasury administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on US foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign countries, terrorists, unapproved international narcotics traffickers, and those engaged in activities related to the unapproved proliferation... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line justified taking the hostages as retaliation for the admission of the Shah into the U.S., and they demanded that the Shah be returned to Iran for trial and execution. The U.S. maintained that the Shah, who died less than a year later in July 1980, had come to America only for medical attention. The group's other demands included that the U.S. government apologize for its interference in the internal affairs of Iran and for the overthrow of Prime Minister Mossadegh, and that Iran's frozen assets in the U.S. be released. Revolutionary teams displayed secret documents taken from the embassy, sometimes painstakingly reconstructed after shredding,[27] to buttress their claim that "the Great Satan" (the U.S.) was trying to destabilize the new regime, and that Iranian moderates were in league with the U.S. Paper shredder with built-in wastebasket Paper shredders are used to cut paper into very fine strips or tiny paper chips. ...


The duration of the hostages' captivity has been blamed on internal Iranian revolutionary politics. As Ayatollah Khomeini told Iran's president:

This action has many benefits. ... This has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections.[28]

Theocratic Islamists, as well as leftist political groups and figures like radical leftist People's Mujahedin of Iran,[29] supported the taking of American hostages as an attack on "American imperialism" and its alleged Iranian "tools of the West." By embracing the hostage-taking under the slogan "America can't do a thing," Khomeini rallied support and deflected criticism from his controversial Islamic theocratic constitution, which was due for a referendum vote in less than one month.[30] Following the successful referendum, both radical leftists and theocrats continued to use the issue of alleged pro-Americanism to suppress their opponents, the relatively moderate political forces, which included the Iranian Freedom Movement, National Front, Grand Ayatollah Shari'atmadari,[31] and later President Abolhassan Banisadr. In particular, carefully selected diplomatic dispatches and reports discovered at the embassy and released by the hostage takers led to the disempowerment and resignations of moderate figures[32] such as Premier Mehdi Bazargan. The political danger in Iran of any move seen as accommodating America, along with the failed rescue attempt, delayed a negotiated release. After the hostages were released, radical leftists and theocrats turned on each other, with the stronger theocratic group decimating the left. MKO redirects here. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran[1] [2] abolished the Constitution of 1906. ... Abolhassan Banisadr Abolhassan Banisadr (Persian: ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر;born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. ...

A man holding a sign during a protest of the crisis in Washington, D.C. in 1979. The sign reads "Deport all Iranians" and "Get the hell out of my country" on its forefront, and "Release all Americans now" on its back.
A man holding a sign during a protest of the crisis in Washington, D.C. in 1979. The sign reads "Deport all Iranians" and "Get the hell out of my country" on its forefront, and "Release all Americans now" on its back.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4677x3117, 1708 KB) Information from LOC TITLE: [Iran Hostage Crisis student demonstration, Washington, D.C.] CALL NUMBER: LC-U9- 38450-29 [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-ppmsca-09800 (digital file from original negative) No known restrictions on publication. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4677x3117, 1708 KB) Information from LOC TITLE: [Iran Hostage Crisis student demonstration, Washington, D.C.] CALL NUMBER: LC-U9- 38450-29 [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-ppmsca-09800 (digital file from original negative) No known restrictions on publication. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...

Canadian Caper

On the day the hostages were seized, six American diplomats evaded capture and remained in hiding at the Swedish and Canadian embassies. In 1979, the Canadian Parliament held a secret session for the first time since World War II in order to pass special legislation allowing Canadian passports to be issued to some American citizens so that they could escape. Six American diplomats boarded a flight to Zürich, Switzerland, on January 28, 1980. Their escape and rescue from Iran by Canadian ambassador Ken Taylor has come to be known as the Canadian Caper.[33] Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Kenneth Douglas Ken Taylor, OC , BA , MBA , LL.D (born October 5, 1934 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada) was a Canadian ambassador to Iran. ... The American public showed a high degree of gratitude for Canadian efforts in rescuing American diplomatic staff in wake of the Iran hostage crisis. ...


Laingen dispatches

During the hostage crisis, several foreign diplomats and ambassadors including Taylor came to visit the American hostages. The diplomats and ambassadors helped the American government stay in contact with the American hostages. Through these meetings with foreign governments, the "Laingen dispatches," made by hostage Bruce Laingen, were conveyed to the American government. Bruce Laingen was the senior American official held hostage during the Iran hostage crisis. ...


Rescue attempts

Further information: Operation Eagle Claw

Rejecting Iranian demands, Carter approved an ill-fated secret rescue mission, Operation Eagle Claw. Late in the afternoon of April 24, eight RH-53D helicopters flew from the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz toward a remote landing site (really just a desert road) serving as an airstrip in the Great Salt Desert of Eastern Iran, near Tabas. Early the next morning six of the eight RH-53D helicopters met up with several waiting C-130 transport and refueling airplanes at the landing site and refueling area, designated "Desert One" by the mission. Belligerents United States Iran Commanders Col. ... Belligerents United States Iran Commanders Col. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters. ... USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier in the United States Navy, the lead ship of its class. ... Dasht-e Kavir desert: satellite photograph Dasht-e Kavir (دشت كوير in Persian), also known as Kavir-e Namak or Great Salt Desert is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian Plateau. ... Tabas (طبس) or Tabas-e-Golshan (meaning city with a lot of flowers in a desert) is a desert city and a large oasis in the Iranian province of Yazd (and formerly in the south of the Khorasan province). ... The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ...


Of the two helicopters that did not make it to Desert One, one suffered avionics failures en route and returned to the USS Nimitz, and the other had an indication that one of its main rotor blades was fractured, and was abandoned in the desert en route to Desert One. Its crew was fortunately seen and retrieved by another helicopter that continued to Desert One. The helicopters maintained strict radio silence under orders for the entire flight, an issue which impacted their ability to maintain a cohesive flying unit while en route, as they all arrived separately and behind schedule. The strict radio silence also prevented them from requesting permission to fly above the sandstorm as the C-130s had done, and they flew the entire route at hazardous low levels, even while inside the sandstorm and with limited field of vision and erratic instrumentation. USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier in the United States Navy, the lead ship of its class. ... A haboob is a type of intense dust storm characteristic of very dry regions. ... A haboob is a type of intense dust storm characteristic of very dry regions. ...


The mission plan called for a minimum of six helicopters but of the six that made it to Desert One, one had a failed primary hydraulics system and had flown on the secondary hydraulics system for the previous four hours.


The failing helicopter's crew wanted to continue, but due to the increased risk of not having a backup hydraulic system during flight, the helicopter squadron's commander decided to ground the helicopter. The Delta commander, Col. Beckwith, then recommended the mission be aborted and his recommendation was approved, President Carter being the commander of the mission. As the helicopters repositioned themselves for refueling, one helicopter landed on top of a C-130 fuel bird and crashed, killing eight U.S. servicemen and injuring several more.


After the mission and its failure were made known, Khomeini's prestige skyrocketed in Iran as he credited divine intervention on behalf of Islam for the result.[34] In America, Carter made a television address on April 25th about the attempted rescue operation, which further damaged his political popularity and prospects for being reelected in 1980.


A second rescue attempt that was planned but never attempted used highly modified YMC-130H Hercules aircraft. Outfitted with rocket thrusters fore and aft to allow an extremely short landing and takeoff in a soccer stadium, three aircraft were modified under a rushed super-secret program known as Operation Credible Sport. One aircraft crashed during a demonstration at Duke Field at Eglin Air Force Base Auxiliary Field 3 on October 29, 1980, when its landing braking rockets were fired too soon. The misfire caused a hard touchdown that tore off the starboard wing and started a fire; all on board survived. The impending change in the White House following the November election led to an abandonment of this project. The two surviving airframes were returned to regular duty with the rocket packages removed. One is on display at the Museum of Aviation located next to Robins Air Force Base in Georgia. The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... Operation Credible Sport, also known as Operation Honey Badger, was a United States military operation plan in late 1980 to rescue the hostages held on American soil in Iran using C-130 cargo planes modified with rocket engines. ... Eglin Air Force Base is the home of the United States Air Force 96th Air Base Wing of the Air Force Materiel Command, and is also headquarters for more than 45 associate units. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Robins Air Force Base (Robins AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in Houston County, Georgia. ...


The aforementioned failed rescue attempt led to the creation of the 160th S.O.A.R., a helicopter aviation special forces group in the United States Army. (Redirected from 160th SOAR) Unit name 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) Abbreviated: 160th SOAR (A) Nickname Night Stalkers Branch U.S. Army Mission Provide aviation support to U.S. Special Operations Forces Headquarters Fort Campbell, Kentucky USA Motto Night Stalkers Dont Quit (NSDQ) Death Waits in the Dark... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Final months

At the end of the Iran hostage crisis, Vice President George H. W. Bush and other VIPs wait to welcome hostages home
The hostages disembark Freedom One, an Air Force VC-137 Stratoliner aircraft, upon their arrival at the base.
The hostages disembark Freedom One, an Air Force VC-137 Stratoliner aircraft, upon their arrival at the base.

The death of the Shah on July 27 and the invasion of Iran by Iraq in September 1980 made Iran more receptive to the idea of resolving the hostage crisis. Despite losing the November 1980 presidential election to Ronald Reagan, President Jimmy Carter, in the final days of his office, negotiated the release of the hostages through Secretary of State Warren Christopher, Algerian intermediaries and members of the Iranian government. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2950 × 1990 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2950 × 1990 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ...


In the closing days of Carter's Presidency, Algerian diplomat Abdulkarim Ghuraib opened fruitful, albeit biased, negotiations between the U.S. and Iran. This resulted in the "Algiers Accords" of January 19, 1981, which entailed Iran's commitment to free the hostages immediately. is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...

The hostages come home, as celebrated on the streets of Washington, D.C.

Point I: Non-Intervention in Iranian Affairs, "The United States pledges that it is and from now on will be the policy of the United States not to intervene, directly or indirectly, politically or militarily, in Iran's internal affairs." Other provisions of the Algiers Accords were the unfreezing of $8 billion of Iranian assets and immunity from lawsuits Iran might have faced. Celebrate the Century stamp - 1980s - Iranian hostage crisis - Hostages come home This image is a postage stamp produced by the United States Postal Service after 1978. ... Celebrate the Century stamp - 1980s - Iranian hostage crisis - Hostages come home This image is a postage stamp produced by the United States Postal Service after 1978. ...


On January 20, 1981, minutes after Reagan was sworn in as President, the hostages were formally released into U.S. custody, having spent 444 days in captivity. The hostages were flown to Algeria as a symbolic gesture for the help of that government in resolving the crisis. The flight continued to Rhein-Main Air Base in West Germany, where former President Carter, acting as emissary, received them. After medical check-ups and debriefings, they took a second flight to Stewart Air National Guard Base in Newburgh, New York, with a refueling stop in Shannon, Ireland, where they were greeted by a large crowd. From Newburgh they travelled by bus to the United States Military Academy, receiving a heroes' welcome all along the route. Ten days after their release, the former hostages were given a ticker tape parade through the Canyon of Heroes in New York City. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Rhein-Main Air Base (located at ) was a U.S. Air Force / NATO military airbase near the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... Stewart International Airport is located near Newburgh, New York, in the southern Hudson Valley, 55 miles (88. ... Coordinates: , Country United States of America State New York County Orange Settled 1709 Incorporated (village) 1800 Incorporated (City) 1865 Government  - Type Council-manager  - City Manager Jean McGrane  - Mayor Nick Valentine Area  - City  4. ... Shannon is a name originated in Ireland and is directly linked to the countrys longest river. ... USMA redirects here. ... Ticker-tape parade in New York City in honor of the Apollo 11 astronauts, August 1969 A ticker-tape parade is a parade event, held in a downtown urban setting, allowing the jettison of large amounts of shredded paper products from nearby office buildings onto the parade route, creating a... Canyon of Heroes on lower Broadway in New York City, during a ticker_tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts, August 1969 The Canyon of Heroes is a colloquialism used in New York City to refer to a section of lower Broadway that is the historic location of the citys... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Aftermath

A defaced Great Seal of the United States at the former U.S. embassy, Tehran, Iran, as it appears today
A defaced Great Seal of the United States at the former U.S. embassy, Tehran, Iran, as it appears today

In Iran the crisis was a failure for the Islamic Republic in some respects. Iran lost international support for its war against Iraq, and the settlement was considered almost wholly favorable to the United States since it did not meet any of Iran's original demands.[35] But the crisis strengthened Iranian radicals who supported the hostage taking. Anti-Americanism became even more intense, and anti-American rhetoric continued unabated.[36] Radicals such as Musavi-Khoeniha and Behzad Nabavi[37] were left in a stronger position, while those associated or accused of association with America were removed from the political picture. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 660 KB) Summary The former US embassy, Tehran, Iran, as it appears today (2004). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 660 KB) Summary The former US embassy, Tehran, Iran, as it appears today (2004). ... Obverse The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States government. ...


In America, gifts were showered upon the hostages upon their return, including lifetime passes to any minor league or Major League Baseball game.[38] For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ...


In 2000, the hostages and their families tried to sue Iran, unsuccessfully, under the Antiterrorism Act. They originally won the case when Iran failed to provide a defense, but the U.S. State Department tried to put an end to the suit, fearing that it would make international relations difficult. As a result, a federal judge ruled that nothing could be done to repay the damages the hostages faced because of the agreement the U.S. made when the hostages were freed.[citation needed] The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (also known as AEDPA) is a series of laws in the United States signed into law on April 24, 1996 to deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty, and for other purposes. ... Department of State redirects here. ...


Today, the old American embassy in Tehran has been used to honor and recruit suicide bombers.[39]


October surprise conspiracy theory

Further information: October surprise conspiracy

The October Surprise theory refers to a purported deal between high-level Reagan campaign operatives (such as campaign manager and future CIA Director William J. Casey) and representatives of the Iranian government to delay the release of the hostages until after the November 1980 U.S. elections. Although investigations by the United States Senate and House of Representatives in the 1990s declared the allegations to be unfounded, the conspiracy's existence or lack thereof remains a subject of debate. The exact nature of the allegations lies in a potential violation of the International Commerce Acts of 1798, which prohibit any private citizen or party from negotiating with a foreign power in matters of national policy or military action. It is alleged by political opponents that the Reagan campaign, or one of Reagan's election campaign staffers, communicated with the Iranian government and asked them to extend the hostage crisis long enough to ensure that he won the 1980 elections. The main cause for suspicion was the seeming coincidence of his inauguration and the hostages' release six minutes after Reagan was sworn into office on January 20, 1981, as well as the Reagan administration's later decision to provide arms to the anti-U.S. Iranian government, allegedly in return not for freeing the hostages, but for delaying their release.[40] The October Surprise conspiracy was an alleged plot that claimed representatives of the 1980 Ronald Reagan presidential campaign had conspired with Islamic Republic of Iran to delay the release of 52 Americans held hostage in Tehran until after the 1980 U.S. Presidential election. ... In United States and other democracies, political campaigns larger than a few individuals generally include a campaign manager whose role is to coordinate the campaigns operations. ... Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which is part of the United States Intelligence Community. ... William Joseph Casey (March 13, 1913 – May 6, 1987) was the Director of Central Intelligence from 1981 to 1987. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


However, special ops personnel involved in the preparations for the second rescue attempt believed that incoming President Ronald Reagan was involved in the planning and timing of the second rescue attempt, and that these intentions were either implied or made known to the de facto Iranian government, leading to the hostages' release just minutes after Reagan's inauguration. This was reinforced by the fact that the personnel involved were on alert status, ready to go at a moment's notice, in the days leading up to the inauguration, and that the required equipment was already packed up and waiting to be shipped. Thus, a perceived and possibly communicated threat of invasion could also have influenced the timing of the hostage release.[41].[42]


Hostages

November 4, 1979 - January 20, 1981 - 66 original captives - 63 from and held at Embassy, three from and held at Foreign Ministry Office. is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


At least three of the hostages were operatives of the CIA.[14]


Thirteen hostages were released from November 19-20, 1979, and one was released on July 11, 1980. Fifty-two remaining hostages endured 444 days of captivity until their release (announced across the Capitol grounds twenty minutes after the swearing in of the new President) on Reagan's Inauguration Day, January 20, 1981. is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Six diplomats who evaded capture

Further information: Canadian Caper
  • Robert Anders, 34 - Consular Officer
  • Mark J. Lijek, 29 - Consular Officer
  • Cora A. Lijek, 25 - Consular Assistant
  • Henry L. Schatz, 31 - Agriculture Attaché
  • Joseph D. Stafford, 29 - Consular Officer
  • Kathleen F. Stafford, 28 - Consular Assistant

The American public showed a high degree of gratitude for Canadian efforts in rescuing American diplomatic staff in wake of the Iran hostage crisis. ...

13 hostages released

From November 19-20, 1979, thirteen women and American personnel of African descent that had been captured and held hostage were released:

  • Kathy Gross, 22 - Secretary
  • Sgt. James Hughes, 30 - USAF Administrative Manager
  • Lillian Johnson, 32 - Secretary
  • Sgt. Ladell Maples, 23 - USMC Embassy Guard
  • Elizabeth Montagne, 42 - Secretary
  • Sgt. William Quarles, 23 - USMC Embassy Guard
  • Lloyd Rollins, 40 - Administrative Officer
  • Capt. Neal (Terry) Robinson, 30 - Administrative Officer
  • Terri Tedford, 24 - Secretary
  • Sgt. Joseph Vincent, 42 - USAF Administrative Manager
  • Sgt. David Walker, 25 - USMC Embassy guard
  • Joan Walsh, 33 - Secretary
  • Cpl. Wesley Williams, 24 - USMC Embassy Guard

Richard I. Queen released

On July 11, 1980, 28-year-old Vice Consul Richard I. Queen, who had been captured and held hostage, was released because of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis. (Died August 14, 2002.) is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Richard Ivan Queen (b. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


52 remaining hostages released

The following fifty-two remaining hostages were held captive until January 20, 1981. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Thomas L. Ahern, Jr., - Narcotics Control Officer (later identified as CIA station chief)[43][44]
  • Clair Cortland Barnes, 35 - Communications Specialist
  • William E. Belk, 44 - Communications and Records Officer
  • Robert O. Blucker, 54 - Economics Officer Specializing in Oil (Died 4/3/2003)
  • Donald J. Cooke, 26 - Vice Consul
  • William J. Daugherty, 33 - 3rd Secretary of U.S. Mission
  • Lt. Cmdr. Robert Englemann, 34 - U.S. Navy Attaché
  • Sgt. William Gallegos, 22 - USMC Guard
  • Bruce W. German, 44 - Budget Officer
  • Duane L. Gillette, 24 - USN Communications and Intelligence Specialist
  • Alan B. Golacinski, 30 - Security Officer
  • John E. Graves, 53 - Public Affairs Officer (Died 4/27/2001)
  • Joseph M. Hall, 32 - CWO Military Attaché
  • Sgt. Kevin J. Hermening, 21 - USMC Guard
  • Sgt. 1st Class Donald R. Hohman, 38 - U.S. Army Medic
  • Col. Leland J. Holland, 53 - Military Attaché (Died 10/2/1990)
  • Michael Howland, 34 - Security Aide, held at Iranian Foreign Ministry Office
  • Charles A. Jones, Jr., 40 - Communications Specialist, Teletype Operator. (only African American hostage not released in November 1979)
  • Malcolm Kalp, 42 - Commercial Officer (Died 4/7/2002)
  • Moorhead C. Kennedy Jr., 50 - Economic and Commercial Officer
  • William F. Keough, Jr., 50 - Superintendent of American School in Islamabad, Pakistan, visiting Tehran at time of embassy seizure (Died 11/27/1985)
  • Cpl. Steven W. Kirtley - USMC Guard
  • Capt. Eric M. Feldman, 24 - Military officer
  • Kathryn L. Koob, 42 - Embassy Cultural Officer; one of two female hostages
  • Frederick Lee Kupke, 34 - Communications Officer and Electronics Specialist
  • L. Bruce Laingen, 58 - Chargé d'Affaires, held at Iranian Foreign Ministry Office
  • Steven Lauterbach, 29 - Administrative Officer
  • Gary E. Lee, 37 - Administrative Officer
  • Sgt. Paul Edward Lewis, 23 - USMC Guard
  • John W. Limbert, Jr., 37 - Political Officer
  • Sgt. James M. Lopez, 22 - USMC Guard
  • Sgt. John D. McKeel, Jr., 27 - USMC Guard (Died 11/1/1991)
  • Michael J. Metrinko, 34 - Political Officer
  • Jerry J. Miele, 42 - Communications Officer
  • Staff Sgt. Michael E. Moeller, 31 - Head of USMC Guard Unit at Embassy
  • Bert C. Moore, 45 - Counselor for Administration (Died 6/8/2000)
  • Richard H. Morefield, 51 - U.S. Consul General in Tehran
  • Capt. Paul M. Needham, Jr., 30 - USAF Logistics Staff Officer
  • Robert C. Ode, 65 - Retired Foreign Service Officer on Temporary Duty in Tehran (Died 9/8/1995)
  • Sgt. Gregory A. Persinger, 23 - USMC Guard
  • Jerry Plotkin, 45 - civilian businessman visiting Tehran (Died 6/6/1996)
  • MSgt. Regis Ragan, 38 - US Army NCO assigned to Defense Attaché's Office
  • Lt. Col. David M. Roeder, 41 - Deputy USAF Attaché
  • Barry M. Rosen, 36 - Press Attaché
  • William B. Royer, Jr., 49 - Assistant Director of Iran-American Society
  • Col. Thomas E. Schaefer, 50 - USAF Attaché
  • Col. Charles W. Scott, 48 - US Army Officer, Military Attaché
  • Cmdr. Donald A. Sharer, 40 - USN Air Attaché
  • Sgt. Rodney V. (Rocky) Sickmann, 22 - USMC Guard
  • Staff Sgt. Joseph Subic, Jr., 23 - Military Police, US Army, Defense Attaché's Staff
  • Elizabeth Ann Swift, 40 - Chief of Embassy's Political Section; 1 of 2 female hostages (Died 5/7/2004)
  • Victor L. Tomseth, 39 - Senior Political Officer, held at Iranian Foreign Ministry Office
  • Phillip R. Ward, 40 - Administrative Officer

USN redirects here. ... For other uses of Warrant Officer, see Warrant Officer. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... Bruce Laingen was the senior American official held hostage during the Iran hostage crisis. ... John W. Limbert is the United States ambassador to Mauritania. ...

Servicemen awarded

For their service during the hostage crisis, the US military later awarded the 20 servicemen who were among the hostages the Defense Meritorious Service Medal. The only hostage serviceman not to be issued the medal was Staff Sgt. Joseph Subic, Jr. The reason given was that Subic did not behave under stress the way noncommissioned officers are expected to act[1], i.e. he cooperated with the hostage takers according to other hostages.[citation needed] The Defense Meritorious Service Medal is the third highest award bestowed upon members of the United States military by the United States Department of Defense. ...


For their part in the mission, the Humanitarian Service Medal was awarded to the servicemen of Joint Task Force (JTF) 1-79 (the planning authority for Operation Rice Bowl/Eagle Claw) who participated in the rescue attempt. The Humanitarian Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States armed forces which was created in 1977 by order of President Gerald Ford. ...


Also, the USAF special ops component of the mission was awarded the AF Outstanding Unit award for that year for performing their part of the mission flawlessly, to include accomplishing the evacuation of the entire Desert One site after the accident and under extreme conditions.


Civilian hostages

A little-noted sidebar to the crisis was that a small number of hostages were not connected to the diplomatic staff. All had been released by late 1981.

  • Mohi Sobhani, an Iranian-American engineer and a member of the Bahá'í Faith. Released 2/4/1981. (Died 7/12/2005)
  • Zia Nassery/Nassri, an Afghan-American. Released 2/4/1981.
  • Cynthia Dwyer, an American reporter, was eventually charged with espionage and expelled 2/10/1981.
  • Electronic Data Systems employees Paul Chiapparone and Bill Gaylord rescued by Ross Perot-funded operation (see Arthur D. Simons) in 1979.
  • Four British missionaries

Iranian Americans (or Persian Americans) are Americans of Iranian (Persian) descent, including those who are expatriates in exile or permanent immigrants. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... An Afghan or an Afghani is the name used to describe a person from the country of Afghanistan. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Electronic Data Systems (EDS) (NYSE: EDS, LSE: EDC) is a global business and technology services company that defined the outsourcing business when it was established in 1962 by Ross Perot. ... Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ... Colonel Arthur D. Bull Simons (28 June 1918 - 21 May 1979) was an American military officer, best known for leading Operation Ivory Coast, an attempted rescue of American prisoners of war from the Vietcong prison at Son Tay. ...

Notable hostage takers

Mohsen Mirdamadi is the secretary general of IIPF, since September of 2006. ... Masoumeh Ebtekar (Persian: معصومه ابتکار; born 1960) is an Iranian scientist and politician. ...

See also

On December 21, 2006 the United States military raided a group of Iranian officials including two foriegn affair officials and detained them. ... Hossein Alikhani is an Iranian businessman who was abducted in a sting operation by American undercover customs agents in 1992 and released after 130 days. ... United states troops raided an Iranian consular office in northern Iraq on 11 Jan 2007 and detained five employees. ... On 4th February 2007 Iranian diplomat Jalal Sharafi, the second secretary of the Iranian embassy, was kidnapped in Baghdad by Iraqi special forces. ... Upon invasion of Lebanon on July 4, 1982, four Iranian diplomats were allegedly kidnapped by militiamen and Israeli forces at an inspection point for the Lebanese Forces in north Lebanon. ... This is a list of hostage crises by date. ... An international crisis is a crisis between nations. ... Wikinews has related news: Iranian President Ahmadinejad speaks at Columbia University On June 29, 2005, shortly after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won the Iranian presidential election, several major news outlets publicized various criticisms against him. ... The October Surprise conspiracy was an alleged plot that claimed representatives of the 1980 Ronald Reagan presidential campaign had conspired with Islamic Republic of Iran to delay the release of 52 Americans held hostage in Tehran until after the 1980 U.S. Presidential election. ... The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding anti-Communist rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Death to America Day or Student Day is an official day in Iran in remembrance of the Iran hostage crisis. ... Dr. Haleh Esfandiari (Persian: هاله اسفندیاری) (b. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Iran-U.S. Hostage Crisis(1979-1981)
  2. ^ Iran-U.S. Hostage Crisis(1979-1981)
  3. ^ "Doing Satan's Work in Iran", The New York Times, November 6, 1979
  4. ^ Reagan's Lucky Day: Iranian Hostage Crisis Helped The Great Communicator To Victory, CBS News, January 21, 2001
  5. ^ History Of US Sanctions Against IranMiddle East Economic Survey, 26-August-2002
  6. ^ Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions, (1982), p.164
  7. ^ Iran's century of upheaval. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  8. ^ 1979: Shah of Iran flees into exile. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  9. ^ January 16 Almanac. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  10. ^ Daugherty | Jimmy Carter and the 1979 Decision to Admit the Shah into the United States
  11. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.220
  12. ^ Democracy Now, Marc. 3, 2008, http://www.democracynow.org/2008/3/3/stephen_kinzer_on_the_us_iranian
  13. ^ Democracy Now, Marc. 3, 2008, http://www.democracynow.org/2008/3/3/stephen_kinzer_on_the_us_iranian
  14. ^ a b c Journal of Homeland Security review of Mark Bowden's “Guests of the Ayatollah”. Retrieved on 2007-02-25. “routine, prudent espionage conducted at diplomatic missions everywhere”
  15. ^ David Farber
  16. ^ detail
  17. ^ Among the Hostage-Takers
  18. ^ Molavi, Afshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton, (2005), p.335
  19. ^ Video of Massoumeh Ebtekar Speaking about Hostage Crisis (in English)
  20. ^ Radicals Reborn - TIME
  21. ^ Radicals Reborn Iran's student heroes have had a rough and surprising passage
  22. ^ Jimmy Carter Library
  23. ^ Moin Khomeini (2000), p.221
  24. ^ Moin Khoemini (2000), p.221; "America Can't do a Thing" by Amir Taheri New York Post, November 2, 2004
  25. ^ The ABC late-night program America Held Hostage, anchored by Ted Koppel, later became a stalwart news magazine under the title Nightline.
  26. ^ "Doing Satan's Work in Iran", The New York Times, November 6, 1979
  27. ^ Iran, 1977-1980/Document
  28. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.228
  29. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (1989), The Iranian Mojahedin (1989), p.196
  30. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.227
  31. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.229, 231; Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.115-6
  32. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.115
  33. ^ The Canadian Caper. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  34. ^ Mackey, Iranians, (2000), p.298
  35. ^ Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution Keddie, Nikki, Yale University Press, 2003, p.252
  36. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.236
  37. ^ Brumberg, Daniel Reinventing Khomeini, University of Chicago Press (2001), p.118
  38. ^ Carpenter, Les. "Safe at Home", The Washington Post, January 20, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. 
  39. ^ Iranian group seeks British suicide bombers, The Guardian, April 19, 2006.
  40. ^ Abbie Hoffman and Jonathan Silvers, "An Election Held Hostage." Playboy Magazine (October, 1988)
  41. ^ Lenahan, Rod (1998). Crippled Eagle: A Historical Perspective Of U.S. Special Operations 1976-1996. Narwhal Press. ISBN 1-886391-23-8. 
  42. ^ Bowden, Mark (2006). Guests of the Ayatollah: The First Battle in America's War with Militant Islam. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-925-1. 
  43. ^ "The Hostages in Danger", TIME magazine, December 17, 1979. Retrieved on 2007-04-25. 
  44. ^ Michael B. Farrell. "444 days in captivity as the world watched", The Christian Science Monitor, June 27, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-25. 

CNN- Former hostages allege Iran's new president was captor CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Photo by Bob DAmico/ABC Ted Koppel, anchor of the ABC News program Nightline. ... Nightline is a late-night hard and soft news program broadcast by ABC in the United States, and has a franchised formula to other networks and stations elsewhere in the world. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... TIME redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution, Basic Books, 1984
  • Moin, Baqer, Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah, Thomas Dunne Books, c2000
  • Ebtekar,Masoumeh and Fred Reed (January 20, 2001). Takeover in Tehran: The Inside Story of the 1979 U.S. Embassy Capture (Paperback), Publisher: Talonbooks; ISBN 0-88922-443-9
  • 444 Days to Freedom: What Really Happened in Iran (1997). DVD UPC 033909253390

Masoumeh Ebtekar (Persian: معصومه ابتکار; born 1960) is an Iranian scientist and politician. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Further reading

  • Ebtekar,Masoumeh and Fred Reed (January 20, 2001). Takeover in Tehran: The Inside Story of the 1979 U.S. Embassy Capture, Publisher: alonbooks; ISBN 0-88922-443-9
  • Engelmayer, Sheldon D. (1981). Hostage: a Chronicle of the 444 Days in Iran. New York: Caroline House Publishing. ISBN 0898030846 0898030846. 

Masoumeh Ebtekar (Persian: معصومه ابتکار; born 1960) is an Iranian scientist and politician. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

External links

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Bruce Laingen was the senior American official held hostage during the Iran hostage crisis. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iran hostage crisis (833 words)
The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day period during which the new government of Iran held hostage 66 citizens of the United States.
Iran's new leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, instigated the crisis on November 1, 1979 when he urged his people to demonstrate and expand attacks on United States and Israeli interests on November 4.
Thirteen of the hostages were released on November 19 and 20 (the women and African-Americans amongst the group) but the remaining 52 continued to be held (one further hostage was released because of illness on July 11, 1980).
Station Information - Iran hostage crisis (679 words)
The Iran hostage crisis was the events following the seizure of the US embassy in Tehran on November 4 1979, a crisis that lasted over a year until January 20 1981.
Iran's new dictator, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini instigated the crisis when on November 1, 1979 he urged his people to demonstrate on November 4 and to expand attacks on United States and Israeli interests.
The US President, Jimmy Carter, immediately applied economic and diplomatic pressure on Iran, oil imports from Iran were ended (November 12, 1979), Iranians in the US were expelled and around $8 billion of Iranian assets in the United States were frozen (November 14, 1979).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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