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An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow
An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow

An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged. A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion (pronounced /ˈænaɪən/; an-eye-on) due to its attraction to anodes. Conversely, a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation (pronounced /ˈkætaɪən/; cat-eye-on) due to its attraction to cathodes. Ion may refer to: Ion (physics), an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge Ion (X window manager), in computing, a window manager for the X Window System Saturn ION, a compact car sold by General Motors Ion (comics), in fiction, otherwise known as the Green Lantern... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x714, 303 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrate ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x714, 303 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrate ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ...


An ion consisting of a single atom is called a monatomic ion, but if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a polyatomic ion. Polyatomic ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and sulfate, are called oxyanions. A monatomic ion is an ion consisting of a single atom. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow A polyatomic ion is a molecule that bears ionic groups, that is, a molecule with a charge. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Definition An oxyanion is a polyatomic ion with a negative charge that contains oxygen. ...


Ions are denoted in the same way as electrically neutral atoms and molecules except for the presence of a superscript indicating the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one. For example: H+, SO42−. An alternate way of denoting charge is like this: SO42-. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word ion is a name given by Michael , from Greek ἰόν, participle of ἰέναι, "to go", or έἰμι , "I go"; thus "a goer". So; anion, ἀνιόν, and cation, κατιόν, mean "(a thing) going up" and "(a thing) going down", respectively; and anode, ἄνοδος, and cathode, κάθοδος, mean "a going up" and "a going down", respectively, from ὁδός, "way," or "road." This article is about the given name. ...


Formation

Formation of polyatomic and molecular ions

Polyatomic and molecular ions are often formed by the combination of elemental ions such as H+ with neutral molecules or by the loss of such elemental ions from neutral molecules, as originally theorized by German scientist Lauren Gaither. A simple example of this is the ammonium ion NH4+ which can be formed by ammonia NH3 accepting a proton, H+. Ammonia and ammonium have the same number of electrons in essentially the same electronic configuration but differ in protons. The charge has been added by the addition of a proton (H+) not the addition or removal of electrons. The distinction between this and the removal of an electron from the whole molecule is important in large systems because it usually results in much more stable ions with complete electron shells. For example NH3·+ is not stable because of an incomplete valence shell around nitrogen and is in fact a radical ion. In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ...


Ionization potential

Main article: Ionization potential

The energy required to detach an electron in its lowest energy state from an atom or molecule of a gas with less net electric charge is called the ionization potential, or ionization energy. The nth ionization energy of an atom is the energy required to detach its nth electron after the first n − 1 electrons have already been detached. The ionization potential, ionization energy or EI of an atom or molecule is the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of isolated gaseous atoms or ions. ...


Each successive ionization energy is markedly greater than the last. Particularly great increases occur after any given block of atomic orbitals is exhausted of electrons. For this reason, ions tend to form in ways that leave them with full orbital blocks. For example, sodium has one valence electron, in its outermost shell, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one lost electron, as Na+. On the other side of the periodic table, chlorine has seven valence electrons, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one gained electron, as Cl. Francium has the lowest ionization energy of all the elements and fluorine has the greatest. The ionization energy of metals is generally much lower than the ionization energy of nonmetals, which is why metals will generally lose electrons to form positively-charged ions while nonmetals will generally gain electrons to form negatively-charged ions. In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... In chemistry, valence electrons are the electrons contained in the outermost, or valence, electron shell of an atom. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ...


A neutral atom contains an equal number of Z protons in the nucleus and Z electrons in the electron shell. The electrons' negative charges thus exactly cancel the protons' positive charges. In the simple view of the Free electron model, a passing electron is therefore not attracted to a neutral atom and cannot bind to it. In reality, however, the atomic electrons form a cloud into which the additional electron penetrates, thus being exposed to a net positive charge part of the time. Furthermore, the additional charge displaces the original electrons and all of the Z + 1 electrons rearrange into a new configuration. In solid-state physics, the free electron model is a simple model for the behaviour of valence electrons in a crystal structure of a metallic solid. ...


Ions

  • Anions are negatively charged ions. Anions are negatively charged because there are more electrons associated with them than there are protons in their nuclei.
  • Cations are positively charged ions. Cations are the opposite of anions, since cations have fewer electrons than protons.
  • Dianion: a dianion is a species which has two negative charges on it; for example, the aromatic dianion pentalene.
  • Radical ions: radical ions are ions that contain an odd number of electrons and are mostly very reactive and unstable.

In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Pentalene has the chemical formula C8H6. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ...

Plasma

Main article: Plasma (physics)

A collection of non-aqueous gas-like ions, or even a gas containing a proportion of charged particles, is called a plasma, often called the fourth state of matter because its properties are quite different from solids, liquids, and gases. Astrophysical plasmas containing predominantly a mixture of electrons and protons, may make up as much as 99.9% of visible matter in the universe.[1] For other uses, see Plasma. ... The first solvation shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... In astrophysics, ionized gases or plasmas are ubiquitous. ...


Applications

Ions are essential to life. Sodium, potassium, calcium and other ions play an important role in the cells of living organisms, particularly in cell membranes. They have many practical, everyday applications in items such as smoke detectors, and are also finding use in unconventional technologies such as ion engines. Inorganic dissolved ions are a component of total dissolved solids, an indicator of water quality in widespread use. For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A smoke detector or smoke alarm is a device that detects smoke and issues an alarm to alert nearby people that there is a potential fire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ion thruster. ... Bottled mineral water usually contains higher TDS levels than tap water Total dissolved solids (often abbreviated TDS) is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ...


Furthermore, negative ions are used in ion therapy which utilizes a special electronic device that generates negatively charged particles. The purpose of this application is that there may be some health benefit to a negatively charged environment, opposed to one that is positively charged. Ion therapy involves the use of various devices that generate negatively charged particles as a means of countering what its proponents believe are the adverse health effects of positively charged ions in the atmosphere. ...


Ions are found in what has quickly become one of the most prevalent sources for long-lasting, hand-held energy: Lithium-Ion batteries. Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ...


Common ions

Common Cations
Common Name Formula Historic Name
Simple Cations
Aluminium Al3+
Barium Ba2+
Beryllium Be2+
Caesium Cs+
Calcium Ca2+
Chromium(II) Cr2+ Chromous
Chromium(III) Cr3+ Chromic
Chromium(VI) Cr6+ Chromyl
Cobalt(II) Co2+ Cobaltous
Cobalt(III) Co3+ Cobaltic
Copper(I) Cu+ Cuprous
Copper(II) Cu2+ Cupric
Copper(III) Cu3+
Gallium Ga3+
Helium He2+ (Alpha particle)
Hydrogen H+ (Proton)
Iron(II) Fe2+ Ferrous
Iron(III) Fe3+ Ferric
Lead(II) Pb2+ Plumbous
Lead(IV) Pb4+ Plumbic
Lithium Li+
Magnesium Mg2+
Manganese(II) Mn2+ Manganous
Manganese(III) Mn3+ Manganic
Manganese(IV) Mn4+ Manganyl
Manganese(VII) Mn7+
Mercury(II) Hg2+ Mercuric
Nickel(II) Ni2+ Nickelous
Nickel(III) Ni3+ Nickelic
Potassium K+
Silver Ag+
Sodium Na+
Strontium Sr2+
Tin(II) Sn2+ Stannous
Tin(IV) Sn4+ Stannic
Zinc Zn2+
Polyatomic Cations
Ammonium NH4+
Hydronium H3O+
Nitronium NO2+
Mercury(I) Hg22+ Mercurous
Common Anions
Formal Name Formula Alt. Name
Simple Anions
Arsenide As3−
Azide N3
Bromide Br
Chloride Cl
Fluoride F
Hydride H
Iodide I
Nitride N3−
Oxide O2−
Phosphide P3−
Sulfide S2−
Peroxide O22−
Oxoanions
Arsenate AsO43−
Arsenite AsO33−
Borate BO33−
Bromate BrO3
Hypobromite BrO
Carbonate CO32−
Hydrogen carbonate HCO3 Bicarbonate
Hydroxide OH
Chlorate ClO3
Perchlorate ClO4
Chlorite ClO2
Hypochlorite ClO
Chromate CrO42−
Dichromate Cr2O72−
Iodate IO3
Nitrate NO3
Nitrite NO2
Phosphate PO43−
Hydrogen phosphate HPO42−
Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO4
Permanganate MnO4
Phosphite PO33−
Sulfate SO42−
Thiosulfate S2O32−
Hydrogen sulfate HSO4 Bisulfate
Sulfite SO32−
Hydrogen sulfite HSO3 Bisulfite
Anions from Organic Acids
Acetate C2H3O2
Formate HCO2
Oxalate C2O42−
Hydrogen oxalate HC2O4 Bioxalate
Other Anions
Hydrogen sulfide HS Bisulfide
Telluride Te2−
Amide NH2
Cyanate OCN
Thiocyanate SCN
Cyanide CN

References

  1. ^ Plasma, Plasma, Everywere [email protected] Headline news, Space Science n° 158, September 7, 1999.
  • This can also be known as a 'Valency table'.

External links

  • Niels Jonassen (Mr. Static) "Are Ions Good for You?" Compliance Engineering, November 2002
  • Graham P. Collins "Ion Power". A web article discussing research applications of ionic states to quantum computing.
  • Department of Education, Newfoundland and Labrador-Canada "Periodic Chart of IonsPDF (70.9 KiB)". A Periodic table reporting ionic charges for every chemical element.

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