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Encyclopedia > Iodine deficiency
Iodine deficiency
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 E00. - E02.
DiseasesDB 6933
eMedicine med/1187 

Iodine is an essential trace element; the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodotyronine contain iodine. In areas where there is little iodine in the diet—typically remote inland areas where no marine foods are eaten—iodine deficiency gives rise to goiter (so-called endemic goitre), as well as cretinism, which results in developmental delays and other health problems The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... Microminerals (also known as trace elements) are micronutrients that are chemical elements. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... A goitre (or goiter) (Latin struma) is a swelling in the neck (just below adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... Endemic goitre is a type of goitre that is associated with dietary iodine deficiency. ... Cretinism (most likely from the Latin Christiānum, Christian) is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). ...


In some such areas, this is now combatted by the addition of small amounts of iodine to table salt in form of sodium iodide, potassium iodide, potassium iodate—this product is known as iodized salt. Iodine compounds have also been added to other foodstuffs, such as flour, in areas of deficiency. Sodium iodide (NaI) is used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Categories: Chemistry stubs ... Potassium iodide is a white crystalline salt with chemical formula KI, used in photography and radiation treatment. ... Potassium iodate (KIO3) is a chemical compound. ... Iodised salt is ordinary table salt mixed with a tiny amount of iodine salts, so that it prevents disease of the thyroid gland. ...

Contents

Goitre

Main article: Goitre

The mechanism is that low amounts of thyroid hormone in the blood due to lack of iodine to make them, give rise to high levels of the pituitary hormone TSH, which in turn stimulates abnormal growth of the thyroid gland.Iodized Salt helps this cause but most people do not use table salt , instead they use alternatives such as, accent. ( 2007 Jose Wilfredo Soto) A goitre (or goiter) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ...


Cretinism

Main article: Cretinism

Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of mental retardation, producing typical reductions in IQ of 10 to 15 IQ points. It has been speculated that deficiency of iodine and other micronutrients may be a possible factor in observed differences in IQ between ethnic groups: see race and intelligence for a further discussion of this controversial issue. Physical indications from birth are a lack of thumbs. Cretinism (most likely from the Latin Christiānum, Christian) is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). ... Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... Micronutrients are essential nutrients only needed by the human body in small quantities for it to fuction normally. ... Race and intelligence are broad terms with many meanings that are used to describe and measure human beings sometimes accurately, sometimes not. ...

A cretin child. "Mine is a world of incomprehensible shadows". She was one of a quarter of the world’s children at risk of iodine deficiency, known to be the leading cause of preventable mental retardation.

Cretinism is a condition associated with iodine deficiency and goitre, commonly characterised by mental deficiency, deaf-mutism, squint, disorders of stance and gait, stunted growth and hypothroidism. "Chretien" is old French for Christian. Aryan refugees settled in the Pyrenees and because of persecution retired into remote valleys. As a result of restricted diet, isolation, intermarriage, etc., as well as low iodine content in their food, children often had peculiar stunted bodies and retarded mental faculties, a condition later known to be associated with thyroid deficiency. The term "chretien" for this kind of Christian seems to have developed as a term of contempt and was applied to other children of the same kind in other localities. Paracelsus (a Swiss physician, 1493-1541) was the first to point out the relation between goitrous parents and children who were cretins. The word appeared in English in 1779. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Local impact

Certain areas of the world, due to natural deficiency and governmental inaction, are severely affected by iodine deficiency, which effects approximately two billion people worldwide. It is particularly common in the Netherlands, Western Pacific, South-East Asia and Africa. The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic subdivisions. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


India is the most outstanding, with 500 million suffering from deficiency, 54 million from goiter, and two million from cretinism. Cretinism (most likely from the Latin Christiānum, Christian) is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). ...


Among other nations affected by iodine deficiency, China and Kazakhstan have begun taking action, while Russia has not. Successful campaigns for the adoption of the use of iodized salt require education and regulation of salt producers and sellers and a communication campaign directed at the public, the salt trade, politicians and policy makers. The cost of adding iodine to salt is negligible. [1]


See also

The Honorable Dr Basil Hetzel AC (born 1922) is an Australian medical researcher who has made a major contribution to combating iodine deficiency, a major cause of goitre and cretinism world wide. ... Lugols iodine, also known as Lugols solution, first made in 1829, is a solution of iodine named after the French physician J.G.A. Lugol. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ "In Raising the World’s I.Q., the Secret's in the Salt", article by Donald G. McNeil, Jr., December 16, 2006, New York Times

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iodine Deficiency Disorders | Iodine | Cretinism | Iodized Salt (810 words)
Iodine is found in the earth's crust in sparse amounts and is in the form of iodide.
Neonates and young infants constitute the target population for the effects of iodine deficiency because, from a public health viewpoint, the most important complications of iodine deficiency are irreversible brain damage and mental retardation which result from iodine deficiency and thyroid failure during fetal and early postnatal life.
The principal complication of iodine prophylaxis is the occurrence of thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism).
Iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1682 words)
Iodine (from the Greek word Iodes, meaning "violet"), is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iodine is primarily used in medicine, photography and in dyes.
Iodine pills are sometimes distributed to persons living close to nuclear establishments, for use in case of accidents that could lead to releases of radioactive iodine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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