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Encyclopedia > Iontophoresis

Iontophoresis is a non-invasive method of propelling high concentrations of a charged substance, normally medication or bioactive-agents, transdermally by repulsive electromotive force using a small electrical charge applied to an iontophoretic chamber containing a similarly charged active agent and its vehicle. To clarify, one or two chambers are filled with a solution containing an active ingredient and its solvent, termed the vehicle. The positively charged chamber, termed the anode will repel a positively charged chemical, whilst the negatively charged chamber, termed the cathode, will repel a negatively charged chemical into the skin. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ...


Iontophoresis is well classified for use in transdermal drug delivery. Unlike transdermal patches, this method relies on active transportation within an electric field. In the presence of an electric field electromigration and electroosmosis are the dominant forces in mass transport. These movements are measured in units of chemical flux, commonly µmol/cm2*h. For more information see Fick's Law of Diffusion.
Electromigration is the transport of material caused by the gradual movement of the ions in a conductor due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms. ... In electrochemistry and physics, electro-osmosis, also called electroendosmosis, is the motion of polar liquid through a membrane or other porous structure (generally, along charged surfaces of any shape and also through non-macroporous materials which have ionic sites and allow for water uptake, the latter sometimes referred to as... flux in science and mathematics. ... Ficks laws of diffusion describe diffusion, and define the diffusion coefficient D. // Ficks laws of diffusion were derived by Adolf Fick in the year 1855. ...

Iontophoresis
Iontophoresis

Contents

Image File history File links Ionto. ... Image File history File links Ionto. ...

Mechanism

There are a number of factors that influence iontophoretic transport including skin pH, drug concentration and characteristics, ionic competition, molecular size, current, voltage, time applied and skin resistance. The current density of the treatment electrode is perhaps the most important variable relative to the degree of ion transfer. Studies suggest that comparable iontophoretic doses delivered at low currents over longer periods are more effective than those delivered by high currents over a short periods (Anderson et al, 2003).


The isoelectric point of the skin is ~4; therefore, under physiological conditions, with the surface of the skin also buffered at or near 7.4, the membrane has a net negative charge and electroosmotic flow is from anode (-) to cathode (+). The phenomenon of electroosmosis has been used as a means to augment the anodic delivery of (in particular) large, positively charged drugs, the transport numbers of which are often extremely small (and whose iontophoretic enhancement therefore depends heavily upon electroosmosis) and to promote the transdermal migration of uncharged, yet polar, molecules, the passive permeation of which is typically very small. In electrochemistry and physics, electro-osmosis, also called electroendosmosis, is the motion of polar liquid through a membrane or other porous structure (generally, along charged surfaces of any shape and also through non-macroporous materials which have ionic sites and allow for water uptake, the latter sometimes referred to as...


The application of a charge to the skin alters the skin’s permeability increasing migration of the active ingredient into the epidermis. There are a number of pathways that the ingredients could take, but research suggests that the majority of drugs permeate the skin via appendageal pores, including hair follicles and sweat glands, although some delivery is via the paracellular channels and minimal quantities are transcellular. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with skin. ... Paracellular transport refers to the transfer of substances between cells of an epithelium. ... Paracellular transport refers to the transfer of substances between cells of an epithelium. ...


Transport of lipophilic drug molecules is believed to be facilitated by its dissolution into the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum however hydrophilic drugs which are thought to permeate through the open pores or cutaneous appendages (hair follicle and sebaceous glands) only accounts for 0.1% of the total skin surface area.[1]


Uses

Reverse iontophoresis is the term used to describe the process whereby molecules are removed from within the body for detection. In reverse iontophoresis the negative charge of the skin at buffered pH causes it to be permselective to cations causing solvent flow towards the anode. This flow is the dominant force allowing movement of neutral molecules, including glucose, across the skin. This technology is currently being used in such devices as the GlucoWatch which allows for blood glucose detection across skin layers using reverse iontophoresis.


Iontophoresis is commonly used by physical therapists for the application of anti-inflammatory medications. Common diagnoses treated with Iontophoresis include plantar fasciitis, bursitis and hyperhidrosis. Iontophoresis of Acetylcholine is used in research as a way to test the health of the endothelium by stimulating endothelium dependent generation of nitric oxide and subsequent microvascular vasodilation. Acetylcholine is positively charged and therefore placed in the anode. Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Plantar fasciitis is a painful inflammatory condition caused by excessive wear to the plantar fascia of the foot. ... Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae, or small sacs of synovial fluid, in the body. ... Primary hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Tap Water Iontophoresis for Hyperhidrosis
Disclosure - though section was written by a company providing iontophoresis machines, the information is factual and informative. Primary hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. ...

Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) of the hands, feet and axilla can be treated using tap water iontophoresis. The extremities to be treated are placed in shallow water baths and a low voltage circuit is created using a specialised machine. The current is turned up until there is a tingling sensation on the skin. The treatment lasts for 10-15 mins and then the current is reversed for another 10-15 minutes. The initial treatment phase is for 7 sessions in first month. The treatment is usually effective in over 85% of patients using tap water. After the initial treatment phase it is recommended that maintenance treatments are carried out as soon as sweating starts again. No one is quite sure how the treatment works but it is effective non invasive treatment for excessive sweating of the hands feet and armpits.[2] [3]

See also

Iontocaine, known by the brand name Numby, is local anesthetic administered via iontophoresis through the skin. ... It has been suggested that Electrophoretic mobility be merged into this article or section. ... Primary hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. ...

External links

  • Iontophoresis devices for hyperhidrosis
  • Tap Water Iontophoresis Information and Machines

References

  1. ^ Katrin Moser et al, Passive skin penetration enhancement and its quantification in vitro. 2001. J Pharm.
  2. ^ Elkhyat A & Agache P, Treatment of hyperhidrosis by iontophoresis of weakly mineralised water. 1993. Cutaneous Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Functional Dermatology, 25030 Besancon, France.
  3. ^ Data on file STD Pharmaceutical Products Ltd., Hereford, UK.

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Iontophoresis device against hypderhydrosis, the treatment of excessive sweating Stops the sweat (531 words)
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Includes: Iontophoresis device Idromed 4 GS (DC-Device) 1 x Power supply with foot switch,2 x stainless aluminium plate electrodes (nickel-free), 2 x electrode cables, 2 x distance grids, 1 x shock-proof suitcase; the 2 parts of the suitcase are used as treatment tubs, one manual in english - other languages available too!
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Iontophoresis is an attractive mode of drug delivery for the equine practitioner because of the minimal ionic concentrations required for its effectiveness, and because of its non-invasive nature.
Iontophoresis has the potential to provide substantial benefits when this mode of therapy is applied in the appropriate manner.
Iontophoresis offers a means of introducing medications through the surface of the skin in a safe, easy and painless manner.
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