FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Iran" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ايران
Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān
Islamic Republic of Iran
Flag of Iran Emblem of Iran
Flag Emblem
MottoEsteqlāl, āzādī, jomhūrī-ye eslāmī 1  (Persian)
"Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic"
AnthemSorūd-e Mellī-e Īrān ²
Capital
(and largest city)
Tehran
35°41′N, 51°25′E
Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1]
Demonym Iranian
Government Islamic Republic
 -  Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
 -  President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Unification[2]
 -  Media 625 BC [2] 
 -  Safavid dynasty
(reestablishment)
May 1502 
 -  Islamic Republic declared April 1, 1979 
Area
 -  Total 1,648,195 km² (18th)
636,372 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.7
Population
 -  2007 (1385 AP) census 71,208,000³ (17th)
 -  Density 42/km² (163th)
109/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $852 billion (2007)[3]
 (15th)
 -  Per capita $12,300 [3]
 (65th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $278 billion [4]
 (29th)
 -  Per capita $3,920 (89th)
Gini (1998) 43.0 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.759 (medium) (94th)
Currency Iranian rial (ريال) (IRR)
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 -  Summer (DST) Iran Daylight Time (IRDT) (UTC+4:30)
Internet TLD .ir
Calling code +98
1 bookrags.com
2 iranchamber.com
3 Statistical Centre of Iran. تغییرات جمعیت کشور طی سال‌های ۱۳۳۵-۱۳۸۵ (Persian). Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
4 CIA Factbook
Iran Portal

Iran, (Persian: ايران,[ʔiːˈɾɒn] ĭrănˈ), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ايران, pronounced [dʒomhuɾije ʔeslɒmije ʔiɾɒn]), formerly known internationally as Persia until 1935, is a country in Central Eurasia. Iran is bounded by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south and the Caspian Sea to its north. Shi'a Islam is the official religion, and Persian is the official language.[5] The 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km², Iran has a population of over seventy million. Iran borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and Turkey and Iraq to the west. Being a littoral state of the Caspian sea (an internal sea and condominium), also Kazakhstan and Russia are Iran's direct neighbors. Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Iran. ... Current flag of the Islamic republic of Iran, introduced in 1980. ... The Emblem of Iran displays the name of God (or Allah) in artistically stylized Arabic letters. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Sorood-e Melli-ye Jomhoori-ye Eslami-ye Iran or Sorud-e Melli-ye Iran is the national anthem of Iran. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Ethnolinguistic groups in Iran Irans population was declared 70,049,262 in 2006 census. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code IRR User(s) Iran Inflation 15. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Iran Standard Time (IRST) is the time zone used in Iran. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ir is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Iran. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... Central Eurasia is a geographic term. ... Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalÄ«j Ê¿umān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye Ê¿omān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Farsi redirects here. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... In international law, a condominium is a territory in which two sovereign powers have equal rights. ...


Persia/Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC.[6][7][8] Throughout history, Iran has been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and is a regional power.[9][10] Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. The political system of Iran, based on the 1979 Constitution, comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The highest state authority is the Supreme Leader, currently Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Geostrategy is a subfield of geopolitics. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... UN redirects here. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela; since 1965 its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran Politics and Government of Iran takes place in the framework of an Islamic theocratic republic. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ...


Iran occupies an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas. The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan, and means "Land of the Aryans".[11][12][13] Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Etymology of Iran
See also: Iran naming dispute

The term Iran (ایران) in modern Persian derives from the Proto-Iranian term Aryānām first attested in Zoroastrianism's Avesta tradition.[14] Ariya- and Airiia- are also attested as an ethnic designator in Achaemenid inscriptions. The term Ērān from Middle Persian Ērān, Pahlavi ʼyrʼn, is found at the inscription that accompanies the investiture relief of Ardashir I at Naqsh-e Rustam.[15] In this inscription, the king's appellation in Middle Persian contains the term ērān (Pahlavi: ʼryʼn), while in the Parthian language inscription that accompanies it, Iran is mentioned as aryān. In Ardashir's time ērān retained this meaning, denoting the people rather than the state. The term Iran derives immediately from Middle Persian Ä’rān, Pahlavi ʼyrʼn, first attested in the inscription that accompanies the investiture relief of Ardashir I at Naqsh-e Rustam. ... Iran has been the subject of a naming dispute in common Western usage. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated number of 150-200 million native speakers today. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... NæqÅ¡-e Rostæm, near Shiraz A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over three Roman Emperors Valerian, Gordian III and Philip the Arab. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ...


Notwithstanding this inscriptional use of ērān to refer to the Iranian peoples, the use of ērān to refer to the geographical empire is also attested in the early Sassanid period. An inscription of Shapur I, Ardashir's son and immediate successor, apparently "includes in Ērān regions such as Armenia and the Caucasus which were not inhabited predominantly by Iranians."[16] In Kartir's inscriptions the high priest includes the same regions in his list of provinces of the antonymic Anērān.[16] Both ērān and aryān comes from the Proto-Iranian term Aryānām, (Land) of the (Iranian) Aryas. The word and concept of Airyanem Vaejah is present in the name of the country Iran (Lit. Land of the Aryans) inasmuch as Iran (Ērān) is the modern Persian form of the word Aryānā. Language(s) Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balouchi, Ossetian and various other Iranian languages. ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Kartir Hangirpe (alternatively, Karder or Kirdir) was a highly influential Zoroastrian high-priest of the late 3rd century CE and served as advisor to at least three Sassanid emperors. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated number of 150-200 million native speakers today. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ...


Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the official name of the country has been the "Islamic Republic of Iran." This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


In the outside world the official name of Iran from 6th century BC until 1935 was Persia or similar names (La Perse, Das Persien, Perzie, etc.). In that year Reza Shah asked the international community to call the country by the name "Iran". A few years later some Persian scholars protested to the government that changing the name had separated the country from its past, so in 1959 Mohammad Reza Shah announced that both terms could officially be used interchangeably. Now both terms are common, but "Iran" is used mostly in the modern political context and "Persia" in a cultural and historical context. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Iran
See also: Agriculture in Iran and Wildlife of Iran

Iran is the eighteenth largest country in the world after Libya and before Mongolia.[17] Its area roughly equals that of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Germany combined, or slightly less than the state of Alaska.[18] [19] Its borders are with Azerbaijan (432 km/268 mi) and Armenia (35 km/22 mi) to the north-west; the Caspian Sea to the north; Turkmenistan (992 km/616 mi) to the north-east; Pakistan (909 km/565 mi) and Afghanistan (936 km/582 mi) to the east; Turkey (499 km/310 mi) and Iraq (1,458 km/906 mi) to the west; and finally the waters of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south. Iran's area is 1,648,000 km² (approximately 636,300 sq mi).[3] Fars Province landscape The Iranian landscape is predominantly mountainous, with high contrasting green oases. ... Map of Irans major crops, circa 1978. ... Wildlife of Iran includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ... Countries by area. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalÄ«j Ê¿umān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye Ê¿omān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...

Satellite image of Iran
Satellite image of Iran
Mount Damavand is Iran's highest point.
Mount Damavand is Iran's highest point.

Iran consists of the Iranian Plateau with the exception of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan. It is one of the world's most mountainous countries, its landscape dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaux from one another. The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Caucasus, Zagros and Alborz Mountains; the latter contains Iran's highest point, Mount Damavand at 5,604 m (18,386 ft), which is not only the country's highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush.[20] The eastern part consists mostly of desert basins like the saline Dasht-e Kavir, Iran's largest desert, in the north-central portion of the country, and the Dasht-e Lut, in the east, as well as some salt lakes. This is because the mountain ranges are too high for rain clouds to reach these regions. The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where Iran borders the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab (or the Arvand Rūd) river. Smaller, discontinuous plains are found along the remaining coast of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz and the Sea of Oman. Image File history File links Damavand3. ... Image File history File links Damavand3. ... This article is about the volcano. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... This article is about the volcano. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Dasht-e Kavir desert: satellite photograph Dasht-e Kavir (دشت كوير in Persian), also known as Kavir-e Namak or Great Salt Desert is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian Plateau. ... As seen from space Dasht-e Lut is a large salt desert in southeastern Iran. ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... Historical map of the area (1892) Map Of Strait of Hormuz Satellite image The Strait of Hormuz (Arabic: ‎, Persian: ‎) is a narrow, strategically important stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... The Gulf of Oman is a strait that connects with the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf. ...

Iran's climate is mostly arid or semiarid, to subtropical along the Caspian coast. On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain) temperatures nearly fall below freezing and it remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (85 °F).[21][22] Annual precipitation is 680 mm (27 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (67 in) in the western part. To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (eight in) of rain, and have occasional deserts.[22] Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (five to fourteen inches).[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x800, 227 KB) Lynx, photo taken by Bernard Landgraf File links The following pages link to this file: Lynx ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x800, 227 KB) Lynx, photo taken by Bernard Landgraf File links The following pages link to this file: Lynx ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian lynx range The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the predators. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalÄ«j Ê¿umān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye Ê¿omān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of...


Bears in the mountains, wild sheep and goats, gazelles, wild asses, wild pigs, wolves, jackals, panthers, Eurasian lynxs, and foxes abound. Domestic animals include sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffalo, donkeys, and camels. The pheasant, partridge, stork, eagle and falcon are native to Iran.


Provinces and Cities

Ardabil
Esfahan
Fars
Gilan
Golestan
Hamadan
Hormozgan
Ilam
Kerman
Kohgiluyeh and
Boyer-Ahmad
Lorestan
Mazandaran
Qazvin
Semnan
See also: List of Iran cities by population

Iran is divided into 30 provinces (ostān), each governed by an appointed governor (استاندار, ostāndār). The provinces are divided into counties (shahrestān), and subdivided into districts (bakhsh) and sub-districts (dehestān). Sheikh Safis Tomb ArdabÄ«l (Persian: اردبیل; also known as: Ardebil; ancient name: Artavil) is one of 28 provinces of Iran. ... Bushehr (Persian:استان بوشهر) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari (Persian: چهارمحال Ùˆ بختیاری) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... EÅŸfahān province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostan-e Esfahan); also transliterated as Isfahan, Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 28 provinces of Iran. ... Fārs (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... GÄ«lān (Persian: گیلان, ) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, known during ancient times as part of Hyrcania. ... Golestān (Persian: گلستان) is one of the 28 provinces of Iran. ... Hamadān or Hamedan is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Hormozgān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Īlām, also Elam (ایلام), is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Kermān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Kermanshah (Persian: كرمانشاه; Kurdish: KirmaÅŸan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad (Persian: کهگیلویه Ùˆ بویراحمد) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map showing Iranian province of Kurdistan. ... Lorestān (Persian and Luri لرستان; also Luristan) comprises a province and a historic territory of western Iran amidst the Zagros Mountains. ... The Congregation Mosque of Narāgh. ... Mazandaran (See other names[3]) is a Caspian province in the north of Iran, Located on the Southern coast of Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by Golestan, Semnan and Tehran provinces (All forming Greater Mazandaran, Each separated from Mazandaran respectively in 1997, 1976 and 1960 [4]). Province also lies... QazvÄ«n is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... Semnān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Sistān o BalÅ«chestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Tehran province has been the seat of Irans capital, Tehran, since 1778. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zanjan (زنجان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... North Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان شمالی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... South Khorasan (Persian: خراسان جنوبی) is a province located in eastern Iran. ... Parthian fire temple, Takht-e Sulaiman,Takab This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I. West Azarbaijan or West Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ØºØ±Ø¨ÛŒ Ä€zarbāijān-e GharbÄ«; Azeri: Batı AzÉ™rbaycan; Kurdish: Azerbaycanî Rojawa) is one of the 30 provinces of... East Azarbaijan or East Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان شرقی, Ä€zarbāijān-e Sharqi; Azeri: Şərqi AzÉ™rbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... The provinces of Iran are divided into counties or shahrestānhā (Persian: شهرستان, singular shahrestān), and each shahrestan is subdivided into districts or bakhshānhā (Persian: بخش, singular bakhsh). ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... A geographical political division in Iran. ... A bakhsh is an administrative subdivision in Iran, translated as county, but in many ways similar to a township in the United States or a district of England. ...

After the revolution, Shahyad Tower was renamed Freedom Tower
After the revolution, Shahyad Tower was renamed Freedom Tower

Iran has one of the highest urban-growth rates in the world. From 1950 to 2002 the urban proportion of the population increased from 27% to 60%.[23] The United Nations predicts that by 2030 80% of the population will be urban.[24] Most internal migrants have settled near the cities of Tehran, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and Qom. The listed populations are from the 2006/07 (1385 AP) census.[25] Image File history File links Azadi1. ... Image File history File links Azadi1. ... The Azadi Tower (Persian: , Borj-e Azadi meaning in English: ) (previously known as the Shahyād Āryāmehr Persian: , English: ) is the symbol of Tehran, Iran, and marks the entrance to this large metropolitan city. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... The city of Ahvaz or Ahwaz[1] (Persian: ahvāz or Arabic: ‎), is the capital of the Iranian province of Khūzestān. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. ...


Tehran, with population of 7,705,036, is the largest city in Iran and is the Capital city. Tehran is home to around 11% of Iran's population. Tehran, like many big cities, suffers from severe air pollution. It is the hub of the country's communication and transport network. For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The government runs the broadcast media, which includes three national radio stations and two national television networks, as well as dozens of local radio and television stations. ...


Mashhad is the second largest Iranian city and is one of the holiest Shi'a cities in the world as it is the site of the Imam Reza shrine. It is the second largest city and with a population of 2.8 million is the centre of the province of Razavi Khorasan. It's the centre of tourism in Iran and between 15 and 20 million pilgrims go to the Imam Reza's shrine every year.[26][27] The other major Iranian city is Isfahan (population city: 1,986,542). Isfahan is the capital of Isfahan Province. The Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The city contains a wide variety of Islamic architectural sites ranging from the eleventh to the 19th century. The growth of suburb area around the city has turned Isfahan to the second most populous metropolitan area (3,430,353).[28] The other major Iranian cities are Karaj (population 1,732,275), Tabriz (population 1,597,312) and Shiraz (population 1,227,331). Tabriz is situated north of the volcanic cone of Sahand south of the Eynali mountain. Tabriz is the largest city in north-western Iran and is the capital of East Azarbaijan Province. Karaj is located in Tehran province and is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of Alborz mountains, however the city is increasingly becoming an extension of the metropolitan Tehran. Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Imam Reza shrine, which is visited by 15 to 20 million pilgrims every year. ... Razavi Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان رضوی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Esfahān province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostan-e Esfahan); also transliterated as Isfahan, Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square: Ali Qapu (right), Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque (left) and Shah Mosque (front) Naghsh-i Jahan Square (Persian: ميدان نقش جهان ), also known as shah or imam square (maidan in Persian), situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran, is the one of largest city square in the world. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Karaj Country Iran Province Tehran Population 2000000 (2005) Area 1000 km² Coordinates Lat. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... Sahand (in Persian سهند) is the highest mountain (about 3800m) located in the Iranian province of East Azarbaijan. ... A view of Tabriz laid on Einali. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... East Azarbaijan or East Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان شرقی, Ä€zarbāijān-e Sharqi; Azeri: Şərqi AzÉ™rbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Karaj Country Iran Province Tehran Population 2000000 (2005) Area 1000 km² Coordinates Lat. ... Tehran province has been the seat of Irans capital, Tehran, since 1778. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


History

Early history (3200 BC–625[2] BC)

Main articles: History of Iran, Zayandeh Rud civilization, Jiroft civilization, and Elam
Map of the world by Eratosthenes, c.200 BC. The name Ariana (Aryânâ) was used to describe the region where the Iranian Plateau is found.

Dozens of pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau point to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the fourth millennium BC,[6][7][8] centuries before the earliest civilizations arose in nearby Mesopotamia.[29] edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... Zayandeh Rud civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a pre-historic era culture that were settled around Zayandeh Rud, in Iran. ... Bowl depicting scorpions. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Image File history File links Iran. ... Image File history File links Iran. ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


Proto-Iranians first emerged following the separation of Indo-Iranians, and are traced to the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex.[30] Aryan, (Proto-Iranian) tribes arrived in the Iranian plateau in the third and second millennium BC, probably in more than one wave of emigration, and settled as nomads. Further separation of Proto-Iranians into "Eastern" and "Western" groups occurred due to migration. By the first millennium BC, Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians populated the western part, while Cimmerians, Sarmatians and Alans populated the steppes north of the Black Sea. Other tribes began to settle on the eastern edge, as far as on the mountainous frontier of north-western Indian subcontinent and into the area which is now Balochistan. Others, such as the Scythian tribes spread as far west as the Balkans and as far east as Xinjiang. Avestan is an eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta in c. 1000 BC. Zoroastrianism was the state religion of the Achaemenid empire and later Iranian empires, until the 7th century. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated number of 150-200 million native speakers today. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... A millennium (pl. ... Mede nobility. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Balkan redirects here. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Yasna 28. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


Pre-Islamic Statehood (625[2] BC–651 AD)

The Cyrus Cylinder is considered the first recorded declaration of human rights in history.
The Cyrus Cylinder is considered the first recorded declaration of human rights in history.
See also: Persian Empire, Roman-Persian Wars, and Roman relations with the Parthians and Sassanids

The Medes are credited with the unification[2] of Iran as a nation and empire (625[2]–559  BC), the largest of its day, until Cyrus the Great established a unified empire of the Medes and Persians leading to the Achaemenid Empire (559–330  BC), and further unification between peoples and cultures. After Cyrus's death, his son Cambyses continued his father's work of conquest, making significant gains in Egypt. A power struggle followed Cambyses' death and, despite his tenuous connection to the royal line, Darius I was declared king (ruled 522–486 BC). He was to be arguably the greatest of the ancient Iranian rulers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (also UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, December 10, 1948), outlining a view on basic human rights. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Persia redirects here. ... Combatants Roman Republic, succeeded by Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire later Persian Empire projected through Parthian and Sassanid dynasties Commanders Lucullus, Pompey, Crassus, Mark Antony, Trajan, Valerian I, Julian, Belisarius, Heraclius Surena, Shapur I, Shapur II, Kavadh I, Khosrau I, Khosrau II, Shahin, Shahrbaraz, Rhahzadh The Roman-Persian Wars... Parthias greatest extent in 60 BCE The Parthian Empire had risen to power after defeating the Seleucids. ... Mede nobility. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ...

Under Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, the Persian Empire eventually became the largest and most powerful empire in human history up until that point.[31] The borders of the Persian empire stretched from the Indus and Oxus Rivers in the east to the Mediterranean Sea in the west, extending through Anatolia (modern day Turkey) and Egypt. In 499 BC Athens lent support to a revolt in Miletus which resulted in the sacking of Sardis. This led to an Achaemenid campaign against Greece known as the Greco-Persian Wars which lasted the first half of the 5th century BC. During the Greco-Persian wars Persia made some major advantages and razed Athens in 480 BC, But after a string of Greek victories the Persians were forced to withdraw. Fighting ended with the peace of Callias in 449 BC. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1314x635, 133 KB)Persian Empire - Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1314x635, 133 KB)Persian Empire - Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Persian Wars redirects here. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... The Peace of Callias was established around 449 BC between the Delian League (led by Athens) and Persia, ending the Persian Wars. ...

A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan in 1939.
A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan in 1939.

The Achaemenid's greatest achievement was the empire itself. The rules and ethics emanating from Zoroaster's teachings were strictly followed by the Achaemenids who introduced and adopted policies based on human rights, equality and banning of slavery. Zoroastrianism spread unimposed during the time of the Achaemenids and through contacts with the exiled Jewish people in Babylon freed by Cyrus, Zoroastrian concepts further propagated and influenced into other Abrahamic religions. The Golden Age of Athens marked by Aristotle, Plato and Socrates also came about during the Achaemenid period while their contacts with Persia and the Near East abounded. The peace, tranquillity, security and prosperity that were afforded to the people of the Near East and Southeastern Europe proved to be a rare historical occurrence, an unparalleled period where commerce prospered, and the standard of living for all people of the region improved.[32] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 169 KB)Photo taken by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 169 KB)Photo taken by Zereshk. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, ZōroastrÄ“s) or Zarathustra (Avestan: ZaraθuÅ¡tra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... EQUAL is a popular artificial sweetener Equal (sweetener) Equality can mean several things: Mathematical equality Social equality Racial equality Sexual equality Equality of outcome Equality, a town in Illinois See also Equity Egalitarianism Equals sign This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Slave redirects here. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... The Age of Pericles is the term used to denote the historical period in Ancient Greece lasting roughly from the end of the Persian Wars in 448 BCE to either the death of Pericles 429 BCE or the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE. Pericles - an Athenian general... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


Alexander the Great invaded Achaemenid territory in 334 BC, defeating the last Achaemenid Emperor Darius III at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC. He left the annexed territory in 328–327. In each of the former Achaemenid territories he installed his own officers as caretakers, which led to friction and ultimately to the partitioning of the former empire after Alexander's death. A reunification would not occur until 700 years later, under the Sassanids (see below). Unlike the diadochic Seleucids and the succeeding Arsacids, who used a vassalary system, the Sassanids—like the Achaemenids—had a system of governors (MP: shahrab) personally appointed by the Emperor and directed by the central government. The new empire led by Alexander became the first, of other, later, foreign ruled Iranian empires that came to promote a Persianate society. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation). ... The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories by Alexander the Great between his generals, soon after his death in 323 BCE. The partition was a result of a compromise, essentially brokered by Eumenes, following a conflict of opinion between the party of Meleager, who wished to give... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Persianate societies are those whose linguistic, material, and artistic cultural activities derives from the Persian language and culture. ...


Parthia was led by the Arsacid Dynasty (اشکانیان Ashkâniân), who reunited and ruled over the Iranian plateau, after defeating the Greek Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca. 150  BC and 224 AD. These were the third native dynasty of ancient Iran and lasted five centuries. After the conquests of Media, Assyria, Babylonia and Elam, the Parthians had to organize their empire. The former elites of these countries were Greek, and the new rulers had to adapt to their customs if they wanted their rule to last. As a result, the cities retained their ancient rights and civil administrations remained more or less undisturbed. Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ...

Sassanid relief of Ardashir I
Sassanid relief of Ardashir I

Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east, limiting Rome's expansion beyond Cappadocia (central Anatolia). By using a heavily-armed and armoured cataphract cavalry, and lightly armed but highly-mobile mounted archers, the Parthians "held their own against Rome for almost 300 years".[33] Rome's acclaimed general Mark Antony led a disastrous campaign against the Parthians in 36 BC in which he lost 32,000 men. By the time of Roman emperor Augustus, Rome and Parthia were settling some of their differences through diplomacy. By this time, Parthia had acquired an assortment of golden eagles, the cherished standards of Rome's legions, captured from Mark Antony, and Crassus, who suffered "a disastrous defeat" at Carrhae in 53 BC.[34] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1471 KB) Summary Bas relief Nagsh-e-rostam, Province du Fars, Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1471 KB) Summary Bas relief Nagsh-e-rostam, Province du Fars, Iran. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is an archeological site in present day southeastern Turkey, 24 miles (39 kilometers) southeast of Sanli Urfa. ...


The end of the Parthian Empire came in 224 AD, when the empire was loosely organized and the last king was defeated by Ardashir I, one of the empire's vassals. Ardashir I then went on to create the Sassanid Empire. Soon he started reforming the country both economically and militarily. The Sassanids established an empire roughly within the frontiers achieved by the Achaemenids, referring to it as Erânshahr or Iranshahr, , "Dominion of the Aryans", i.e. of Iranians), with their capital at Ctesiphon.[35] The Romans suffered repeated losses particularly by Ardashir I, Shapur I, and Shapur II.[36] During their reign, Sassanid battles with the Roman Empire caused such pessimism in Rome that the historian Cassius Dio wrote: Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...

Here was a source of great fear to us. So formidable does the Sassanid king seem to our eastern legions, that some are liable to go over to him, and others are unwilling to fight at all.

[37]


In 632 raiders from the Arab peninsula began attacking the Sassanid Empire. Iran was defeated in the Battle of al-Qâdisiyah, paving way for the Islamic conquest of Persia. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Sassanid Persian Empire Commanders Sa`d ibn AbÄ« Waqqās Rostam Farrokhzād Strength 30,000[1] 40,000 Casualties Unknown 40,000 The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (Arabic: ; transliteration, Maraka al-Qādisiyyah; Persian: ; alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ...


During Parthian, and later Sassanid era, trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Indian subcontinent, and Rome, and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world. Parthian remains display classically Greek influences in some instances and retain their oriental mode in others, a clear expression of "the cultural diversity that characterized Parthian art and life".[38] The Parthians were innovators of many architecture designs such as that of Ctesiphon, which bears resemblance to, and might have influenced, European Romanesque architecture.[39][40] Under the Sassanids, Iran expanded relations with China, the arts, music, and architecture greatly flourished, and centres such as the School of Nisibis and Academy of Gundishapur became world renowned centres of science and scholarship. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Central New York City. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Parthian style (شیوه معماری پارتی) is a style (sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Iran-China relations date back over many centuries. ... Sassanid art is the term commonly used to describe the various artistic products of the Sassanid Empire of Persia from about the 3rd century until its fall of Ctesiphon in 640. ... Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, as they still do today. ... Sassanid architecture. ... During the first Christian centuries the school of Nisibis was the spiritiual center of the Assyrian Church of the East. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (in Persian: ‎) was a renowned center of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. ...


Middle Ages (652–1501)

Map of Iranian Dynasties c. 1000
Map of Iranian Dynasties c. 1000

After the Islamic conquest of Persia, Iran was annexed into the Arab Umayyad Caliphate. But the Islamization of Iran was to yield deep transformations within the cultural, scientific, and political structure of Iran's society: The blossoming of Persian literature, philosophy, medicine and art became major elements of the newly-forming Muslim civilization. Culturally, politically, and religiously, the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. Indeed, the culmination of Iran caused the "Islamic Golden Age".[41] edit Islamization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī (Persian: ), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , Khwārezmšhāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... edit Islamization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Science continues to be produced in modern Iran despite many limitations. ... Iran is filled with tombs of poets and musicians, such as this one belonging to Rahi Moayeri. ... Look up Culture on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikinews has news related to this article: Culture and entertainment Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Cultural Development in Antiquity Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Culture and Civilization in Modern Times Classificatory system for cultures and civilizations, by Dr. Sam Vaknin... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many...


Abu Moslem, an Iranian general , expelled the Umayyads from Damascus and helped the Abbasid caliphs to conquer Baghdad. The Abbasid caliphs frequently chose their "wazirs" (viziers) among Iranians, and Iranian governors acquired a certain amount of local autonomy. Thus in 822, the governor of Khorasan, Tahir, proclaimed his independence and founded a new Persian dynasty of Tahirids. And by the Samanid era, Iran's efforts to regain its independence had been well solidified.[42] Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khurasani (Persian:أبو مسلم خراساني)(Arabic:أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني) (ca. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Tahir bin Abd-Allah (d. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ...


Attempts of Arabization thus never succeeded in Iran, and movements such as the Shuubiyah became catalysts for Iranians to regain their independence in their relations with the Arab invaders. The cultural revival of the post-Abbasid period led to a resurfacing of Iranian national identity. The resulting cultural movement reached its peak during the 9th and 10th centuries. The most notable effect of the movement was the continuation of the Persian language, the language of the Persians and the official language of Iran to the present day. Ferdowsi, Iran's greatest epic poet, is regarded today as the most important figure in maintaining the Persian language. Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Shuubiyyah (Arabic: الشعوبية) refers to the response by non-Arab Muslims to the privileged status of Arabs within the Ummah. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ...

Illustration from Jāmī's "Rose Garden of the Pious", dated 1553. The image blends Persian poetry and Persian miniature into one, as is the norm for many works of the Timurid era.
Illustration from Jāmī's "Rose Garden of the Pious", dated 1553. The image blends Persian poetry and Persian miniature into one, as is the norm for many works of the Timurid era.

After an interval of silence Iran re-emerged as a separate, different and distinctive element within Islam. Iranian philosophy after the Islamic conquest, is characterized by different interactions with the Old Iranian philosophy, the Greek philosophy and with the development of Islamic philosophy. The Illumination School and the Transcendent Philosophy are regarded as two of the main philosophical traditions of that era in Persia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (469x640, 523 KB)Image of this 16th century manuscript is by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (469x640, 523 KB)Image of this 16th century manuscript is by Zereshk. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Safavid era Miniature painting kept at Shah Abbas Hotel in Isfahan. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... A very live and active discipline in Islamic Philosophy, Illuminationism Philosophy or hikmat-al-Ishraq (Persian حكمت اشراق ) was developed and perfected by Shahab-al-Din-Suhrawardi, famous Persian Philosopher. ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ...


The movement continued well into the 11th century, when Mahmud-a Ghaznavi founded a vast empire, with its capital at Isfahan and Ghazna. Their successors, the Seljuks, asserted their domination from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Asia. As with their predecessors, the divan of the empire was in the hands of Iranian viziers, who founded the Nizamiyya. During this period, hundreds of scholars and scientists vastly contributed to technology, science and medicine, later influencing the rise of European science during the Renaissance.[43] Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... A nizamiyya (Persian: نظامیه) is one of the medieval institutions of higher education established by Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk in the eleventh century in present-day Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan. ... This article is about Iranian scientists of the classical era. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was a great cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ...


In 1218, the eastern Khwarazmid provinces of Transoxiana and Khorasan suffered a devastating invasion by Genghis Khan. During this period more than half of Iran's population were killed,[44] turning the streets of Persian cities like Neishabur into "rivers of blood", as the severed heads of men, women, and children were "neatly stacked into carefully constructed pyramids around which the carcasses of the city's dogs and cats were placed".[45] Between 1220 and 1260, the total population of Iran had dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine.[46] In a letter to King Louis IX of France, Holaku, one of the Genghis Khan's grandsons, alone took responsibility for 200,000 deaths in his raids of Iran and the Caliphate.[47] He was followed by yet another conqueror, Tamerlane, who established his capital in Samarkand.[48] The waves of devastation prevented many cities such as Neishabur from reaching their pre-invasion population levels until the 20th century, eight centuries later.[49] But both Hulagu, Timur, and their successors soon came to adopt the ways and customs of that which they had conquered, choosing to surround themselves with a culture that was distinctively Persian.[50] Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... This article is about the person. ... Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... This article is about fatal harm. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... This article is about the person. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ...


Early Modern Era (1501–1921)

See also: Russo-Persian Wars, Anglo-Persian War, Turko-Persian War, and Operation Ajax
Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid Dynasty (1501 to 1736)
Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid Dynasty (1501 to 1736)

Iran's first encompassing Shi'a Islamic state was established under the Safavid Dynasty (1501–1722) by Shah Ismail I. The Safavid Dynasty soon became a major political power and promoted the flow of bilateral state contacts. The Safavid peak was during the rule of Shah Abbas The Great.[51] The Safavid Dynasty frequently locked horns with the Ottoman Empire, Uzbek tribes and the Portuguese Empire. The Safavids moved their capital from Tabriz to Qazvin and then to Isfahan where their patronage for the arts propelled Iran into one of its most aesthetically productive eras. Under their rule, the state became highly centralized, the first attempts to modernize the military were made, and even a distinct style of architecture developed. In 1722 Afghan rebels defeated Shah Sultan Hossein and ended the Safavid Dynasty, but in 1735, Nader Shah successfully drove out the Afghan rebels from Isfahan and established the Afsharid Dynasty. He then staged an incursion into India in 1738 securing the Peacock throne, Koh-i-Noor, and Darya-ye Noor among other royal treasures. His rule did not last long however, and he was assassinated in 1747. The Mashhad based Afshar Dynasty was succeeded by the Zand dynasty in 1750, founded by Karim Khan, who established his capital at Shiraz. His rule brought a period of relative peace and renewed prosperity. Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Flag Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Russo-Persian Wars were wars fought between the Russian Empire and Persia in 18-20th centuries. ... Combatants Britain Persia Commanders Major General Sir James Outram The Anglo-Persian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and March 4, 1857, and was fought between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Persia (which was at the time ruled by the Qajar dynasty). ... Turko-Persian War was fought between the Turkish Ottoman Empire and Persia (present-day Iran) from 1821 to 1823. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Image File history File links Sattar_Khan. ... Image File history File links Sattar_Khan. ... A picture of Sattar Khan. ... The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ... Shah Ismail I Medieval European rendering by an unknown Venetian artist. ... Shah Ismail I Medieval European rendering by an unknown Venetian artist. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... For other uses, see Qazvin (disambiguation). ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... The Esfahani style (شیوه معماری اصفهانی) is a style (sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history. ... Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn) (1668?–1726) was the last powerful Safavid king of Persia. ... Nāder Shāh Afshār (Persian: ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 6, 1698[1] – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e-Tavous (Persian: تخت طائوس) in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal throne, later used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afshari to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. ... This article is about the diamond. ... Darya-ye Noor The Darya-ye Noor (Persian for Sea of Light), is one of the largest diamonds in the world, weighing 182 carats (36. ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ...


The Zand dynasty lasted three generations, until Aga Muhammad Khan executed Lotf Ali Khan, and founded his new capital in Tehran, marking the dawn of the Qajar Dynasty in 1794. The capable Qajar chancellor Amir Kabir established Iran's first modern college system, among other modernizing reforms. Iran suffered several wars with Imperial Russia during the Qajar era, resulting in Iran losing almost half of its territories to Imperial Russia and the British Empire, via the treaties of Gulistan, Turkmenchay and Akhal. In spite of The Great Game Iran managed to maintain her sovereignty and was never colonized, unlike neighbouring states in the region. Repeated foreign intervention and a corrupt and weakened Qajar rule led to various protests, which by the end of the Qajar period resulted in Persia's constitutional revolution establishing the nation's first parliament in 1906, within a constitutional monarchy. This engraving depicts Mohammad Khan wearing the Taj-i-kiyani, or the Kiyanid Crown. ... Lotf Ali Khan (1769 - 1794) was the last shah of Persia (resigned 1789-94) of the Zand dynasty. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر in Persian), also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir_Nezam (میرزا تقی‌خان امیرنظام), was the chancellor of Persia under Nasereddin Shah. ... Dar al-Funun (Persian: دار الفنون), established in 1851 was the first modern institution of higher learning in Persia. ... The Russo-Persian Wars were wars fought between the Russian Empire and Persia in 18-20th centuries. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras... Akhal Treaty was a treaty signed by Persia and Imperial Russia on 21 September 1881. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... The Tobacco Protest occurred in Iran in 1891. ... The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not...


Late Modern Era (1921–)

See also: Operation Ajax
Former Iranian prime minister, Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh.
Former Iranian prime minister, Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Queen Farah about to depart after a visit to the United States.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Queen Farah about to depart after a visit to the United States.

In 1921, Reza Khan overthrew the weakening Qajar Dynasty and became Shah. Reza Shah initiated industrialization, railroad construction, and the establishment of a national education system. Reza Shah sought to balance Russian and British influence, but when World War II started, his nascent ties to Germany alarmed Britain and Russia. In 1941, Britain and the USSR invaded Iran in order to utilize Iranian railroad capacity during World War II. The Shah was forced to abdicate in favour of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In 1951 Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh was elected prime minister. As prime minister, Mossadegh became enormously popular in Iran after he nationalized Iran's oil reserves. In response Britain embargoed Iranian oil and invited the United States to join in a plot to depose Mossadegh, and in 1953 President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized Operation Ajax. The operation was successful, and Mossadegh was arrested on 19 August 1953. After Operation Ajax Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's rule became increasingly autocratic. With American support the Shah was able to rapidly modernize Iranian infrastructure, but he simultaneously crushed all forms of political opposition with his intelligence agency, SAVAK. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini became an active critic of the Shah's White Revolution and publicly denounced the government. Khomeini, who was popular in religious circles, was arrested and imprisoned for 18 months. After his release in 1964 Khomeini publicly criticized the United States government. The Shah was persuaded to send him into exile by General Hassan Pakravan. Khomeini was sent first to Turkey, then to Iraq and finally to France. While in exile he continued to denounce the Shah. edit The Islamic republic of Iran originated from Islamic revolution of Iran which resulted in transforming Iran from a monarchy under the Shah (king) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Mohammed Mossadeq File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mohammed Mossadeq File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixelsFull resolution (2846 × 1868 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixelsFull resolution (2846 × 1868 pixel, file size: 2. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... Official State portrait of Empress Farah of Iran, taken during the visit of American president Richard Nixon to Iran on May 30, 1972. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Flag Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... railroads redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... As the result of an amendment to the Constitution of Iran in 1989, there is no longer a post titled Prime Minister of Iran, but Iran has had many prime ministers since the Qajar era, when the country was internationally known as Persia. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... Hassan Pakravan was an Iranian General and the second director of SAVAK, serving from 1961 to 1965. ...


The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution,[52][53][54] began in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations against the Shah.[55] After strikes and demonstrations paralysed the country and its economy, the Shah fled the country in January 1979 and Ayatollah Khomeini soon returned from exile to Tehran, enthusiastically greeted by millions of Iranians.[56] The Pahlavi Dynasty collapsed ten days later on 11 February when Iran's military declared itself "neutral" after guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting. Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979 when Iranians overwhelmingly approved a national referendum to make it so.[57][58] In December 1979 the country approved a theocratic constitution, whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country. The speed and success of the revolution surprised many throughout the world,[59] as it had not been precipitated by a military defeat, a financial crisis, or a peasant rebellion.[60] Although both nationalists and Marxists joined with Islamic traditionalists to overthrow the Shah, the revolution ultimately resulted in an Islamic Republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.[61] This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Theocracy is a form of government in which a religion and the government are allied. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ...

Donald Rumsfeld meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983. Rumsfeld visited again on 24 March 1984, the day the UN reported that Iraq had used mustard gas and tabun nerve agent against Iranian troops. The New York Times reported from Baghdad on 29 March 1984, that "American diplomats pronounce themselves satisfied with Iraq and the US, and suggest that normal diplomatic ties have been established in all but name."
Donald Rumsfeld meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983. Rumsfeld visited again on 24 March 1984, the day the UN reported that Iraq had used mustard gas and tabun nerve agent against Iranian troops. The New York Times reported from Baghdad on 29 March 1984, that "American diplomats pronounce themselves satisfied with Iraq and the US, and suggest that normal diplomatic ties have been established in all but name."[62]
Arrival of Ayatollah Khomeini on 1 February 1979 from France.

Iran's relationship with the United States deteriorated rapidly during the revolution. On 4 November 1979, a group of Iranian students seized US embassy personnel, labelling the embassy a "den of spies".[63] They accused its personnel of being CIA agents plotting to overthrow the revolutionary government, as the CIA had done to Mohammad Mossadegh in 1953. While the student ringleaders had not asked for permission from Khomeini to seize the embassy, Khomeini nonetheless supported the embassy takeover after hearing of its success.[64] While most of the female and African American hostages were released within the first months,[64] the remaining fifty-two hostages were held for 444 days. The students demanded the handover of the Shah in exchange for the hostages, and following the Shah's death in the summer of 1980, that the hostages be put on trial for espionage. Subsequently attempts by the Jimmy Carter administration to negotiate or rescue were unsuccessful. But in January 19 1981 the hostages were set free according to the Algiers declaration. Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein decided to take advantage of what he perceived to be disorder in the wake of the Iranian Revolution and its unpopularity with Western governments. The once-strong Iranian military had been disbanded during the revolution. Saddam sought to expand Iraq's access to the Persian Gulf by acquiring territories that Iraq had claimed earlier from Iran during the Shah's rule. Of chief importance to Iraq was Khuzestan which not only has a substantial Arab population, but boasted rich oil fields as well. On the unilateral behalf of the United Arab Emirates, the islands of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs became objectives as well. With these ambitions in mind, Hussein planned a full-scale assault on Iran, boasting that his forces could reach the capital within three days. On 22 September 1980 the Iraqi army invaded Iran at Khuzestan, precipitating the Iran-Iraq War. The attack took revolutionary Iran completely by surprise. Still image of news archive (broadcast in several countries) of Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam Hussein, December 19-20, 1983, Baghdad. ... Still image of news archive (broadcast in several countries) of Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam Hussein, December 19-20, 1983, Baghdad. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous military weapons. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years exile on February 1, 1979. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years exile on February 1, 1979. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Morgan Shuster and US officials at Atabak Palace, Tehran, 1911. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United States Iran Commanders Col. ... The Algiers Accords of January 19, 1981 were brokered by the Algerian government between the USA and Iran to resolve the situation that arose by the detention of American citizens in the American embassy in Tehran. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Abu Musa and its environs This is a geographical article. ... The Greater and Lesser Tunbs, and Abu Musa Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (Arabic: طنب الكبرى Ùˆ طنب الصغرى ; Persian: ) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ...


Although Saddam Hussein's forces made several early advances, by 1982, Iranian forces managed to push the Iraqi army back into Iraq. Khomeini sought to export his Islamic revolution westward into Iraq, especially on the majority Shi'a Arabs living in the country. The war then continued for six more years until 1988, when Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. Tens of thousands of Iranian civilians and military personnel were killed when Iraq used chemical weapons in its warfare. Iraq was financially backed by Egypt, the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact states, the United States (beginning in 1983), France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China (which also sold weapons to Iran). There were more than 100,000 Iranian victims[65] of Iraq's chemical weapons during the eight-year war. The total Iranian casualties of the war were estimated to be anywhere between 500,000 and 1,000,000. Almost all relevant international agencies have confirmed that Saddam engaged in chemical warfare to blunt Iranian human wave attacks; these agencies unanimously confirmed that Iran never used chemical weapons during the war.[66][67][68] A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... // Values are shown in millions of US dollars at constant (1990) estimated values. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... This article is about the military tactic. ...


Government and politics

Political institutions of Iran
Political institutions of Iran

The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the 1979 Constitution. The system comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The Supreme Leader of Iran is responsible for delineation and supervision of the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran.[69] The Supreme Leader is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations; and has sole power to declare war or peace.[69] The heads of the judiciary, state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces and six of the twelve members of the Council of Guardians are appointed by the Supreme Leader.[69] The Assembly of Experts elects and dismisses the Supreme Leader on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem.[70] The Assembly of Experts is responsible for supervising the Supreme Leader in the performance of legal duties. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran Politics and Government of Iran takes place in the framework of an Islamic theocratic republic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System [1] (Persian: ), is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader [2] and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988 [3]. Its purpose is to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ... Image File history File links Schema_gvt_iran_en. ... Image File history File links Schema_gvt_iran_en. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shia Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership // Definition According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shariah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ...


After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution defines the President of Iran as the highest state authority.[69][71] The President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years and can only be re-elected for one term.[71] Presidential candidates must be approved by the Council of Guardians prior to running in order to ensure their allegiance to the ideals of the Islamic revolution.[72] The President is responsible for the implementation of the Constitution and for the exercise of executive powers, except for matters directly related to the Supreme Leader, who has the final say in all matters.[69] The President appoints and supervises the Council of Ministers, coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the legislature.[73] Eight Vice-Presidents serve under the President, as well as a cabinet of twenty two ministers, who must all be approved by the legislature.[74] Unlike many other states, the executive branch in Iran does not control the armed forces. Although the President appoints the Ministers of Intelligence and Defense, it is customary for the President to obtain explicit approval from the Supreme Leader for these two ministers before presenting them to the legislature for a vote of confidence. Iran's current president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was elected in a run-off poll in the 2005 presidential elections. His term expires in 2009.[75] The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... This is a list of Iranian officials with their titles, last checked and updated on September 28, 2005. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Iranian presidential election of 2005, the ninth presidential election in Iranian history, took place in two rounds, first on June 17, 2005, and then as a run-off on June 24. ...

As of 2008 the Legislature of Iran (also known as the Majlis of Iran) is a unicameral body.[76] Before the Iranian Revolution, the legislature was bicameral, but the upper house was removed under the new constitution. The Majlis of Iran comprises 290 members elected for four-year terms.[76] The Majlis drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget.[77] All Majlis candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Council of Guardians.[77][78] The Council of Guardians comprises twelve jurists including six appointed by the Supreme Leader. The others are elected by the Parliament from among the jurists nominated by the Head of the Judiciary.[79][71] The Council interprets the constitution and may veto Parliament. If a law is deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia (Islamic law), it is referred back to Parliament for revision.[71] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1258 × 1001 pixel, file size: 132 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image: Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the current Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1258 × 1001 pixel, file size: 132 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image: Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the current Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Iranian Senate was a legislative chamber that was disbanded after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 in Iran. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


The Supreme Leader appoints the head of Iran's Judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor.[80] There are several types of courts including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and "revolutionary courts" which deal with certain categories of offenses, including crimes against national security. The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed.[80] The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving lay people. The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader. The Court's rulings are final and cannot be appealed.[80] The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... A cleric is a member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


The Assembly of Experts, which meets for one week annually, comprises 86 "virtuous and learned" clerics elected by adult suffrage for eight-year terms. As with the presidential and parliamentary elections, the Council of Guardians determines candidates' eligibility.[80] The Assembly elects the Supreme Leader and has the constitutional authority to remove the Supreme Leader from power at any time.[80] As all of their meetings and notes are strictly confidential, the Assembly has never been publicly known to challenge any of the Supreme Leader's decisions.[80] The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of...


Finally, Local City Councils are elected by public vote to four-year terms in all cities and villages of Iran. According to article seven of Iran's Constitution, these local councils together with the Parliament are "decision-making and administrative organs of the State". This section of the constitution was not implemented until 1999 when the first local council elections were held across the country. Councils have many different responsibilities including electing mayors, supervising the activities of municipalities; studying the social, cultural, educational, health, economic, and welfare requirements of their constituencies; planning and co-ordinating national participation in the implementation of social, economic, constructive, cultural, educational and other welfare affairs. City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Iran
See also: Next Eleven, Central Bank of Iran, Tehran Stock Exchange, Transport in Iran, Communications in Iran, Construction in Iran, and Economic Cooperation Organization
The rial is Iran's official currency.

Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures.[81] Its economic infrastructure has been improving steadily over the past two decades but continues to be affected by inflation and unemployment.[82] In the early 21st century the service sector contributed the largest percentage of the GDP, followed by industry (mining and manufacturing) and agriculture. In 2006, about 45% of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, and 31% came from taxes and fees. Government spending contributed to an average annual inflation rate of 14% in the period 2000–2004. Iran has earned $70 billion in foreign exchange reserves mostly (80%) from crude oil exports (2007).[83] In 2007, the GDP was estimated at $206 billion ($852 billion at PPP), or $3,160 per capita ($12,300 at PPP).[3]Iran's official annual growth rate is at 6%.[84] Because of these figures and the country’s diversified but small industrial base, the United Nations classifies Iran's economy as semi-developed.[85] The economy of Iran is a transition economy where a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%.[8] According to experts, annual economic growth above five per cent would be needed... A Map of the nations in the list. ... Bank Markazi, Tehran, Iran Bank Markazi Iran or Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran (Persian: بانک مرکزی جمهوری اسلامی ايران) is the Central bank of Iran. ... TSE Logo The Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) (Persian: بورس اوراق بهادار تهران) is Irans largest stock exchange, which first opened in April 1968. ... Major routes and railways of Iran Iran has a long paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. ... The government runs the broadcast media, which includes three national radio stations and two national television networks, as well as dozens of local radio and television stations. ... In recent years, Irans construction market has been thriving due to an increase in national and international investment to the extent that it is now the largest in the Middle East region. ... Map of the ECO member states The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental international organization involving ten Asian nations. ... The Rial. Irans official currency. ... The Rial. Irans official currency. ... ISO 4217 Code IRR User(s) Iran Inflation 15. ... The economy of Iran is a transition economy where a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%.[8] According to experts, annual economic growth above five per cent would be needed... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... Iran’s mining industry is under-developed. ... Map of Irans major crops, circa 1978. ... Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits held by central banks and monetary authorities. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ...

Tehran was one of the first cities in Iran which was modernized in the Pahlavi era.
Tehran was one of the first cities in Iran which was modernized in the Pahlavi era.

The services sector has seen the greatest long-term growth in terms of its share of GDP, but the sector remains volatile. State investment has boosted agriculture with the liberalization of production and the improvement of packaging and marketing helping to develop new export markets. Thanks to the construction of many dams throughout the country in recent years, large-scale irrigation schemes, and the wider production of export-based agricultural items like dates, flowers, and pistachios, produced the fastest economic growth of any sector in Iran over much of the 1990s. Iran's major commercial partners are China, Germany, South Korea, France, Japan, Russia and Italy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ...


Close to 1.8% of national employment is generated in the tourism sector which is slated to increase to 10% in the next five years.[86] About 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004; most came from Asian countries, including the republics of Central Asia, while a small share came from the countries of the European Union and North America. However, in the early 2000s the industry still faced serious limitations in infrastructure, communications, regulatory norms, and personnel training.[87] Iran currently ranks 89th in tourist income, but is rated among the 10 most touristic countries in the world.[88] Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, the endless anti-Iran propaganda and absence of efficient planning schemes in the tourism sector have all hindered growth of tourism. A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ...


Since the late 1990s, Iran has increased its economic cooperation with other developing countries, including Syria, India, Cuba, Venezuela, and South Africa. Iran is expanding its trade ties with Turkey and Pakistan and shares with its partners the common goal of creating a single economic market in West and Central Asia, called ECO. Iran expects to attract billions of dollars of foreign investment by creating a more favorable investment climate, such as reduced restrictions and duties on imports, and free-trade zones in Chabahar, Qeshm and Kish Island. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of the ECO member states The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental international organization involving ten Asian nations. ... Investment is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics. ... Qeshm Island is a protected UNESCO biosphere reserve, seen here on a stormy day in The Persian Gulf. ... Kish (Persian: کیش) is an Iranian island and city in the Persian Gulf, and is part of the Hormozgan province. ...


The administration continues to follow the market reform plans of the previous one and indicated that it will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy. It is attempting to do this by investing revenues in areas like automobile manufacturing, aerospace industries, consumer electronics, petrochemicals and nuclear technology. Iran has also developed a biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmaceuticals industry.[89] The strong oil market since 1996 helped ease financial pressures on Iran and allowed for Tehran's timely debt service payments. Iranian budget deficits have been a chronic problem, mostly due to large-scale state subsidies, that include foodstuffs and especially gasoline, totaling more than $84 billion in 2008 for the energy sector alone.[90][91] Invest redirects here. ... Car redirects here. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... A petrochemical is any chemical derived from fossil fuel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. ...


Energy

Iran ranks second in the world in natural gas reserves and third in oil reserves.[92] In 2005, Iran spent US$4 billion dollars on fuel imports, because of contraband and inefficient domestic use.[93] Oil industry output averaged 4 million barrels per day in 2005, compared with the peak of six million barrels per day reached in 1974. In the early 2000s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags. Few exploratory wells were drilled in 2005. As a further drive toward diversification of energy sources, Iran has also established wind farms in several areas, this one near Manjeel. ... The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. ... Iran is planning to open a commodity exchange, variously referred to as the Iran Petroleum Exchange, International Oil Bourse or Iranian Oil Bourse. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power programme. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... Contraband consists of items of which possession may be illegal, depending on the variety and the country or the age or sex of the possessor. ... For other uses, see Wells (disambiguation). ...


In 2004, a large share of Iran’s natural gas reserves were untapped. The addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33,000 megawatts. Of that amount, about 75% was based on natural gas, 18% on oil, and 7% on hydroelectric power. In 2004, Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant is to come online in 2009. Demographic trends and intensified industrialization have caused electric power demand to grow by 8% per year. The government’s goal of 53,000 megawatts of installed capacity by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired plants and by adding hydroelectric, and nuclear power generating capacity. Iran’s first nuclear power plant at Bushehr was not online by 2007.[87] Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Look up solar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ethnolinguistic groups in Iran Irans population was declared 70,049,262 in 2006 census. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power programme. ... A nuclear power station. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ...


Industrial production

See also: Privatization in Iran and Foreign Direct Investment in Iran
Samand is Iran's national car, manufactured by Iran Khodro

The authorities so as the private sector have put in the past 15 years an emphasis on the local production of domestic-consumption oriented goods such as home appliances, cars, agricultural products, pharmaceutical, etc. Today, Iran possesses a good manufacturing industry, despite restrictions imposed by foreign countries. However, nationalized industries such as the bonyads have often been managed badly, making them ineffective and uncompetitive with years. Today, the government is trying to privatize these industries, such as Damavand Mineral water company, and despite some successes, there are still several problems to be overcome such as the lagging corruption in the public sector (and therefore, nationalized industries) and lack of competitiveness. According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005-2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the stock market. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 352 KB) Summary www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 352 KB) Summary www. ... Samand Sahel prototype Samand LX Samand is Irans national car, manufactured by Iran Khodro (IKCO) using local manufacturers for its parts. ... It has been suggested that Iran National be merged into this article or section. ... This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ... Bonyads are Iranian charitable trusts that control over 40% of Irans GDP. Initially set up during the time of the Shah, they were used to funnel money into the Shahs personal coffers. ... According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005-2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the stock market. ... The Congregation mosque of Damavand, built in 1409CE, has traces of Sassanid architecture in it. ...


Globally, Iran has leading manufacture industry in the fields of car-manufacture and transportations, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, power and petrochemicals.[94]


Demography

Ethnic diversity of Iran
Ethnic diversity of Iran

Iran is a diverse country consisting of people of many religions and ethnic backgrounds cemented by the Persian culture. Persians constitute the majority of the population. 70% of present-day Iranians are Iranic peoples, native speakers of Iranian branches of the Indo-European languages. The majority of the population speaks the official language, Persian, and other Iranian languages or dialects, in addition Arabic is spoken in Southwestern Iran, and Turkic dialects, (i.e. Azeri, etc) are spoken in different areas in Iran. The main ethnic groups are Persians (51%), Azeris (24%), Gilaki and Mazandarani (8%), Kurds (7%), Arabs (3%), Baluchi (2%), Lurs (2%), Turkmens (2%), Laks, Qashqai, Armenians, Persian Jews, Georgians, Assyrians, Circassians, Tats, Mandaeans, Gypsies, Brahuis, Hazara, Kazakhs and others (1%).[3] Ethnolinguistic groups in Iran Irans population was declared 70,049,262 in the 2006 census. ... Language(s) Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balouchi, Ossetian and various other Iranian languages. ... Health care in Iran and medical sectors market value was almost US $240 billion in 2002 and is forecasted to rise to US $310 billion by 2007. ... Language(s) Persian (Western dialect, in addition to regional varieties), Azeri (southern dialect), Kurdish, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Balochi, Arabic, Turkmen, Lori, Bakhtiari, Armenian, Tat, Talysh, Assyrian Religion(s) Predominately Shia Muslim. ... Download high resolution version (1941x1385, 922 KB)Demographic map of Iran, produced by the CIA, displayed with Public Domain permission from The University of Texas Perry-Castañeda Library Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Download high resolution version (1941x1385, 922 KB)Demographic map of Iran, produced by the CIA, displayed with Public Domain permission from The University of Texas Perry-Castañeda Library Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Azerbaijanis or Azerbaijani Turks, are a Muslim people who number more than 25 million worldwide. ... It has been suggested that Gilek be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Lurs are an ethnic group of Iranian peoples. ... The Laks are an Iranian ethnic group in southwestern Iran. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... Language(s) Persian languages, Hebrew, Judeo-Aramaic language Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Bukharan Jews, Kurdish Jews ,Mountain Jews ,Mizrahi Jews,Persians,Jews A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... The Tat are an Iranian-speaking ethnic group in the Caucasus. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... The Brahui people or Brohi people (Urdu: بروہی) are an ethnic group of about 2. ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Kazakh (Qazaq) people, or Kazakhs, is Turkic ethnic group that lives mainly in Kazakhstan, but also in Russia & China(East Turkistan). ...


Iran's population increased dramatically during the latter half of the 20th century, reaching about 70 million by 2006. In recent years, however, Iran's birth rate has dropped significantly. Currently the population is almost 72 million [95] Studies show that Iran's rate of population growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 90 million by 2050.[96][97] More than two-thirds of the population is under the age of 30, and the literacy rate is 82%.[3] Women today compose more than half of the incoming classes for universities around the country and increasingly continue to play pivotal roles in society.


Iran hosts one of the largest refugee population in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation.[98] Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ...

Changes in population of Iran
Changes in population of Iran

Most Iranians are Muslims; 89% belong to the Shi'a branch of Islam, the official state religion, and about 9% belong to the Sunni branch, mainly Kurds and Iran's Balochi Sunni. The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities, including Bahá'ís, Mandeans, Hindus, Sikhs, Yezidis, Yarsanis, Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians.[3] The latter three minority religions are officially recognized and protected, and have reserved seats in the Majlis (Parliament). However the Bahá'í Faith, Iran's largest religious minority, is not officially recognized, and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran. Since the 1979 revolution the persecution of Bahá'ís has increased with executions, the denial of civil rights and liberties, and the denial of access to higher education and employment.[99][100] Currently, the Islamic Republic of Iran is noted for significant human rights violations, despite efforts by human right activists, writers, NGOs and some political parties. Human rights violations include governmental impunity, restricted freedom of speech, gender inequality, treatment of homosexuals, execution of minors, and in some cases torture. Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Religions Mandaeism Scriptures Ginza Rba, Qolusta Languages Mandaic, Arabic, Aramaic Mandaeism or Mandaeanism is a monotheistic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... Yarsan or Ahl-i Haqq (Kurdish:Yarsan/Yaresan or Kakeyi, Arabic,Persian:اهل حق, Ahl-e Haqq, derived from an Arabic phrase translatable as People of the Truth and as Men of God[1]) is a religious sect, and its followers are primarily found in western Iran. ... Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... St. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Today, the state of human rights in Iran continues to be generally considered a source of significant concern. ... NGO redirects here. ... This article is about the general concept. ... This article is about gender differences in humans. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, some LGBT and human rights groups have cited a lack of tolerance toward the gay community. ... In law, the term minor (also infant or infancy) is used to refer to a person who is under the age in which one legally assumes adulthood and is legally granted rights afforded to adults in society. ...


According to the Iranian Constitution, the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security that covers retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services. This is covered by public revenues and income derived from public contributions. The World Health Organization in the last report on health systems ranks Iran's performance on health level 58th, and its overall health system performance 93rd among the world's nations.[101] The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... Disabled redirects here. ... Alternate meanings: Accident (fallacy), Accident (philosophy), Accident (movie), Accident, Maryland An accident is something going wrong. ... Look up care, carer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... WHO redirects here. ... Health care in Iran and medical sectors market value was almost US $240 billion in 2002 and is forecasted to rise to US $310 billion by 2007. ...


Foreign relations and military

See also: Military history of Iran

Iran's foreign relations are based on two strategic principles: eliminating outside influences in the region and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with developing and non-aligned countries. Iran maintains diplomatic relations with almost every member of the United Nations, except for Israel, which Iran does not recognize, and the United States since the Iranian Revolution.[102] Since 2005, Iran's Nuclear Program has become the subject of contention with the West because of suspicions regarding Iran's military intentions. This has led the UN Security Council to impose sanctions against Iran on select companies linked to this program, thus furthering its economic isolation on the international scene. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: ) include the IRIA (Persian: ) , the IRGC (Persian: ) , and the Police Force[1] (Persian: ). These forces total about 545,000 active personnel. ... Irans military industry has taken great strides in the past 25 years, and now manufactures many types of sophisticated arms and equipment. ... Ancient Iranian Women-Warriors. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2460x1810, 2338 KB) Source http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2460x1810, 2338 KB) Source http://www. ... Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a type of military diesel-electric submarines that are made in Russia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ... Look up isolation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Islamic Republic of Iran has two kinds of armed forces: the regular forces Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), totalling about 545,000 active troops. Iran also has around 350,000 Reserve Force totalling around 900,000 trained troops.[103] Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran Army is the ground force of Islamic Republic of Iran Military. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) (Persian: ) is the aviation branch of the Iranian armed forces. ... One of Irans 6 Kilo class submarines The Iranian Navy has traditionally been the smallest branch of Irans armed forces and is designed solely for securing its own ports and coast, with little in the way of striking power. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the IRGC, called the Basij, which includes about 90,000 full-time, active-duty uniformed members. Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service; GlobalSecurity.org estimates Iran could mobilize "up to one million men". This would be among the largest troop mobilizations in the world.[104] Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ... GlobalSecurity. ...


Iran's military capabilities are kept largely secret. Since 1992, it has produced its own tanks, armored personnel carriers, guided missiles, submarines, and fighter planes.[105] In recent years, official announcements have highlighted the development of weapons such as the Fajr-3 (MIRV), Hoot, Kowsar, Zelzal, Fateh-110, Shahab-3 missiles, and a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Missile. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for attacking other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... The Iranian-made Fajr-3 (meaning dawn in Persian) is believed to be a medium-range ballistic missile[citation needed] with an unknown range. ... Hoot (Persian: حوت - Fish) is an Iranian underwater missile that travels at approximately 360 km/h, several times faster than a conventional torpedo. ... Kowsar missile Kowsar is a medium-range, land-based anti-ship missile made by Iran. ... Zelzal-2 ( زلزال-2, meaning Earthquake-2) is an unguided[1] Iranian 610mm heavy artillery rocket that can carry a 600-kg (1,323-lb) warhead an estimated 210 km (130 miles). ... The Fateh-110, is a single-stage solid-propellant, surface-to-surface missile with at least a 200 km range, and it is produced domestically within Iran, including the solid fuel propellant. ... Shahab-3 Type Ballistic missile Nationality Iran Era modern Launch platform Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder Date of design Production period Service duration Operators Iran Variants Number built Specifications Type Diameter between 1,32 and 1,35 metres Wing span Length 16 metres Weight between 15 852 and 16... Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over Iraq. ...


The Fajr-3 (MIRV) is currently Iran's most advanced ballistic missile. It is a domestically-developed and produced liquid fuel missile with an unknown range. The IRIS solid-fuelled missile is a program which is supposed to be Iran's first missile to bring satellites into orbit. In 2005, Iran's military spending represented 3.3% of the GDP or $91 per capita, the lowest figure of the Persian Gulf nations.[106] Iran's military doctrine is to defend its territorial integrity only. The Iranian-made Fajr-3 (meaning dawn in Persian) is believed to be a medium-range ballistic missile[citation needed] with an unknown range. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules which can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, which in turn usually produces kinetic energy, and which also must take the shape of their container. ... The IRIS solid propellant rocket is the expected product of an Iranian program to develop indigenous launch capability. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Iran
See also: Cinema of Iran and Iranian cuisine
Example of modern Iranian miniature, painted by Mahmoud Farshchian

The Culture of Iran is a mix of ancient pre-Islamic culture and Islamic culture. Iranian culture probably originated in Central Asia and the Andronovo culture is strongly suggested as the predecessor of Iranian culture ca. 2000 BC. Iranian culture has long been a predominant culture of the Middle East and Central Asia, with Persian considered the language of intellectuals during much of the 2nd millennium, and the language of religion and the populace before that. The Sassanid era was an important and influential historical period in Iran as Iranian culture influenced China, India and Roman civilization considerably,[107] and so influenced as far as Western Europe and Africa.[108] This influence played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asiatic medieval art.[109] This influence carried forward to the Islamic world. Most of what later became known as Islamic learning, such as philology, literature, jurisprudence, philosophy, medicine, architecture and the sciences were some of the practises taken from the Sassanid Persians in to the broader Muslim world.[110][111] After the Arab invasion Islamic rituals have penetrated in the Iranian culture. The most noticeable one of them is commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali. Every year in Day of Ashura most of Iranians, including Armenians and Zoroastrians participate in mourning for the martyrs of battle of Karbala. Safavid era painting kept at The Grand Shah Abbas Caravanserai Hotel in Isfahan. ... The cinema of Iran (or Persian cinema) is a flourishing film industry with a long history. ... The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. ... Image File history File links MahmoudFarshchian. ... Image File history File links MahmoudFarshchian. ... --Shanel 00:16, 15 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... The Remembrance of Muharram (Arabic: ذكرى محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam. ... The Day of Ashura ( transliteration: , Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram but not the Islamic month. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2...


Daily life in modern Iran is closely interwoven with Shia Islam and the country's art, literature, and architecture are an ever-present reminder of its deep national tradition and of a broader literary culture.[112] The Iranian New Year (Nowruz) is an ancient tradition celebrated on 21 March to mark the beginning of spring in Iran. It is also celebrated in Afghanistan, Republic of Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and previously also in Georgia and Armenia. It is also celebrated by the Iraqi and Anatolian Kurds.[113] Norouz was nominated as one of UNESCO's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2004.[114] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Map showing the distribution of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage by State Parties as of 2005. ...


The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their region. Iranian food is not spicy. Most meals consist of a large serving of seasoned rice and an accompanying course, typically consists of meat, poultry, or fish. Herbs are used frequently. Onions and garlic are normally used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form. Carpet-weaving is one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to ancient Persia. The discovery of the Pazirik carpet proves Iran's role in early carpet weaving. The oldest backgammon in the world along with 60 pieces has been unearthed in southeastern Iran.[115] The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. ...


Iranian cinema has thrived in modern Iran, and many Iranian directors have garnered worldwide recognition for their work. Iranian movies have won over three hundred awards in the past twenty-five years. One of the best-known directors is Abbas Kiarostami. The media of Iran is a mixture of private and state-owned, but books and movies must be approved by the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance before being released to the public. State censorship is often brought upon films which do not meet approval. The Internet has become enormously popular among the Iranian youth. Iran is now the world's fourth largest country of bloggers.[116] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Abbas Kiarostami (Persian: `Abbās Kiyārostamī; born 22 June 1940) is an internationally acclaimed Iranian film director, screenwriter, and film producer. ... Persian (Iranian) media include: Iranian News Agencies Iranian Newspapers Iranian Blogs Iranian magazines Iranian TV stations Cinema of Iran Communications in Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Censorship in Iran Iran and copyright issues Encyclopedia Iranica Gooya - List of Persian (Iranian) media on the Internet Gooyauk - Iranian media resources Jahani... The censorship in the Islamic Republic of Iran has two dimensions: religious and political. ... Blogging in Iran operates under special circumstances because the government restricts certain views. ...


Language and literature

See also: music of Iran and Persian miniature
The region where Persian (green) and other Iranian languages are spoken
The region where Persian (green) and other Iranian languages are spoken

Article 15 of the Iranian constitution states that the "Official language (of Iran)... is Persian...[and]... the use of regional and tribal languages in the press and mass media, as well as for teaching of their literature in schools, is allowed in addition to Persian." Persian serves as a lingua franca in Iran and most publications and broadcastings are in this language. Next to Persian there are many publications and broadcastings in other relatively large languages of Iran such as Azeri, Kurdish and even in relatively smaller ones such as Arabic and Armenian. Many languages have originated from Iran, but Persian is the most used language. Persian is a tongue belonging to the Aryan or Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The oldest records in Old Persian date back to the Achaemenid Empire[117] and examples of Old Persian have been found in present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. In the late 8th century the Persian language was highly Arabized and written in a modified Arabic script. This caused a movement supporting the revival of Persian. An important event of this revival was the writing of the Shahname by Ferdowsi (Persian: Epic of Kings), Iran's national epic, which is said to have been written entirely in native Persian. This gave rise to a strong reassertion of Iranian national identity, and is in part responsible for the continued existence of Persian as a separate language. Farsi redirects here. ... Persian is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Iranian family. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... Safavid era Miniature painting kept at Shah Abbas Hotel in Isfahan. ... Image File history File links Moderniranianlanguagesmap. ... Image File history File links Moderniranianlanguagesmap. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus Hakīm Abol-Qāsem Ferdowsī Tūsī (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ...

بسی رنج بردم در این سال سی
عجم زنده کردم بدین پارسی
For thirty years, I suffered much pain and strife
with Persian I gave the Ajam verve and life
Ferdowsi (935–1020)
Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429
Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429

Persian beside Arabic has been a medium for literary and scientific contributions to the Islamic world especially in Anatolia, central Asia and Indian sub-continent. Poetry is a very important part of Persian culture. Poetry is used in many classical works, whether from Persian literature, science, or metaphysics. For example about half of Avicenna's medical writings are known to be versified. Iran has produced a number of famous poets, however only a few names such as Rumi and Omar Khayyám have surfaced among western popular readership, even though the likes of Hafez and Saadi are considered by many Iranians to be just as influential. The books of famous poets have been translated into western languages since 1634. An example of Persian poetic influence is the poem below which is inscribed on the entrance of United Nations' Hall of Nations. Ajami redirects here. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (734x783, 1023 KB)This 15th century Persian mauscript is kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (734x783, 1023 KB)This 15th century Persian mauscript is kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. ... The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters , Kelileh va Demneh or Kalilag and Damnag in Persian) is a collection of Sanskrit fables in prose and verse. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Indian subcontinent is the peninsular region of larger South Asia in which the nations of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka as well as parts of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and some disputed territory currently controlled by China are located. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ... Saadi may refer to one of the following: Saadi (poet), the medieval Persian Sufi poet Saadi Dynasty, the Moroccan dynasty Vicente Saadi, the Argentine politician Saïd Sadi, the Algerian political activist Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Islamic scholar of fiqh and tafsir Category: ... UN redirects here. ...

بنى آدم اعضاء يک پیکرند
که در آفرينش ز يک گوهرند
چو عضوى بدرد آورد روزگارد
دگر عضوها را نماند قرار
Of one Essence is the human race
thus has Creation put the base
One Limb impacted is sufficient
For all Others to feel the Mace
Saadi (1184–1283)

Sheikh Sa‘di (in Persian: , full name in English: Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif-ibn-Abdullah) (1184 - 1283/1291?) is one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. ...

Art

Naghsh-i Jahan Square
Naghsh-i Jahan Square
17th century painting from Hasht-Bahesht palace, Isfahan
17th century painting from Hasht-Bahesht palace, Isfahan

Greater Iran is home to one of the richest artistic traditions in world history and encompasses many disciplines, including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. Persians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry, and astronomy in architecture and also have extraordinary skills in making massive domes which can be seen frequently in the structure of bazaars and mosques. The main building types of classical Iranian architecture are the mosque and the palace. Iran, besides being home to a large number of art houses and galleries, also holds one of the largest and valuable jewel collections in the world. Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Iranian cultural region - consisting of the modern nations of Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and surrounding regions - is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2096x1470, 1112 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian Empire Safavid dynasty Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan Square User:Azerbaijani User:Arad List of city... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2096x1470, 1112 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian Empire Safavid dynasty Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan Square User:Azerbaijani User:Arad List of city... Naghsh-i Jahan (Persian: ميدان نقش جهان ), also known as shah or imam square (maidan in Farsi), situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran, is one of the largest city squares in the world. ... Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Stone masons have existed since the dawn of civilization, constructing some of the most long lasting ancient monuments, artifacts and cities. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... The Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, is the by far largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. ...


Iran ranks seventh among countries in the world with the most archeological architectural ruins and attractions from antiquity as recognized by UNESCO.[118] Fifteen of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites are creations of Iranian architecture and the mausoleum of Maussollos was identified as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Mausoleum site in ruins, as it stands today The Tomb of Maussollos, Mausoleum of Maussollos or Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (in Greek, ) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and Artemisia II of Caria, his... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ...


Science and technology

13th century manuscript depicting an epicyclic planetary model
13th century manuscript depicting an epicyclic planetary model
Main article: Science in Iran
See also: Education in Iran and Higher education in Iran

Ancient Iranians built Qanats and Yakhchal to provide and keep water. The first windmill appeared in Iran in the 9th century.[119] Iranians contributed significantly to the current understanding of astronomy, nature, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī is considered (along with Diophantus) as the "father of Algebra". The isolation of ethanol (alcohol) as a pure compound was first achieved by Persian alchemists. Throughout the Middle Ages, the natural philosophy and mathematics of the ancient Greeks and Persians were furthered and preserved within Persia. The Academy of Gundishapur was a renowned centre of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity and was the most important medical centre of the ancient world during the sixth and seventh centuries.[120] During this period, Persia became a centre for the manufacture of scientific instruments, retaining its reputation for quality well into the 19th century. Download high resolution version (500x683, 94 KB)Picture taken by Zereshk from old manuscript of Qotbeddin Shirazis treatise. ... Download high resolution version (500x683, 94 KB)Picture taken by Zereshk from old manuscript of Qotbeddin Shirazis treatise. ... In the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the epicycle (literally: on the cycle in Greek) was a geometric model to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A classroom in Sharif University Irans educational system comprises many schools and universities scattered throughout the country. ... University of Tehran College of Humanities Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. ... This article applies primarily to Iran A qanat (from Arabic: ) or kareez (from Persian: ) is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. ... Yakh-chal A yakh-chāl is an ancient natural refrigerator. ... This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical universe. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... al-KhwārizmÄ« redirects here. ... Title page of the 1621 edition of Diophantus Arithmetica, translated into Latin by Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... The Academy of Gundishapur (in Persian: ‎) was a renowned center of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. ... Gundeshapur (in Persian گندیشاپور, Pahlavi Gund-Ä« Shāh PÅ«r, Gondeshapur, Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gundishapur, Gondêšâpur, Jund-e Shapur, Jundê-Shâpûr, etc. ... Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea In physics and engineering, measurement is the activity of comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. ...


Iran strives to revive the golden age of Persian science. The country has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 through 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate followed by China.[121]

An 18th century Persian astrolabe
An 18th century Persian astrolabe

Despite the limitations in funds, facilities, and international collaborations, Iranian scientists remain highly productive in several experimental fields as pharmacology, pharmaceutical chemistry, organic chemistry, and polymer chemistry. Iranian scientists are also helping construct the Compact Muon Solenoid, a detector for CERN's Large Hadron Collider due to come online in May 2008. Download high resolution version (1061x972, 333 KB)An 18th Century Persian astrolabe - maker unknown. ... Download high resolution version (1061x972, 333 KB)An 18th Century Persian astrolabe - maker unknown. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Medicinal Chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... // The sentence producing a rare particle, such as a Higgs boson proves this article was not written and checked by physicists, despiste ip are from cern. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... , The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and Hadron collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland. ...


In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics is a UNESCO chair in biology.[122] in late 2006, Iranian scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Rouyan research centre in Isfahan.[123] Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB) is a pioneering Persian (Iranian) research Institute founded in 1976 to conduct world class research in biological sciences and related fields. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Stem Cell Biology and Technology is a leading Iranian biomedical research center involved in stem cell technology and regenerative medicine. ...


The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the 1950s. Iran's current facilities includes several research reactors, a uranium mine, an almost complete commercial nuclear reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include a uranium enrichment plant. The Iranian Space Agency launched its first reconnaissance satellite named Sina-1 in 2006, and a "space rocket" in 2007,[124] which aimed at improving science and research for university students.[125] The Islamic Republic of Irans nuclear program goes back many decades. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... The Iranian Space Agency (ISA) is a governmental space agency. ... A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Sina 1 is Irans first ever satellite. ...


Iranian scientists outside of Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In 1960, Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser, fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi Zadeh.[126] Iranian cardiologist, Tofy Mussivand invented the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart, and developed it further afterwards. HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar and introduced to the medical community, thereby furthering research and treatment of diabetes. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory, with many papers being published in Iran.[127] Iranian-American string theorist Cumrun Vafa proposed the Vafa-Witten theorem together with Edward Witten. Ali Javan (Persian: علی جوان , born 1928 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian inventor and physicist at MIT. He invented the gas laser in 1960. ... The gas laser is a kind of laser in which some sort of gas (such as helium or neon) is discharged to produce the laser light. ... Fuzzy sets are an extension of classical set theory and are used in fuzzy logic. ... Lotfi A. Zadeh (2004) Lotfi Asker Zadeh (in Persian:لطفی علی‌عسکرزاده), (born February 4, 1921) is a mathematician and computer scientist, and a professor of computer science at the University of California at Berkeley. ... Toffy Musivand Persian: توفیق موسیوند (Born in Hamedan) is an Iranian physician and engineer and a world class cardiologist residing in Canada. ... An artificial heart is a device that is implanted into the body to replace the original biological heart. ... HbA1c is shorthand for glycated hemoglobin A1c, a surrogate marker for blood glucose levels. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This box:      String theory is a still developing mathematical approach to theoretical physics, whose original building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings. ... Cumrun Vafa is a leading string theorist from Harvard University where he started as a Harvard Junior Fellow. ... In theoretical physics, the Vafa-Witten theorem, named after Cumrun Vafa and Edward Witten, is a theorem that shows that vector-like (i. ... Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor at the Institute for Advanced Study. ...


Sports

Main article: Sports in Iran
Dizin skiing resort, Iran
Dizin skiing resort, Iran

With two thirds of Iran's population under the age of 25, sports constitutes a highly active portion of Iran's society, both traditional and modern. Iran hence was the birthplace of sports such as polo,[128] and Varzesh-e Pahlavani. The Swiss (Poma)-built gondolas that carry tourists and skiers to Tochal mountain in Tehran. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1623x957, 776 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iran Dizin User:Kiumars User:Khorshid/Misconceptions ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1623x957, 776 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iran Dizin User:Kiumars User:Khorshid/Misconceptions ... One of the best ski resorts in the world, Dizin is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Varzesh-e Pahlavani (Persian varzeš-e pahlavānī ورزش پهلوانی) meaning the Sport of the Heroes, also known as Varzesh-e Bastani (Persian varzeš-e bāstnī ورزش باستانی), meaning the Sport of the Ancients, is a traditional discipline of gymnastics and wrestling of Iran, which was originally an academy of physical training for...

Freestyle wrestling is traditionally referred to as Iran's national sport. Former WWF champion Iron Sheik wrestled as an amateur in Iran before moving to the United States but today, the most popular sport in Iran is football (soccer), with the national team reaching the World Cup finals three times, having won the Asian Cup on three occasions and was the first country in the Middle East to host the Asian Games. Iran is home to several unique skiing resorts,[129] with the Tochal resort being the world's fifth-highest ski resort (3,730 m/12,238 ft at its highest station) situated only fifteen minutes away from Tehran. Being a mountainous country, Iran offers enthusiasts abundant challenges for hiking, rock climbing,[130] and mountain climbing.[131][132][133] The Azadi Stadium (Persian: ) is Irans national and largest stadium. ... This article is about freestyle wrestling. ... A National sport is a sport which has been declared to be the sport of a nation by its government such as Lacrosse and ice hockey in Canada. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... Hossein Khosrow Ali Vaziri (حسین خسرو وزیری), (born March 15, 1943 in Tehran, Iran) is a retired Iranian professional wrestler better known by his ring name The Iron Sheik. ... Soccer redirects here. ... First international Afghanistan 0 - 0 Iran (Kabul, Afghanistan; January 1, 1941) Biggest win Iran 19 - 0 Guam (Tabriz, Iran; November 24, 2000) Biggest defeat Turkey 6 - 1 Iran (Istanbul, Turkey; May 28, 1950) South Korea 5 - 0 Iran (Tokyo, Japan; May 28, 1958) Hungary 5 - 0 Iran (Munich, Germany; August... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... The Asian Cup is run by the Asian Football Confederation. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Asian Games Logo The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. ... Categories: Mountains of Iran | Iran geography stubs ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Women are also active in sports, primarily in volleyball and badminton and even rallying. Female drivers participate in national rally tournaments, such as the famous driver Laleh Seddigh. For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... This article is about the sport. ... Petter Solberg driving on gravel at the 2006 Cyprus Rally, a World Rally Championship event. ... Laleh Seddigh (sometimes spelled Sadiq) (born 1977, Iran) is one of the only Iranian women race car drivers. ...


See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... This is a list of topics related to Iran (Persia) and Persian culture: // Iranian Kurdistan Major cities in Iran Provinces of Iran List of mountains in Iran Demographics of Iran Geography of Iran List of cities in Iran Iranian Plateau Iranian Azarbaijan Iranian languages List of Iranian languages Eastern Iranian... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dariush Shayegan. ... This article is mainly about the history of women in modern day Iran. ... Language(s) Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balouchi, Ossetian and various other Iranian languages. ... 17th century painting of Safavi Iranian royal court depicting woman pouring wine at Chehel Sotoon Palace, Esfahan. ... Language(s) Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajiki) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni, with sizable Ithna Ashari and Ismaili minorities) TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... Persia redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Ancient Iranian Women-Warriors. ... Shah of Iran redirects here. ... The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ... The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian embassy in London, United Kingdom. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai, UAE. On Sunday July 3, 1988, towards the end of the Iran Iraq War, the aircraft flying IR655 was shot down by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser... The 1987 massacre of Iranian pilgrims occurred on July 31, 1987. ... Chicagos Persian heritage crisis (تاراج سرمايه باستانی ايران در شيکاگو in Persian) refers to a threat to seize invaluable Persian antiquities kept at the University of Chicago by the United States federal courts and also a threat to numerous other Persian antiquities kept in the Field museum in Chicago. ... The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage for Iran alone. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran Politics and Government of Iran takes place in the framework of an Islamic theocratic republic. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Iran ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System [1] (Persian: ), is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader [2] and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988 [3]. Its purpose is to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and... Supreme National Security Council is a body within the Islamic Republic of Iran the secretary whereof is Ali Larijani. ... City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ... Human rights in Iran face the issues of governmental impunity, restricted freedom of speech, torture, and other excesses. ... This is a list of Iranian officials with their titles, last checked and updated on September 28, 2005. ... This is a list of current Iranian provincial governors: Source List of provincial governors on official website of Iranian Ministry of Interior (In Persian), updated with newer information Categories: Iranian governors ... Iranian reformists, or the Reforms Front (Persian: جبههٔ اصلاحات) also known as 2nd of Khordad Front (Persian: جبهه دوم خرداد which refers to the date of Khatamis landslide election victory in the Iranian Calendar) are a group of political parties and organizations in Iran who supported Mohammad Khatami in his run for presidency in... Flag of the United Nations Flag of Islamic Republic of Iran United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on 24 March 2007. ... This is a list of current Iranian ambassadors: Dr. Hamid Aboutalebi, , Ambassador to Australia Ali Ahani, Ambassador to Belgium Mohammad Hossein Adeli, Ambassador to the United Kingdom Mohammad Mehdi Akhoond Zadeh, Ambassador to Austria Masoud Edrisi, Ambassador to the Lebanon Pirouz Hosseini, Representative and Ambassador to the International Atomic Energy... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security (Persian: وزارت اطلاعات Ùˆ امنیت کشور) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Terrorism in Iran is not a serious threat to the state, but the governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Kazakhstan, and Yemen have accused the Ahmadinejad administration of sponsoring terrorism either in their, or against their, respective countries. ... // Introduction The Iranian Army is the national army of Iran and called the Artesh. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) (Persian: ) is the aviation branch of the Iranian armed forces. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy is the naval force of Iran. ... The censorship in the Islamic Republic of Iran has two dimensions: religious and political. ... This article is about Irans civilian nuclear program. ... Since the 1979 Iranian Revolution when the American backed Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Shiite cleric Ayatollah Khomeini, the government of Iran is believed to have funded, provided equipment, weapons, training and given sanctuary to terrorists. ... Ethnolinguistic groups in Iran Irans population was declared 70,049,262 in 2006 census. ... This article is about Iranians, the citizens of Iran, regardless of their ethnic group or religious affiliations. ... Ł Islam is the religion of 5000% of Iranians of which approximately 500% are Shia and 93% are Sunni, mostly Turkomen, a minority of Arabs, Pashtuns, Baluchs, and Kurds living in the southwest, southeast, northeast and northwest. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... St. ... Armenian-Iranians (Armenian: Ô»Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ¡Õ°Õ¡Õµ translit. ... This article focuses on ethnic minorities in Iran and their related political issues and current realities. ... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ... Health care in Iran and medical sectors market value was almost US $240 billion in 2002 and is forecasted to rise to US $310 billion by 2007. ... Language(s) Persian (Western dialect, in addition to regional varieties), Azeri (southern dialect), Kurdish, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Balochi, Arabic, Turkmen, Lori, Bakhtiari, Armenian, Tat, Talysh, Assyrian Religion(s) Predominately Shia Muslim. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, some LGBT and human rights groups have cited a lack of tolerance toward the gay community. ... Map of Iran This is a list of cities in Iran. ... Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر , meaning City of Piran and is derived from the name of the local tribe of Piran [1], also local: Xanê (trans. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... The Iranian part of Balochistan (or Baluchistan). ... Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana ÃŽranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3], formerly: Persian Kurdistan) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... This is a list of mountains in the country of Iran. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... This is a list of recent major earthquakes in Iran:[1] Environmental issues in Iran Geography of Iran ^ Prof. ... Bank Markazi, Tehran, Iran Bank Markazi Iran or Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran (Persian: بانک مرکزی جمهوری اسلامی ايران) is the Central bank of Iran. ... This page lists all the major Iranian companies operating inside and outside of Iran. ... This is a list of Iranian Research Centers: Iran Astronomy Sciences Academy (IASA) ,Tehran The Academy of Arts of Iran, Tehran The Academy of Medical Sciences of Iran, Tehran The Academy of Sciences of Iran, Tehran Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj Biotechnology Study Center, Tehran Chemistry & Chemical Engineering... The Iran Electronics Industries (in Persian: صنایع الکترنیک ایران) also known as (صاایران) or (Sana-ey Electronik-e Iran) was established in Iran in 1972. ... Industrial development and Renovation Organization of Iran (IDRO) was established in 1967 to develop the industry sector and to accelerate the industrialization process of the country. ... Iranian oil fields The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is an oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran. ... Iran Khodro Saipa Pars Khodro Shahab Khodro Iran Khodro Diesel SAIPA Diesel Morattab Kerman Khodro Raniaran Zamyad Category: ... The Iran Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO) was established in 1966 for the purpose of planning, controlling, and managing the military aviation industry of Iran. ... The Borj-e Milad is a very tall tower built in Tehran, Iran. ... Iran has made a significant effort since 1981 to develop an Iranian Military Industry. ... ISO 4217 Code IRR User(s) Iran Inflation 15. ... TSE Logo The Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) (Persian: بورس اوراق بهادار تهران) is Irans largest stock exchange, which first opened in April 1968. ... Examples of popular pirated items in Iran. ... Iran is planning to open a commodity exchange, variously referred to as the Iran Petroleum Exchange, International Oil Bourse or Iranian Oil Bourse. ... Bonyads are Iranian charitable trusts that control over 40% of Irans GDP. Initially set up during the time of the Shah, they were used to funnel money into the Shahs personal coffers. ... Asalouyeh (Persian: عسلویه) also transcribed Assalouyeh and Assaluyeh, and sometimes prefixed by bandar, meaning port) is a town in southern Iran, in Bushehr Province. ... Kish (Persian: کیش) is an Iranian island and city in the Persian Gulf, and is part of the Hormozgan province. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the ECO member states The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental international organization involving ten Asian nations. ... Iran’s mining industry is under-developed. ... In recent years, Irans construction market has been thriving due to an increase in national and international investment to the extent that it is now the largest in the Middle East region. ... According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005-2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the stock market. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The government runs the broadcast media, which includes three national radio stations and two national television networks, as well as dozens of local radio and television stations. ... The government runs the broadcast media, which includes three national radio stations and two national television networks, as well as dozens of local radio and television stations. ... Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI) was established in 1971 with a new organizational structure as the main responsible administration for the entire telecommunication affairs, and Iran Telecommunication Industries (ITI) was also founded in the same year to manufacture the required equipment for the national long-distance network. ... // Railways total: 6,130 km broad gauge: 94 km 1. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran Railways (IR) is the national state-owned railway system of Iran. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The maritime fleet of the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL Group) comprises 115 ocean-going vessels with the total capacity of 3. ... Iran holds 10% of the worlds proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. ... Iran holds 10% of the worlds proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. ... The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... Environmental issue in Iran Especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents contribute to poor air quality. ... Environmental issue in Iran Especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents contribute to poor air quality. ... Wildlife of Iran includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ... Map of Irans major crops, circa 1978. ... Safavid era painting kept at The Grand Shah Abbas Caravanserai Hotel in Isfahan. ... The Swiss (Poma)-built gondolas that carry tourists and skiers to Tochal mountain in Tehran. ... Iranology is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of Iranian cultural continent. ... University of Tehran College of Humanities Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about Iranian scientists of the classical era. ... This is a list of universities in Iran: See Higher education in Iran, for more information. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... This is a list of notable Iranians: // Nazanin Afshin-Jam, 2nd place, Miss World 2003; Miss Canada 2003. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... This is a list of news agencies in Iran: IRNA ISNA See also Gooya Categories: Iranian news agencies ... ISNA – The First Students News Agency STUDENT NEWS AGENCY can be introduced in the category of STUDENT MEDIA. Iranian Student News Agency (ISNA,http://isna. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This is a list of contemporary Iranian architects. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Iranian cultural region - consisting of the modern nations of Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and surrounding regions - is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. ... A cursory glance at the history of art reveals the social, political and economic conditions have always played a major role in the emergence of new artistic currents and styles. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia (more commonly known today as Iran). ... The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. ... Holidays in Iran: Iran uses three official calendar systems. ... Some of the Iranian National symbols are listed in alphabetical order as below: Derafsh Kaviani Flag of Iran Griffin or Homa The Lion and Sun Mount Damavand Norouz The Persian Gulf Simorgh See also List of Iranian National Heroes Category: ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... This is a list of Iranian electronic music bands: Deep Dish: Ali Dubfire Shirazi and Shahram Tayebi, Washington-DC, USA DJ Behrouz: Behrouz nazai, San-Fransisco, USA Fred Maslaki: Washington-DC, USA Omid 16b: Omid Nourizadeh, London, ... Ey Iran (Persian: ای ایران) (O! Iran) is a famous and most popular Persian anthem in Iran. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rock and alternative music in Iran. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Iran’s local melodies are some of the richest, most beautiful and most various among the folk melodies in the world. ... Iranian / Persian Pop music Main article: Iranian pop music or Persian pop music Iran developed its own pop music by the 1970s, using indigenous instruments and forms and adding electric guitar and other imported characteristics; the most popular musician of this period was Googoosh. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rock music icon of the world Freddie Mercury of the band Queen, was an Iranian by ancestry. ... Blogging in Iran operates under special circumstances because the government restricts certain views. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Ł Islam is the religion of 5000% of Iranians of which approximately 500% are Shia and 93% are Sunni, mostly Turkomen, a minority of Arabs, Pashtuns, Baluchs, and Kurds living in the southwest, southeast, northeast and northwest. ... edit Islamization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... Many kinds of sports are practiced in Iran, both traditional and modern. ... Azadi Football Stadium is the biggest venue for Iranian football (soccer). ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. ... The Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, is the by far largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. ... Teddy Bear with Nuke Iran T-Shirt. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Persian given names. ... Membership badge of Scouting in Iran Iran is one of 35 countries where Scouting exists (be it embryonic or widespread) but where there is no National Scout Organization which is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement at the present time. ... Persian shops along Westwood Blvd. ... Royal Flag of Iran was another symbol of the Royal Family of Iran Sorood-e Shahanshahi Iran or Imperial Salute of Iran (in Persian: سرود شاهنشاهی ایران) was the national anthem of Iran from 1933 until the Islamic Revolution of 1979, when the monarchy was abolished. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.servat.unibe.ch/law/icl/ir00000_.html retrieved 25 Feb 2008
  2. ^ a b c d e f http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9371723 Encyclopædia Britannica Concise Encyclopedia Article: Media
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h CIA World Factbook. "Iran". Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  4. ^ CIA World Factbook. "Iran". Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  5. ^ قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران (Persian). retrieved 23 January 2008
  6. ^ a b Xinhua, "New evidence: modern civilization began in Iran", 10 Aug 2007, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  7. ^ a b Iran Daily, "Panorama", 3 Mar 2007, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  8. ^ a b Iranian.ws, "Archaeologists: Modern civilization began in Iran based on new evidence", 12 Aug 2007, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  9. ^ parliament.uk, "Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, Eighth Report, Iran, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  10. ^ IRAN @ 2000 and Beyond lecture series, opening address, W. Herbert Hunt, 18 May 2000, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  11. ^ hinduwebsite.com, "The Concepts of Hinduism — Arya", retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  12. ^ imp.lss.wisc.edu, "Iranian Languages", Political, Social, Scientific, Literary & Artistic (Monthly) Oct 2000, No. 171, Dr. Suzan Kaviri, pp. 26–7, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  13. ^ "Iran — The Ancient Name of Iran", N.S. Gill, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  14. ^ Bailey, Harold Walter (1987). "Arya". Encyclopedia Iranica 2. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 
  15. ^ MacKenzie, David Niel (1998). "Ērān, Ērānšahr". Encyclopedia Iranica 8. Cosa Mesa: Mazda. 
  16. ^ a b "Anērān"..  retrieved 25 Feb 2008
  17. ^ World Statistics by Area retrieved 23 January 2008
  18. ^ Welcome to Iran retrieved 25 Feb 2008
  19. ^ Iran-Location, size, and extent retrieved 23 January 2008
  20. ^ SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Hindu Kush retrieved 25 Feb 2008
  21. ^ Nature & Mountains of Iran retrieved 25 Feb 2008
  22. ^ a b c Iran- Current Information retrieved 25 feb 2008
  23. ^ Payvand. "Iran: Focus on reverse migration". Retrieved on 2006-04-17.
  24. ^ "Islamic Azad University", retrieved 28 Jan 2008
  25. ^ Iranian National Portal of Statistics retrieved 27 Feb 2008
  26. ^ Religious Tourism Potentials Rich retrieved 28 Feb 2008
  27. ^ Mashhad, Iran retrieved 28 Feb 2008
  28. ^ http://www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_census85/census85/natayej/township/Os10.xls retreved 27 Feb 2008
  29. ^ http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/VOL/NN_SUM94/NN_Sum94.html retrieved 2006-04-29
  30. ^ "The Palaeolithic Indo-Europeans" — Panshin.com (retrieved 4 June 2006)
  31. ^ The Persians. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  32. ^ vohuman.org, "Historical perspective on Zoroastrianism", Reproduced from Âtaš-è Dorün — The Fire Within, Jamshid Soroush Soroushian Memorial Volume II, 1st Books Library, Bloomington, IN, 2003, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  33. ^ Persians: Masters of Empire, 1995, ISBN 0809491044, p.142–143,Time-life Books
  34. ^ Cotterell, Arthur. From Aristotle to Zoroaster: An a to Z Companion to the Classical World. 1998. p.272, Free Press
  35. ^ Garthwaite, Gene R., The Persians, p. 2, ISBN 1405156805, Wiley-Blackwell (2006)
  36. ^ Lorentz, John H. Historical Dictionary of Iran.Asian Historical Dictionaries; No.16. 1995. ISBN 9780810829947, p.189
  37. ^ Arthur Cotterell, From Aristotle to Zoroaster: An a to Z Companion to the Classical World. 1998. ISBN 0684855968, p.344–345, Free Press
  38. ^ Persians: Masters of Empire, 1995, ISBN 0809491044, p.134, Time-life Books
  39. ^ Persians: Masters of Empire, 1995, ISBN 0809491044, p.138, Time-life Books
  40. ^ "Even the architecture of the Christian church, with its hallowed chancel seems inspired by the designs of Mithraic temples". Abbas Milani. Lost Wisdom. 2004. Mage Publishers. p.13. ISBN 0934211906
  41. ^ Caheb C., Cambridge History of Iran, Tribes, Cities and Social Organization, vol. 4, p305–328
  42. ^ Bosworth C. E., Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 4, p.90
  43. ^ Kühnel E., in Zeittschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesell, Vol. CVI (1956)
  44. ^ The memoirs of Edward Teller, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory "Science and Technology Review". July/August 1998 p20. Link: [1]
  45. ^ Mackey, S.. The Iranians: Persia, Islam, and the soul of a nation. 1996. ISBN 0-525-94005-7. p.69.
  46. ^ Battuta's Travels: Part Three — Persia and Iraq retrieved 23 January 2008
  47. ^ Mackey, S.. The Iranians: Persia, Islam, and the soul of a nation. 1996. ISBN 0-525-94005-7. p.70
  48. ^ Old World Contacts/Armies/Tamerlane retrieved 23 January 2008
  49. ^ Mackey, S. The Iranians: Persia, Islam, and the soul of a nation. 1996. ISBN 0-525-94005-7. p.69.
  50. ^ Bertold Spuler. The Muslim World. Vol. I The Age of the Caliphs. Leiden. E.J. Brill. 1960 ISBN 0-685-23328-6 p.29
  51. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600", The Applied History Research Group, The University of Calgary, 1998, retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  52. ^ Islamic Revolution of 1979, retrieved 23 January 2008
  53. ^ Islamic Revolution of Iran, encarta, retrieved 23 January 2008
  54. ^ Fereydoun Hoveyda, The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution ISBN 0275978583, Praeger Publishers
  55. ^ The Iranian Revolution retrieved 23 January 2008
  56. ^ Ruhollah Khomeini, Encyclopaedia Britannica retrieved 23 January 2008
  57. ^ Iran Islamic Republic, Encyclopaedia Britannica retrieved 23 January 2008
  58. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica23 January 2008
  59. ^ Jahangir Amuzegar, The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution, (1991), p.4, 9–12 ISBN 0791407314
  60. ^ Arjomand, Turban (1988), p. 191.
  61. ^ Cheryl Benard, Zalmay Khalilzad, "The Government of God" ISBN 0231053762, Columbia University Press (1984), p. 18.
  62. ^ National Security Archive: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82 retrieved 23 January 2008
  63. ^ PBS, American Experience, Jimmy Carter, "444 Days: America Reacts", retrieved 1 Oct 2007
  64. ^ a b Guests of the Ayatollah: The Iran Hostage Crisis: The First Battle in America's War with Militant Islam, Mark Bowden, p. 127 ISBN 0802143032, Grove Press
  65. ^ Centre for Documents of The Imposed War, Tehran. (مرکز مطالعات و تحقیقات جنگ)
  66. ^ News. FAS. retrieved 23 January 2008
  67. ^ http://www.fas.org/cw/intro.htm 23 January 2008
  68. ^ NTI Chemical profile of Iran 23 January 2008
  69. ^ a b c d e Leadership in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran retrieved 23 January 2008
  70. ^ Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. "Iran — The Constitution". Retrieved on 2006-04-14.
  71. ^ a b c d Iran The Presidency retrieved 25 January 2008
  72. ^ Chibli Mallat, The Renewal of Islamic Law: Muhammad Baqer As-Sadr, Najaf and the Shi'i international, ISBN 0521531225, Cambridge University Press
  73. ^ http://countrystudies.us/iran/84.htm retrieved 2 February 2008
  74. ^ The Structure of Power in Iran retrieved 28 Feb 2008
  75. ^ Biography of popular peoples: Mahmood Ahmadinejad retrieved 28 Feb 2008
  76. ^ a b http://www.electionguide.org/country.php?ID=103 retrieved 3 February 2008
  77. ^ a b http://wapedia.mobi/en/Majlis_of_Iran retrieved 2 February 2008
  78. ^ Iran - The Council of Guardians retrieved 3 February 2008
  79. ^ http://www.iranonline.com/iran/iran-info/Government/constitution-6-2.html retrieved 3 February 2008
  80. ^ a b c d e f http://www.iranchamber.com/government/articles/structure_of_power.php, retrieved 3 Feb 2008
  81. ^ http://www.traveldocs.com/ir/economy.htm retrieved 23 January 2008
  82. ^ World Bank: Iran’s Economic Indices Improving. Iran Daily (2007-07-08). Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  83. ^ [2] Forex Reserves Put at $70b Retrieved on 24 February 2008
  84. ^ Surrounded:seeing the world from Iran's point of view Military review July-August 2007 Houman A. Sadri p.21
  85. ^ "New World Encyclopedia", retrieved 28 Jan 2008
  86. ^ http://www.farsinet.com/travel2iran/ retrieved 23 January 2008
  87. ^ a b http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Iran.pdf retrieved 23 January 2008
  88. ^ http://www.iran-daily.com/1384/2241/html/focus.htm retrieved 15 Feb 2008
  89. ^ List of Iranian Nanotechnology companies retrieved 23 January 2008
  90. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/07/jan/1295.html "Ahmadinejad's Achilles Heel: The Iranian Economy" retrieved 23 January 2008
  91. ^ Energy subsidies reach $84b. Iran-Daily (2007-01-08). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  92. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Iran/Background.html retrieved 23 January 2008
  93. ^ "U.S. targets Iran's vulnerable oil" retrieved 23 January 2008
  94. ^ [3] retrieved 26 Feb 08
  95. ^ Asia-Pacific Population Journal, United Nations. "A New Direction in Population Policy and Family Planning in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Retrieved on 2006-04-14.
  96. ^ Census Bureau, Government of the U.S.A.. "IDB Summary Demographic Data for Iran". Retrieved on 2006-04-14.
  97. ^ Iran News, Payvand.com. "Iran's population growth rate falls to 1.5 percent: UNFP". Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  98. ^ United Nations, UNHCR. "Tripartite meeting on returns to Afghanistan". Retrieved on 2006-04-14.
  99. ^ International Federation for Human Rights (2003-08-01). Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran. fdih.org. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  100. ^ Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2007). A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran. Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  101. ^ WHO, World Health Organisation. The World Health Report 2000. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  102. ^ Key Events in Iran Since 1921 retrieved 23 January 2008
  103. ^ IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p.187
  104. ^ Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij Mobilisation Resistance Force retrived 27 Feb 2008
  105. ^ Iran Launches Production of Stealth Sub retrieved 27 Feb 2008
  106. ^ Iran's defense spending 'a fraction of Persian Gulf neighbors' retrieved 27 Feb 2008
  107. ^ J. B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian Volume 1, p.109 ISBN 0486203980, Dover Publications
  108. ^ Transoxiana 04: Sassanids in Africa retrieved 23 January 2008
  109. ^ Iransaga: The art of Sassanids retrieved 23 January 2008
  110. ^ Iran - A country study retrieved 23 January 2008
  111. ^ History of Islamic Science 5 retrieved 23 January 2008
  112. ^ Afary, Janet (2006). "Iran". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-10-29. 
  113. ^ http://www.zoroastrian.org/articles/nowruz.htm retrieved 23 January 2008
  114. ^ Iran News, Payvand.com. "Nowrouz Vital Meeting to be Held in Tehran". Retrieved on 2006-04-14.
  115. ^ "Iran's Burnt City Throws up World’s Oldest Backgammon", Persian Journal, December 4, 2004. Retrieved on August 5, 2006.
  116. ^ Freedom in Farsi blogs retrieved 23 January 2008
  117. ^ Katzner, Kenneth (2002). The Languages of the World. Routledge, 163. ISBN 0415250048. 
  118. ^ Bustling bazaars and ancient sights, parched deserts and snowcapped mountains, awesome architecture and simple hospitality retrieved 23 January 2008
  119. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
  120. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran Vol 4, p396. ISBN 0-521-20093-8
  121. ^ http://experts.about.com/q/Economics-2301/economic.htm retrieved 23 January 2008
  122. ^ Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics retrieved 23 January 2008
  123. ^ [4] The first successfully cloned animal in Iran
  124. ^ Rocket launch retrieved 23 January 2008
  125. ^ Iran Says 'Space Rocket' for Research. NewsMax.com, Feb 26, 2007.
  126. ^ cs.berkeley.edu retrieved 23 January 2008
  127. ^ [5] retrieved 23 January 2008
  128. ^ news.bb.co.uk retrieved 23 January 2008
  129. ^ bloomberg.com retrieved 23 January 2008
  130. ^ http://www.rockclimbing.com/routes/Asia/Iran/ retrieved 23 January 2008
  131. ^ http://www.mountainzone.ir/ retrieved 23 January 2008
  132. ^ Mountaineering in Iran retrieved 23 January 2008
  133. ^ Local Woman Feared Dead In Iran Mountain Hike retrieved 23 January 2008

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Harold Walter Bailey (December 16, 1899 - January 11, 1996), who published as H. W. Bailey, was an eminent English scholar of Khotanese, Sanskrit, and the comparative study of Iranian languages. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... Abbas Milani on C-SPAN 2 Abbas Malek-Z Milani (born 1949) is an Iranian-American historian, Iranologist, and author. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... Sandra Mackey is an award winning and highly regarded expert on Middle Eastern culture and politics. ... Sandra Mackey is an award winning and highly regarded expert on Middle Eastern culture and politics. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 by Thomas Blanton, it archives and publishes declassified U.S. government files concerning selected topics of American foreign policy. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... Donald Routledge Hill (1922–1994) was an engineer and historian of science. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Benjamin Walker, Persian Pageant: A Cultural History of Iran, Arya Press, Calcutta, 1950.

Benjamin Walker (November 25, 1913) is the truncated pen name of George Benjamin Walker, who also writes under the pseudonym Jivan Bhakar. ...

External links

Iran Portal
Find more about Iran on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • The President of Iran
  • The Majlis (Legislature) of Iran (Persian)
  • Iran.ir
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Iran
  • Iran travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Iran at the Open Directory Project
  • Faces of Iran: The World in One Nation (a sequence of still photographs, showing the richness of the ethnic and religious diversity of the people of Iran), YouTube.
  • Rageh Inside Iran, a BBC Four production, 17 February 2007, Google (1 h 30 min).
  • Farhad Nabipour, From Persia to Iran, Part I, AMIR Productions, 4 November 2006 (slide show accompanied with Pink Floyd and Persian music — 28 min 8 sec), Google. Highly recommended!
  • Farhad Nabipour, From Persia to Iran, Part II, AMIR Productions, 10 November 2006 (slide show accompanied with Pink Floyd and Persian music — 21 min 46 sec), Google.
  • Some Iranian folk-songs sung by Shusha Guppy in the 1970s:
    Silver Gun (from Shiraz), Wheat Flower (a harvest song), The Rain (from the Gilan Province), The Stars in Heaven (from Shiraz), On Top of the Hill (from Shiraz), The Silken Handkerchief (from the Fars Province), Darling Leila (from the Gilan Province), I Have Come to Ravish My Heart (from the Lorestan Province), The Lor Youth (a Bakhtiari-Tribe song), Lullaby (from Gorgan), Girl from Boyer-Ahmadi Tribe (from the Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province), My Beloved is Short (from the Fars Province), The Water Pipe, You Must Come to Me (from Mamasani County), Darling Dareyne (from the Mazandaran Province).
    For further details see: Iranian.
  • Nir Rosen, Selling the War with Iran, The Washington Note, Thursday, May 1 2008, [6].



Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Shushā Guppy Shushā (Shamsi) Guppy (Persian: شوشا (شمسی) گوپی), née Shamsi Assār [1] (شمسی عصار) (December 24, 1935, Tehran, Iran — March 21, 2008, London, United Kingdom), was a writer, editor and - under the name of Shusha - a singer of Persian and Western folk-songs. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ... Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad (Persian: کهگیلویه Ùˆ بویراحمد) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Iran (06/07) (5598 words)
Iran underwent something of a revival under the Safavid dynasty (1502-1736), the most prominent figure of which was Shah Abbas, who expelled the Uzbeks and Ottomans from Persia.
Iran now has a variety of groups engaged in political activity; some are oriented along ideological lines or based on an identity group, others are more akin to professional political parties seeking members and recommending candidates for office.
Iran defended itself and demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Shatt al-Arab as established under the 1975 Algiers Agreement signed by Iraq and Iran.
Green Party of Iran - Our Program (2224 words)
The Green Party of Iran believes that all species have the intrinsic right to exist without regard to their usefulness to humankind and that humans must share the environment with all other species so that biological diversity is sustained.
In last two decades, Iran has experienced increased levels of poverty, misery, homelessness, prostitution and inflation, and has seen a general reduction in the quality of life and in the strength of the economy as a result of its bloody eight-year war with Iraq and of its interference in the internal struggles of foreign countries.
The Green Party of Iran believes that the current Islamic Republic of Iran and its undemocratically elected government is unable to solve the mounting problems facing the country today such as its devastated ecology, faltering economy, the reduction in the standard of living, and the lack of freedom of speech and of human rights.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m