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Encyclopedia > Iotation

Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. In most of them iotated consonants are called soft consonants and the process of iotation is called softening. Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ...

English
singular
Serbian
singular
Serbian
plural
branch /grana/ /granʲe/
leaf /list/ /liʃtʲe/
stone /kamen/ /kamenʲe/

It occurs by mixing of a consonant with the palatal approximant /j/, which is in the Greek alphabet represented by iota (ι), hence the name. For example, ni in English onion has the sound of iotated n. Example on the right shows how the Serbian language uses iotation to express plural of a certain class of words. Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in very many spoken languages. ... The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century B.C.. It was the first true alphabet and is the oldest alphabet in use today. ... Iota (upper case Ι, lower case ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect (former standard was known as Serbo-Croatian language). ... Look up Plural on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ...


An iotated consonant is represented in IPA with superscript j after it and in X-SAMPA with apostrophe after it, so the pronunciation of iotated n could be represented as [nʲ] or [n']. The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. ...


As it was invented for the writing of Slavic languages, the Cyrillic alphabet has relatively complex ways for representing iotation, devoting an entire class of letters to deal with the issue; there are letters which represent iotified consonants as well as letters which iotify adjacent consonants or prevent their iotation. Their exact use depends on language; see Cyrillic alphabet as used in Slavic languages. The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


The adjective for a phone which undergoes iotation is iotated and for a letter formed as ligature of the Early Cyrillic I (І) and another letter, which is used to represent iotation, is iotified. Within phonetics and phonology, a phone is a speech-sound considered as a physical event without regard to its place in the sound-system of semantics of a language. ... Look up Letter on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A letter is a written message from one party to another. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... I (І, і) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Belarusian and Ukrainian languages. ...


Iotified Cyrillic letters

In the Cyrillic alphabet, some letter forms are iotified, that is, formed as a ligature of Early Cyrillic I (І) and a vowel. The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... I (І, і) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Belarusian and Ukrainian languages. ...

Normal Iotified Comment
Name Shape Sound Name Shape Sound
A А /a/ Iotified A ІА /ja/ Now supplanted by Ya (Я)
E Е /e/ Iotified E Ѥ /je/ No longer used
Uk ОУ /u/ Iotified Uk Ю /ju/ Uk is an archaic form of U (У)
Little Yus Ѧ /ẽ/ Iotified Little Yus Ѩ /jẽ/ No longer used
Big Yus Ѫ /õ/ Iotified Big Yus Ѭ /jõ/ No longer used

In old inscriptions, other iotified letters, even consonants, could be found, but these are not parts of a regular alphabet. А (А, а) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ya (Я, я) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the iotated vowel /ja/ (SAMPA). ... Ya (Я, я) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the iotated vowel (IPA). ... E or E Oborotnoye (Э, э) is a letter of the Russian alphabet, representing the non-iotated vowel, IPA: or ). Code positions See also Glagolitic alphabet Categories: Cyrillic letters | Writing system stubs ... E iotified (Ѥ, ѥ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet. ... Yu (Ю, ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the iotated vowel /ju/. In common with many Cyrillic letters, it was derived from a digraph, being a ligature of Izhe (then І) or Izhei (then Н, both now И) and Uk (Ѹ, no longer in the alphabet). ... U (У, у) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /u/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Little Yus (, ) and Big Yus (, ), or Jus, are the letters representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels, in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. ... Little Yus (, ) and Big Yus (, ), or Jus, are the letters representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels, in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. ... Little Yus (, ) and Big Yus (, ), or Jus, are the letters representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels, in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. ... Little Yus (, ) and Big Yus (, ), or Jus, are the letters representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels, in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. ...


There are more letters which serve the same function, but their glyphs are not made in the same way. These are the astrological glyphs as most commonly used in Western Astrology A glyph is a carved figure or character, incised or in relief; a carved pictograph; hence, a pictograph representing a form originally adopted for sculpture, whether carved or painted. ...

Normal Iotified Comment
Name Shape Sound Name Shape Sound
A А /a/ Ya Я /ja/
E Э /e/ Ye Е /je/ Used in Belarusian and Russian
E Е Ye Є Used in Ukrainian
I І /i/ Yi Ї /ji/ Used in Ukrainian
O О /o/ Yo Ё /jo/ Used in Belarusian and Russian

А (А, а) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ya (Я, я) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the iotated vowel (IPA). ... E or E Oborotnoye (Э, э) is a letter of the Russian alphabet, representing the non-iotated vowel, IPA: or ). Code positions See also Glagolitic alphabet Categories: Cyrillic letters | Writing system stubs ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ye (Є, Ñ”) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Ukrainian language to represent the iotated vowel sound /je/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Writing system stubs ... I (І, Ñ–) (also called decimal I, or dotted I) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Belarusian and Ukrainian languages. ... Yi (Ї, ї) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Ukrainian language. ... O (О, о) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Yo (Ё, Ñ‘) is the seventh letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet, invented to replace the recklessly confused е and o for soft o relatively soon after the introduction of the Civil alphabet. ...

Cyrillic letters for iotated sounds

Name Shape Sound
Dje Ђ ђ /dʲ/
Gje Ѓ ѓ /gʲ/
Lje Љ љ /lʲ/
Nje Њ њ /nʲ/
Tje Ћ ћ /tʲ/
Kje Ќ ќ /kʲ/

When Vuk Karadžić reformed the Serbian language (the system still largely influential over the Macedonian language), he created new letters which represent iotated consonants. This was possible because in Serbian and Macedonian only several consonants can be iotated. Though it might seem logical, the letters themselves are not called "iotated letters" or by any similar name. Dje, or Djerv (Ђ, Ñ’) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Serbian language to represent the sound , a voiced alveolo-palatal affricate. ... Gje (Ѓ, Ñ“) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Macedonian language and sometimes equivalent to Ñ’, mainly in Serbian words. ... The Cyrillic letter lje (Љ, љ) was originally a ligature of Л and Ь. It is used in the Serbian language. ... The Cyrillic letter Nje (Њ, њ) was originally a ligature of Н and Ь. It is used in the Serbian language, where it represents a voiced palatal nasal. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Kje (Ќ, ќ) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Macedonian language. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serb linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect (former standard was known as Serbo-Croatian language). ... The Macedonian language (Македонски, Makedonski) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yat (535 words)
The 33rd letter in the Glagolitic alphabet is used for the same sound and also bears the name Jat (this same glagolitic letter also corresponded to Cyrillic A iotated (ıа)).
In the modern Latin alphabet (Czech language and scientific transcription for old Slavic languages) the sound is denoted as "e with caron": ě.
Whichever the sound was, it gradually vanished from the Slavic languages, which meant that, while learning to write, children had to memorise mechanically where to write yat and where not.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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