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Encyclopedia > Iran's Nuclear Program
 This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.

The Islamic Republic of Iran's nuclear program goes back many decades. In recent years global political change has caused Iran's program to fall under intense scrutiny and even occasioned charges that Iran is seeking to develop nuclear weapons. Iran, however, has maintained that the purpose of its nuclear program is the generation of power; any other use is a violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, of which Iran is a signatory. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... To suggest a relevant news story for the main page, refer to the criteria then add your suggestion at the candidates page. ... // Biological weapons Iran ratified the Biological Weapons Convention on August 22, 1973. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 at New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


On August 14, 2002, an associate of Mujahedin-e-Khalq (regarded as a terrorist group by the U.S.) and critic of Tehran, Alireza Jafarzadeh, revealed the existence of two secret nuclear sites, a uranium enrichment facility in Natanz and a heavy water facility in Arak. In response, the U.S. has since late 2003 claimed that Tehran is seeking to build nuclear arms in violation of its agreements under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and also that Iran is seeking to develop nuclear missiles. August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government  â€¢ President  â€¢ Vice President Federal republic George... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ... Alireza Jafarzadeh is a controversial figure in Iranian politics. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Arak may refer to: Arak, a city in centeral Iran Arak, an alcoholic beverage made from grapes and anise This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 at New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... A nuclear missile is a type of: missile nuclear weapon It could also refer to a missile with some form of nuclear propulsion, such as the Project Pluto cruise missile. ...


On November 14, 2004, Iran's chief nuclear negotiator announced a voluntary and temporary suspension of its uranium enrichment program (not in itself a violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) after pressure from the United Kingdom, France, and Germany acting on behalf of the European Union (known in this context as the EU-3 or EU3). The measure was said at the time to be a confidence-building measure, to continue for some reasonable period of time, six months being mentioned as a reference. On November 24, Iran sought to amend the terms of its agreement with the EU to exclude a handful of the equipment from this deal for research work. This request was dropped four days later. November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 at New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


On August 8 and August 10, 2005, the Iranian government resumed its conversion of uranium at the Isfahan facility, allegedly with continued suspension of enrichment activities. This led to (on September 19, 2005) the European Union pressuring the IAEA to bring Iran's nuclear program before the United Nations Security Council [1]. In January 2006, James Risen, a New York Times reporter, alleged in his book State of War that in February 2000, a U.S. covert operation - code-named Operation Merlin - to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon, in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program, had backfired. Instead, the plan may have accelerated Iran's nuclear program by providing useful information, once the flaws were identified [2]. August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... James Risen is a reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, and author/co-author of two books about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Covert operations are military or political activities that are not only clandestine (undertaken in a manner that disguises the identity of the perpetrators) but also covert, i. ... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ...

Contents


Background

The foundations for Iran's nuclear program were laid in the 1960s under auspices of the U.S. within the framework of bilateral agreements between the two countries. In 1967 the Tehran Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) was built and run by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). The TNRC was equipped with a US supplied 5-megawatt nuclear research reactor. Iran signed and ratified the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968. With the establishment of Iran's atomic agency and the NPT in place plans were drawn by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Iran's monarch) to construct up to 23 nuclear power stations across the country together with USA by the year 2000. His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ...


By 1975, The U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, had signed National Security Decision Memorandum 292, titled "U.S.-Iran Nuclear Cooperation," which laid out the details of the sale of nuclear energy equipment to Iran projected to bring U.S. corporations more than $6 billion in revenue. At the time, Iran was pumping as much as 6 million barrels (950,000 m³) of oil a day, compared with about 4 million barrels (640,000 m³) daily today. Henry Kissinger circa 1970s. ...


President Gerald R. Ford even signed a directive in 1976 offering Tehran the chance to buy and operate a U.S.-built reprocessing facility for extracting plutonium from nuclear reactor fuel. The deal was for a complete "nuclear fuel cycle". The Ford strategy paper said the "introduction of nuclear power will both provide for the growing needs of Iran's economy and free remaining oil reserves for export or conversion to petrochemicals."[3] Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ...


The Bushehr project

Map of southern Iran, showing the location of Bushehr
Map of southern Iran, showing the location of Bushehr

The Bushehr Nuclear Power Facility is located 17 kilometers south of the city of Bushehr (also known as Bushire), between the fishing villages of Halileh and Bandargeh along the Persian Gulf. Download high resolution version (800x797, 204 KB)Map of southern Iran, showing the location of Bushehr. ... Download high resolution version (800x797, 204 KB)Map of southern Iran, showing the location of Bushehr. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


The facility was the idea of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who envisioned a time when the world's oil supply would run out. He said that, "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn." Instead, he wanted a national electrical grid powered by clean nuclear power plants. Bushehr would be the first plant, and would supply energy to the inland city of Shiraz. One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا شاه پهلوی) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the last Shah of Iran. ... Shiraz can refer to: Shiraz, Iran Shiraz grape/wine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 1975, the Bonn firm Kraftwerk-Union A.G., a joint venture of Siemens AG and A.E.G Telefunken, signed a contract worth $4 to $6 billion to build the pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Construction of the two 1,196MWe nuclear generating units was subcontracted to ThyssenKrupp AG, and was to have been completed in 1981. Bonn is a city in Germany (19th largest), in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the north of the Siebengebirge. ... Siemens AG (FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is the worlds largest electronics company. ... Telefunken is a German radio- and television company, founded in 1903. ... A pressurised water reactor (PWR) is a type of nuclear power reactor that uses ordinary light water for both coolant and for neutron moderation. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... German industrial company ThyssenKrupp AG, with about 200,000 employees, mainly operates in the steel industry, but also in the automotive, industrial construction, and shipbuilding areas, as well as manufacturing elevators and providing other technologies and services. ...


Kraftwerk-Union was eager to work with the Iranian government because, as spokesman Joachim Hospe said in 1976, "To fully exploit our nuclear power plant capacity, we have to land at least three contracts a year for delivery abroad. The market here is about saturated, and the United States has cornered most of the rest of Europe, so we have to concentrate on the third world."


Kraftwerk-Union fully withdrew from the Bushehr nuclear project in July 1979, after work stopped in January 1979, with one reactor 50% complete, and the other reactor 85% complete. They said they based their action on Iran's non-payment of $450 million in overdue payments. The company had received $2.5 billion of the total contract. Their cancellation came after certainty that the Iranian government would unilaterally terminate the contract themselves, following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which paralyzed Iran's economy and led to a crisis in Iran's relations with the West. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


In 1984, Kraftwerk-Union did a preliminary assessment to see if it could resume work on the project, but declined to do so while the Iran-Iraq war continued. In April of that year, the US State Department said, "We believe it would take at least two to three years to complete construction of the reactors at Bushehr." The spokesperson also said that the light water power reactors at Bushehr "are not particularly well-suited for a weapons program." The spokesman went on to say, "In addition, we have no evidence of Iranian construction of other facilities that would be necessary to separate plutonium from spent reactor fuel." Combatants Iran Iraq Commanders Strength Casualties Est. ...


The reactors were then damaged by multiple Iraqi air strikes between March 24, 1984 to 1988. Shortly afterwards Iraq invaded Iran and the nuclear program was stopped until the end of the war. March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1990, Iran began to look outwards towards partners for its nuclear program; however, due to a radically different political climate and punitive U.S. economic sanctions, few candidates existed.


In 1995 Iran signed a contract with Russia to resume work on the partially complete Bushehr plant, installing into the existing Bushehr I building a 915MWe VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor. The construction is being done by the state-controlled company Atomstroyexport (Russian for Atomic Construction Export), an arm of Russia's atomic energy ministry, Minatom. There are no current plans to complete Bushehr II reactor. MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... The VVER is a series of pressurised water nuclear reactors that were developed and used by the former Soviet Union and the present-day Russian Federation. ... The Ministry for Atomic Energy (Russian Federation) is the ministry of Russia responsible for all things nuclear. ...


In late 2001, U.S. intelligence officers told journalist Seymour Hersh that Iran's most important nuclear facilities were not at Bushehr, which can be monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, but at clandestine sites under military control. Seymour Hersh Seymour Myron (Sy) Hersh (born April 8, 1937), is an American investigative journalist and author who contributes regularly to The New Yorker on military and security matters. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


It was not until 2002 that the USA began to question Iran's nuclear intentions after the MKO (an anti-government guerrilla group) revealed the existence of the Natanz and Arak facilities. ...


Iranian side

Iran claims that nuclear power is necessary for a booming population and rapidly industrializing nation. It points to the fact that Iran's population has more than doubled in 20 years, the country regularly imports gasoline and electricity, and that burning fossil fuel in large amounts harms Iran's environment drastically [4] [5]. Additionally, Iran questions why it shouldn't be allowed to diversify its sources of energy, especially when there are fears of its oil fields eventually being depleted. It continues to argue that its valuable oil should be used for high value products, not simple electricity generation. Iran also raises financial questions, claiming that developing the excess capacity in its oil industry would cost it $40 billion, let alone pay for the power plants. Harnessing nuclear power costs a fraction of this, considering Iran has abundant supplies of accessible uranium ore [6].


After the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Iran informed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of its plans to restart its nuclear program using indigenously-made nuclear fuel, and the IAEA even planned to provide assistance to Iran under its Technical Assistance Program to produce enriched uranium. An IAEA report stated clearly that its aim was to “contribute to the formation of local expertise and manpower needed to sustain an ambitious programme in the field of nuclear power reactor technology and fuel cycle technology”. However, the IAEA was forced to terminate the program under U.S. pressure. [7] Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


Iran has a legal right to enrich uranium for peaceful purposes under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, a right which in 2005 the U.S. and the EU-3 began to assert had been forfeited by the "clandestine" nuclear program that came to light in 2002. Iran and many other developing nations who are signatory to the NPT believe the Western position to be hypocritical, claiming that the NPT's original purpose was universal nuclear disarmament; the US, UK and France have all reduced their arsenals since the cold war, but none have disarmed. ([8]) Iran also compares its treatment as a signatory to the NPT with three nations that have not ratified the NPT: Israel, India, and Pakistan. Each of these nations developed an indigenous nuclear weapons capability: Israel by 1968 [9], India by 1974 [10] and Pakistan by 1990 [11]. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 at New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


It should be pointed out that to date, there is no evidence of a nuclear weapons program in Iran. In fact, the US accuses Iran of seeking the "capacity" to build bombs, or obtaining technology which "could be" used to make bombs. In Paragraph 52 of his November 2003 report The Director-General confirmed that "to date, there is no evidence that the previously undeclared nuclear material and activities referred to above were related to a nuclear weapons program." After one more year and over a thousand person-days of the most rigorous inspections, the Director-General again confirmed in Paragraph 112 of his November 2004 report that "all the declared nuclear material in Iran has been accounted for, and therefore such material is not diverted to prohibited activities."


The Iran based newspaper Baztab recently reported that the United States provided 5kg of 19.7% enriched Uranium to Iran before the revolution.[12]


U.S. and Israeli views

Since 2002, the U.S. has countered that Iran does not need nuclear power due to its abundant oil and natural gas reserves since oil power is cheaper to produce than nuclear power. Also, in testimony to Congress in 2003, hawkish John Bolton claimed that natural gas currently being flared (burned off without being used) by Iran, if used for electricity generation, could be used to generate 4000 megawatts of continuous electricity - as much as all four Bushehr reactors [13]. However the UK Parliament Office of Science and Technology on investigating this claim found it was not supported by an analysis of the facts — for example much of the gas flared off by Iran is not recoverable for energy use [14] [15]. Hawkishness or Hawkism is an informal term used to describe a political stance of preparedness for aggression, by diplomatic and ultimately military means, against others to improve the standing of their own government, country or organization. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Natural gas (commonly referred to as gas in many countries, but note that gas is also an American and Canadian shortening of gasoline) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... A gas flare or flare stack is a tall chimney used by oil wells, refineries and landfills to vent and burn waste natural gas and other flammable gases that are not economical to retain. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Office of Science and Technology is a non-ministerial government department of the British government, headed by the Chief Scientific Adviser, currently Sir David King, who took over from Sir (now Lord) Robert May in 2000. ...


One theory behind the U.S.'s resistance to accepting Iran's nuclear power (and/or weapons) ambition lies in Middle Eastern geopolitics. In essence, the U.S. believes that it should guard against Iran obtaining a nuclear weapons capability. At the moment, Israel, a very close ally of the US, is the only country in the region with a suspected nuclear weapons program - Israel does not confirm or deny this nuclear weapons capability. Israel is very widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons and intermediate-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ...


Hawkish Iran leaders such as the new president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad are radically and openly hostile to Israel, with the later engaging in Holocaust denial and calling for the State of Israel to be "Wiped off the map" in 2005. This part of the government denies Israel's right to exist, regularly encourages attacks by the Lebanese terrorist group Hizbullah against Israel, and sends arms to such groups. An example of this activity was uncovered in 2002 with the capture of the Karine A weapons ship. An Iranian nuclear weapons capability would greatly reduce the deterrent capability of Israel's arsenal. Israel is much smaller in territory and population compared to Iran, and fears the theocratic Iranian regime. Major Israeli think tanks and government sources point out that the "mutually assured destruction" concept of the cold war would be impossible in this case due to Israel's geographic and demographic weaknesses, and the Iranian regime's inherent unpredictability and hostility. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, also written Ahmadinezhad, (Persian: محمود احمدی‌نژاد ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ... The Karin A (also Karine A) was a 4,000 ton freighter intercepted by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) on January 3, 2002 carrying a wide variety of weapons. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


The existence of an Iranian Nuclear weapon would also pose a potential threat to other US-friendly regimes like that of Saudi Arabia. Finally, a credible Iranian nuclear deterrent would make impossible the kind of forcible "regime change" imposed on Iraq in 2003. Regime change is the overthrow of a government (or regime) considered illegitimate by an external force (usually military), and its replacement with a new government according to the ideas and/or interests promoted by that force. ...


International response

The claims and counterclaims have put pressure on Iran to reveal all aspects of its nuclear program. Some pressure has also come from Iran's trade partners: Europe, Japan, and Russia. In January of 2005, the European Union countries of Germany, France, and the United Kingdom suggested that Iran should be referred to the U.N. Security Council for possible sanctions. This marked a turning point in the European stance with regard to Iranian nuclear ambitions, an unusual move in recent time which paralleled United States foreign policy views in the Middle East. Iran has claimed this to be a result of an attempt by the U.S. government to prevent it from obtaining nuclear technology. World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ...


Regarding the involvement of the IAEA, under the auspicies of the UN, Iran has responded to the American accusations by cooperating with the agency, since the enrichment activities they have recommenced are not in violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In August 2005, Iranian officials said they had lost much of their confidence in the IAEA; the Speaker of the Majlis said that he regarded an IAEA resolution summoning Iran to suspend uranium conversion to be "illegal." Iran's degree of cooperation has, in general, varied depending on other geopolitical issues: at times the IAEA has had to admonish Iran, while at other times it has praised it. In January of 2005, IAEA Secretary General Mohamed ElBaradei remarked that after three years of inspections, the IAEA could not confirm that Iran's nuclear technology program is for peaceful purposes. IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 at New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Mohamed ElBaradei Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942, Egypt) is the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ...


Fatwa Against Production, Stockpiling and use of Nuclear Weapons

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued a fatwa forbidding the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons on August 9, 2005. No text of the fatwa has ever been released although it was referenced in an official statement at the meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. [16] Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله) is a high rank given to major Shia clerics. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای; born July 15, 1939) is the Supreme Leader of Iran. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Facilities

Zirconium Production Plant (ZPP), Isfahan. Iran. Here, special alloys are made that have direct applications in claddings for nuclear power plants. The ZPP plant is also capable of producing other special alloys for industrial purposes.
Zirconium Production Plant (ZPP), Isfahan. Iran. Here, special alloys are made that have direct applications in claddings for nuclear power plants. The ZPP plant is also capable of producing other special alloys for industrial purposes.
  • Bushehr: (28.83484° N 50.89356° E) A two reactor light water nuclear power plant. [17]
  • Arak: A heavy water production facility. Iran is constructing a heavy water moderated reactor at this location, which should be ready for commissioning in 2014. [18] [19]
  • Saghand: (32°28′45″N, 55°24′30″E) Location of Iran's first uranium ore mines, expected to become operational by March 2005. The deposit is estimated to contain 3,000 to 5,000 tons of uranium oxide at a density of about 500 ppm over an area of 100 to 150 square kilometers. [20]
  • Natanz: (33°43′24.43″N, 51°43′37.55″E) This is a uranium enrichment facility for converting uranium ore into a form usable by power plants. It can also create highly enriched uranium HEU. [21]
  • Tehran Nuclear Research Center (TNRC): Run by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). It is equipped with a US supplied 5-megawatt nuclear research reactor capable of producing 600g of plutonium annually in spent fuel.
  • Nuclear Technology Center of Isfahan: A nuclear research facility. The Isfahan Center currently operates four small nuclear research reactors, all supplied by China. It is run by the AEOI. [22]
Uranium Conversion Facility (UCF), Isfahan. Here, Uranium Oxides are claimed to be produced as well as Uranium Hexafluoride and other Uranium compounds. This facility constitutes the fuel fabrication part of Iran's fuel cycle.
Uranium Conversion Facility (UCF), Isfahan. Here, Uranium Oxides are claimed to be produced as well as Uranium Hexafluoride and other Uranium compounds. This facility constitutes the fuel fabrication part of Iran's fuel cycle.
  • Isfahan Uranium Conversion Facility, located in Isfahan converts yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride. As of late October 2004, the site is 70% operational with 21 of 24 workshops completed. There is also a Zirconium Production Plant (ZPP) located nearby that produces the necessary ingredients and alloys for nuclear reactors. [23]
  • Bonab Atomic Energy Research Center: Research facility investigating the applications of nuclear technology in agriculture. It is run by the AEOI.
  • Center for Agricultural Research and Nuclear Medicine at Hashtgerd, Karaj: Established in 1991 and run by the AEOI. [24]
  • Ardekan Nuclear Fuel Site: Construction is reportedly scheduled to be finished in mid-2005.
  • Lashkar Ab’ad pilot plant for isotope separation. Established in 2002, laser enrichment experiments were carried out there, however, the plant has been shut down since Iran declared it has no intentions of enriching uranium using the laser isotope separation technique.
  • Parchin: Suspected, but not confirmed facility, according to the IAEA.
  • Lavizan II: Suspected, but not confirmed facility, according to the IAEA.
  • Chalous: Suspected, but not confirmed facility, according to the IAEA.
  • Yazd Radiation Processing Center

Zirconium Production Plant, Isfahan. ... Zirconium Production Plant, Isfahan. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Arak, (in Persian: اراك) previously known as Soltan-abad, is the center of Markazi, Iran. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Isfahans Uranium Conversion Facility, Iran. ... Isfahans Uranium Conversion Facility, Iran. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcake (also known as urania and uranic oxide) is concentrated uranium oxide, obtained through the milling of uranium ore. ... Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Karaj city viewed from the Azimiye mountain. ... Image:Isfahanprov. ... The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque. ...

Timeline

1967: The Tehran Nuclear Research Center is built and run by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI).


July 1968: Iran signs the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty and ratifies it. It goes into effect on March 5, 1970. March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


1970s: Under the rule of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Iran's King), plans are made to construct up to twenty nuclear power stations across the country with U.S. support and backing. Numerous contracts are signed with various Western firms, and the German firm Kraftwerk Union (a subsidiary of Siemens AG) begins construction on the Bushehr power plant in 1974. His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... Siemens AG (FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is the worlds largest electronics company. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ...


1975: Massachusetts Institute of Technology signs a contract with the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to provide training for Iranian nuclear engineers. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is one of the worlds leading research institutions in science and technology, as well as in numerous other fields, including management, economics, linguistics, political science, and philosophy. ...


1979: Iran's Islamic revolution puts a freeze on the existing nuclear program and the Bushehr contract with Siemens AG is terminated as the German firm leaves. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Siemens AG (FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is the worlds largest electronics company. ...


1982: Iranian officials announced that they planned to build a reactor powered by their own uranium at the Isfahan Nuclear Technology Centre.


1983: International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors inspect Iranian nuclear facilities, and report on proposed cooperation agreement to help Iran manufacture enriched uranium fuel as part of Iran's "ambitious programme in the field of nuclear power reactor technology and fuel cycle technology." The assistance program is later terminated under U.S. pressure.


1984: Iranian radio announced that negotiations with Niger on the purchase of uranium were nearing conclusion.


1985: Iranian radio program openly discusses the significance of the discovery of uranium deposits in Iran with the director of Iran’s Atomic Energy Organisation.


1990: Iran begins negotiations with Russia regarding the re-construction of the Bushehr power plant. Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ...


1992: Iran signs an agreement with China for the building of two 950-watt reactors in Darkhovin (Western Iran). To date, construction has not yet begun.


January 1995: Iran signs an USD $800 million contract with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MinAtom) to complete reactors at Bushehr under IAEA safeguards. [25] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The Ministry for Atomic Energy (Russian Federation) is the ministry of Russia responsible for all things nuclear. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


1996: China and Iran inform the IAEA of plans to construct a nuclear enrichment facility in Iran, but China withdraws from the contract under US pressure. Iran advises the IAEA that it plans to pursue the construction anyway.


August 2002: A leading critic of Tehran and former member of the National Council of Resistance (designated as a terrorist organization in the US and Europe) Alireza Jafarzadeh, relying on the information obtained from sources well placed within the Iranian regime, and leaked by Iran's main opposition organization, the MEK, exposed two secret nuclear facilities in Natanz and Arak. Alireza Jafarzadeh is a controversial figure in Iranian politics. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Arak may refer to: Arak, a city in centeral Iran Arak, an alcoholic beverage made from grapes and anise This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


December 2002: The U.S. accuses Iran of attempting to make nuclear weapons. The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


16 June 2003: Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, declares that "Iran failed to report certain nuclear materials and activities" and requests "co-operative actions" from the country. However, at no point does the International Atomic Energy Agency declare Iran in breach of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. [26] June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohamed ElBaradei Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942, Egypt) is the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ...


October 2003: Iran begins to hold negotiations with IAEA members with respect to a more stringent set of nuclear inspections.[27]


October 31, 2003: The IAEA declares that Iran has submitted a "comprehensive" declaration of its nuclear program. [28] October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


November 11, 2003: The IAEA declares that there is no evidence that Iran is attempting to build an atomic bomb. [29] November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


November 13, 2003: Washington claims that the IAEA report is "impossible to believe". The UN stands behind the facts provided in the report. [30] November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


June 2004: Kamal Kharrazi, Iran's foreign minister, responding to demands that Iran halt its nuclear program, says: "We won't accept any new obligations. Iran has a high technical capability and has to be recognised by the international community as a member of the nuclear club. This is an irreversible path." [31] Kamal Kharrazi (Persian: کمال خرازی) (born December 1, 1944 in Tehran), is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs, serving since August 20, 1997. ...


June 14, 2004: Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, accuses Iran of "less than satisfactory" cooperation during the IAEA's investigation of its nuclear program. ElBaradei demands "accelerated and proactive cooperation" from Iran. (NYT) June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


July 27, 2004: Iran breaks seals placed upon uranium centrifuges by the International Atomic Energy Agency and resumes construction of the centrifuges at Natanz. (AP) July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A laboratory centrifuge tabletop centrifuge A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts a substance in rotation around a fixed axis in order for the centrifugal force to separate a fluid from a fluid or from a solid substance. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


July 31, 2004: Iran states that it has resumed building nuclear centrifuges to enrich uranium, reversing a voluntary October 2003 pledge to Britain, France, and Germany to suspend all uranium enrichment-related activities. The United States contends that the purpose is to produce weapons-grade uranium. (Reuters) July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A laboratory centrifuge tabletop centrifuge A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts a substance in rotation around a fixed axis in order for the centrifugal force to separate a fluid from a fluid or from a solid substance. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ...


August 10, 2004: Several long-standing charges and questions regarding weapons-grade uranium samples are clarified by the IAEA. The samples match Pakistani and Russian sources which had contaminated imported Iranian equipment from those countries. (Jane's Intelligence) August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


August 24, 2004: Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi declares in Wellington, New Zealand, that Iran will retaliate with force against Israel or any nation that attempts a pre-emptive strike on its nuclear program. Earlier in the week, Israel's chief of staff, General Moshe Ya'alon, told an Israeli newspaper that "Iran is striving for nuclear capability and I suggest that in this matter [Israel] not rely on others." August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kamal Kharrazi (Persian: کمال خرازی) (born December 1, 1944 in Tehran), is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs, serving since August 20, 1997. ... Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara or Poneke) is the capital city of New Zealand, the countrys second-largest urban area and the most populous national capital city in Oceania. ... The term Chief of Staff can refer to: The White House Chief of Staff, the highest-ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ... General Moshe Yaalon, Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (2002-2005) Lieutenant-General Moshe Yaalon (often nicknamed Boogie) (born 1950) was the 17th Chief of Staff (רמטכל) of the Israeli Defence Force. ...


September 6, 2004: The latest IAEA report finds that "unresolved issues surrounding Iran's atomic programme are being clarified or resolved outright". [32] September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


September 18, 2004: The IAEA, the United Nations's nuclear watchdog agency, unanimously adopts a resolution calling on Iran to suspend all activities related to uranium enrichment. September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Main articles: League of Nations and History of the United Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ...


September 21, 2004: In defiance of the United Nations, Iran announces that it will continue its nuclear program converting 37 tonnes of yellowcake uranium for processing in centrifuges. (Reuters) September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Main articles: League of Nations and History of the United Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcake (also known as urania and uranic oxide) is concentrated uranium oxide, obtained through the milling of uranium ore. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... A laboratory centrifuge tabletop centrifuge A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts a substance in rotation around a fixed axis in order for the centrifugal force to separate a fluid from a fluid or from a solid substance. ...


October 18, 2004: Iran states that it is willing to negotiate with the U.K., Germany, and France regarding a suspension of its uranium enrichment activities, but that it will never renounce its right to enrich uranium. (Reuters) October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For an explanation of terms like England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom see British Isles (terminology) Motto: Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)3 Anthem: God Save the Queen4 Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English de facto 5 Government Monarch Prime... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ...


October 24, 2004: The European Union makes a proposal to provide civilian nuclear technology to Iran in exchange for Iran terminating its uranium enrichment program permanently. Iran rejects this outright saying it will not renounce its right to enrichment technologies. A decision to refer the matter from the International Atomic Energy Agency to the United Nations Security Council is expected on November 25, 2004. (Reuters) October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


November 15, 2004: Talks between Iran and three European Union members, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, result in a compromise. Iran agrees to temporarily suspend its active uranium enrichment program for the duration of a second round of talks, during which attempts will be made at arriving at a permanent, mutually-beneficial solution. November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


November 15, 2004: A confidential UN report is leaked. The report states that all nuclear materials within Iran have been accounted for and there is no evidence of any military nuclear program. Nevertheless, it still cannot discount the possibility of such a program because it does not have perfect knowledge. (BBC) November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


November 22, 2004: Iran declares that it will voluntarily suspend its uranium enrichment program to enter negotiations with the EU. Iran will review its decision in three months. The EU seeks to have the suspension made permanent and is willing to provide economic and political incentives. (Reuters) November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ...


November 24, 2004: Iran seeks to obtain permission from the European Union, in accordance with its recent agreement with the EU, to allow it to continue working with 24 centrifuges for research purposes. (Reuters) November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A laboratory centrifuge tabletop centrifuge A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts a substance in rotation around a fixed axis in order for the centrifugal force to separate a fluid from a fluid or from a solid substance. ...


November 28, 2004: Iran withdraws its demand that some of its technology be exempted from a freeze on nuclear enrichment activities. (BBC) November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


August 8 and August 10, 2005: Iran resumed conversion of uranium at the Isfahan facility. August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


August 9, 2005: The Iranian head of state Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued a fatwa forbidding the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. The full text of the fatwa was released in an official statement at the meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State in many Commonwealth countries including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Bahamas and many more, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله) is a high rank given to major Shia clerics. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای; born July 15, 1939) is the Supreme Leader of Iran. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


August 11, 2005: The thirty-five-member governing board of the IAEA adopted a resolution calling upon Iran to suspend uranium conversion, and instructing director general Mohammed ElBaradeil to submit a report on Iran's nuclear program by September 3, 2005. The resolution is considered by many to be weak since it does not include the threat of referal to the security council. August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


August 15, 2005: Iran's new president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, installed his new government. Ali Larijani replaced Hassan Rowhani as secretary of the Supreme National Security Council, Iran's top policy-making body, with nuclear policy in his purview. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, also written Ahmadinezhad, (Persian: محمود احمدی‌نژاد ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... Hassan Rowhani (حسن روحانی) is an Iranian politician and cleric, and as of July 2005, the Secretary of the High Council of National Security of Iran. ...


September 15, 2005: At a United Nations high-level summit, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad stated Iran had the right to develop a civil nuclear-power programme within the terms of the 1970 treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. He offers a compromise solution in which foreign companies will be permitted to invest and participate in Iran's nuclear program, thus ensuring that it cannot be secretly used to make weapons. The majority of the the U.S. delegation left during his speech, but the U.S./UN mission denied there was a walkout. [33] September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, also written Ahmadinezhad, (Persian: محمود احمدی‌نژاد ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


November 5, 2005: The Iranian government approved a plan that allows foreign investors to participate in the work at the Natanz uranium enrichment plant. The cabinet also authorized the AEOI to take necessary measures to attract foreign and domestic investment in the uranium enrichment process. Xinhua November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


November 19, 2005: The IAEA released a report saying that Iran was still blocking nuclear inspectors from the United Nations from crucial military sites. IAEA Director-General Mohamed El-Baradei said in the report, "Iran's full transparency is indispensible and overdue." Separately, Iran confirmed that it had resumed the conversion of new quantities of uranium, despite an IAEA resolution to stop such work. CNA November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Main articles: League of Nations and History of the United Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... Mohamed ElBaradei Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942, Egypt) is the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ...


January 2006: New York Times reporter James Risen published State of War, in which he alleged a CIA operation code-named Operation Merlin backfired and may have helped Iran in its nuclear program, in an attempt to delay it feeding them false information. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... James Risen is a reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, and author/co-author of two books about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ...


January 19, 2006: Criticizing Iran's nuclear program, Jacques Chirac said France was prepared to launch a nuclear strike against any country that sponsors a terrorist attack against French interests.[34] January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ▶ (help· info), (born November 29, 1932 in Paris) is a French politician who is currently President of the French Republic. ...


See also

// Biological weapons Iran ratified the Biological Weapons Convention on August 22, 1973. ... Operation Merlin is an alleged United States covert operation under the Clinton Administration to provide Iran with a flawed design for building a nuclear weapon in order to delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ...

External links

  • Le Monde diplomatique: Iran need nuclear energy, not weapons
  • The Persian Puzzle I: Iran and the invention of a nuclear crisis (First of a three-part series written in September 2005 by respected Indian analyst, Siddharth Varadarajan)
  • The Persian Puzzle II: What the IAEA really found in Iran
  • The Persian Puzzle III: The world must stand firm on diplomacy
  • Radio Free Europe article on recent events concerning Iran's nuclear program
  • BBC Iran Nuclear Issue Timeline
  • PINR - Iran and Its Race For Nuclear Weapons
  • Iran's Nuclear Program. Part I: Its History
  • Iran's Nuclear Program. Part II: Are Nuclear Reactors Necessary?
  • Pars Times - Iran Nuclear Resources
  • BBC - UN probe backs Iran nuclear claim
  • Iran's Atomic Energy Organization
  • A good overview of the political and military situation
  • IAEA finds enriched uranium samples that are not Iranian
  • BBC: Iranian satellite launched

Notes

  • ^  James Risen, State of War : The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration, Free Press, January 2006, ISBN 0743270665
  • ^  Past Arguments Don't Square With Current Iran Policy, by Dafna Linzer. Washington Post Staff Writer. Sunday, March 27, 2005; Page A15. Link
  • ^  Iran needs nuclear energy, not weapons by Cyrus Safdari, Le Monde diplomatique, November 2005 Link

  Results from FactBites:
 
Harvard Gazette: KSG panel takes on Iranian nuclear challenge (558 words)
Participating in a panel on Iran's nuclear future are moderator Graham Allison (from left), Ashton Carter, Brenda Shaffer, and Henry Sokolski.
The panel agreed there is widespread support throughout Iran for moving forward with nuclear technology - for military purposes as well as for national pride - and that a regime change won't alter that sentiment.
Iran has agreed to a voluntary temporary ban on its work toward nuclear capability while it engages in negotiations with European leaders.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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