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Encyclopedia > Iodine
53 telluriumiodinexenon
Br

I

At
General
Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53
Chemical series halogens
Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p
Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous
Standard atomic weight 126.90447(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 4.933 g·cm−3
Melting point 386.85 K
(113.7 °C, 236.66 °F)
Boiling point 457.4 K
(184.3 °C, 363.7 °F)
Critical point 819 K, 11.7 MPa
Heat of fusion (I2) 15.52 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (I2) 41.57 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (I2) 54.44 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure (rhombic)
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 260 282 309 342 381 457
Atomic properties
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Oxidation states ±1, 5, 7
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.66 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1008.4 kJ/mol
2nd: 1845.9 kJ/mol
3rd: 3180 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 140 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 115 pm
Covalent radius 133 pm
Van der Waals radius 198 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 1.3×107 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 0.449 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus 7.7 GPa
CAS registry number 7553-56-2
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of iodine
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
127I 100% 127I is stable with 74 neutrons
129I syn 15.7×106y β- 0.194 129Xe
131I syn 8.02070 d β- 0.971 131Xe
References
Iodine
Identifiers
CAS number [7553-56-2]
Hazards
R-phrases R21 R23 R25 R34
S-phrases S23 S25
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Iodine (IPA: /ˈaɪədaɪn, ˈaɪədɪn/, or /ˈaɪədiːn/; from Greek: ιωδης iodes "violet"), is a chemical element that has the symbol I and atomic number 53. Naturally-occurring iodine is a single isotope with 74 neutrons. Iodine is a chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... Bromo redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... File links The following pages link to this file: Iodine User:Femto/elements e5 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The halogens are a chemical series. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2021 × 1516 pixel, file size: 1. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... 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For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Although iodine (I) has multiple isotopes, only one of these isotopes is stable; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 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In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ...


Chemically, iodine is the least reactive of the halogens, and the most electropositive halogen after astatine. However, the element does not occur in the free state in nature. As with all other halogens (members of Group VII in the Periodic Table), when freed from its compounds iodine forms diatomic molecules (I2). This article is about the chemical series. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... The halogens are a chemical series. ... A computer rendering of the Nitrogen Molecule, which is a diatomic molecule. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...


Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in medicine, photography and in dyes. Although it is rare in the solar system and Earth's crust, the iodides are very soluble in water, and the element is concentrated in seawater. This mechanism helps to explain how the element came to be required in trace amounts by all animals and some plants, being by far the heaviest element known to be necessary to living organisms. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...

Contents

Properties

Iodine under standard conditions is a dark-purple/dark-brown solid. It can be seen apparently subliming at standard temperatures into a violet-pink gas that has an irritating odor. This halogen forms compounds with many elements, but is less reactive than the other members of its Group VII (halogens) and has some metallic light reflectance. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Elemental iodine dissolves easily in chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. The solubility of elementary iodine in water can be vastly increased by the addition of potassium iodide. The molecular iodine reacts reversibly with the negative ion, creating the triiodide anion, I3, which dissolves well in water. This is also the formulation of some types of medicinal (antiseptic) iodine, although tincture of iodine classically disolves the element in alcohol. The deep blue color of starch-iodine complexes is produced only by the free element. R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Space-filling model of the triiodide anion Triiodide is an anion composed of three iodine atoms. ... Tincture of iodine is usually 5% elemental iodine in ethanol, although it is also available in 2%, 3%, and 7% mixtures. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ...


Students who have seen the classroom demonstration in which iodine crystals are gently heated in a test tube to violet vapor, may gain the impression that liquid iodine does not exist at atmospheric pressure. This misconception arises because the small amount of vapor produced has such a deep colour that the liquid appears not to form. In fact, if iodine crystals are heated carefully to just above their melting point of 113.7 °C, the crystals melt into a liquid which is present under a dense blanket of the vapor.


History

Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811. He was born to a manufacturer of saltpeter (a vital part of gunpowder). At the time of the Napoleonic Wars, France was at war and saltpeter was in great demand. Saltpeter produced from French niter beds required sodium carbonate, which could be isolated from seaweed washed up on the coasts of Normandy and Brittany. To isolate the sodium carbonate, seaweed was burned and the ash then washed with water. The remaining waste was destroyed by adding sulfuric acid. One day Courtois added too much sulfuric acid and a cloud of purple vapor rose. Courtois noted that the vapor crystallized on cold surfaces making dark crystals. Courtois suspected that this was a new element but lacked the money to pursue his observations. Bernard Courtois, also spelled Barnard Courtois, (8 February 1777–27 September 1838) was a French chemist who discovered iodine in 1811. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Niter or nitre is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


However he gave samples to his friends, Charles Bernard Desormes (1777 - 1862) and Nicolas Clément (1779 - 1841), to continue research. He also gave some of the substance to Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778 - 1850), a well-known chemist at that time, and to André-Marie Ampère (1775 - 1836). On 29 November 1813, Dersormes and Clément made public Courtois’ discovery. They described the substance to a meeting of the Imperial Institute of France. On December 6, Gay-Lussac announced that the new substance was either an element or a compound of oxygen. Ampère had given some of his sample to Humphry Davy (1778 - 1829). Davy did some experiments on the substance and noted its similarity to chlorine. Davy sent a letter dated December 10 to the Royal Society of London stating that he had identified a new element. A large argument erupted between Davy and Gay-Lussac over who identified iodine first but both scientists acknowledged Courtois as the first to isolate the chemical element. Nicolas Clément (1779, Dijon - 1842) was a French physicist and chemist. ... Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. ... André-Marie Ampère (January 20, 1775 – June 10, 1836), was a French physicist who is generally credited as one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... ...


Applications

Iodine is used in pharmaceuticals, antiseptics, medicine, food supplements, dyes, catalysts, halogen lights, photography, water purifying, and starch detection.

  • Tincture of iodine (10% elemental iodine in ethanol base) is an essential component of any emergency survival kit, used both to disinfect wounds and to sanitize surface water for drinking (3 drops per litre, let stand for 30 minutes). Alcohol-free iodine solutions such as Lugol's iodine, as well as other iodophor type antiseptics, are also available as effective elemental iodine sources for this purpose.
  • Iodine compounds are important in the field of organic chemistry
  • Iodine, as a heavy element, is quite radio-opaque. Organic compounds of a certain type (typically iodine-substituted benzene derivatives) are thus used in medicine as X-ray radiocontrast agents for intravenous injection. This is often in conjunction with advanced X-ray techniques such as angiography and CT scanning
  • Silver iodide is used in photography.
  • Tungsten iodide is used to stabilize the filaments in light bulbs.
  • Iodine crystals are used in the process to make NI3 or nitrogen triiodide. This compound is a shock-sensitive explosive when dry. It has commonly been used for pranks, but because of its extreme touch sensitivity, is not useful commercially.

Tincture of iodine is usually 5% elemental iodine in ethanol, although it is also available in 2%, 3%, and 7% mixtures. ... Lugols iodine, also known as Lugols solution, first made in 1829, is a solution of iodine named after the French physician J.G.A. Lugol. ... An Iodophor is a preparation containing iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent, such as a surfactant or povidone. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Radiopacity is a measurement of the ability of electromagnetism to pass through a particular material. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Radiocontrast agents (or simply contrast agents) are compounds used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in an X-ray image. ... Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique in which an X-ray picture is taken to visualize the inner opening of blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Silver iodide (AgI) is a chemical compound used in photography, an antiseptic in medicine, rainmaking and cloud seeding. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ...

Occurrence on earth

Iodine naturally occurs in the environment chiefly as dissolved iodide in seawater, although it is also found in some minerals and soils. The element may be prepared in an ultrapure form through the reaction of potassium iodide with copper(II) sulfate. There are also a few other methods of isolating this element in the laboratory-- for example the method used to isolate other halogens: oxidation of the iodide in hydroiodic acid (often made in situ with an iodide and sulfuric acid) by manganese dioxide (see below in Descriptive chemistry). Although the element is actually quite rare, kelp and certain plants and algae have some ability to concentrate iodine, which helps introduce the element into the food chain. An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Copper(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4. ... Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ... Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, commonly called manganese dioxide. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ...


Sources

Iodine output in 2005
Iodine output in 2005

Iodine is found in the mineral caliche, found in Chile, between the Andes and the sea. It can also be found in some seaweeds as well as extracted from seawater. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of iodine output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Chile - 15,346 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of iodine output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Chile - 15,346 tonnes). ... Caliche Forest on San Miguel Island. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...


Extraction from seawater involves electrolysis. The brine is first purified and acidified using sulphuric acid and is then reacted with chlorine. An iodine solution is produced but it is yet too dilute and has to be concentrated. To do this air is blown into the solution which causes the iodine to evaporate, then it is passed into an absorbing tower containing acid where sulfur dioxide is added to reduce the iodine. The solution is then added to chlorine again to concentrate the solution more, and the final solution is at a level of about 99%.[citation needed]


Another source is from kelp. This source was used in the 18th and 19th centuries but is no longer economically viable. Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


In 2005, Chile was the top producer of iodine with almost two-thirds world share followed by Japan and the USA, reports the British Geological Survey. The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


Descriptive chemistry

Elemental iodine is poorly soluble in water, with one gram dissolving in 3450 ml at 20 °C and 1280 ml at 50 °C. By contrast with chlorine, the formation of the hypohalite ion (IO) in neutral aqueous solutions of iodine is negligible. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...

I2+ H2O ↔ H+ + I + HIO   (K = 2.0×10−13)[1]

Solubility in water is greatly improved if the solution contains dissolved iodides such as hydroiodic acid, potassium iodide, or sodium iodide; this extra solubility results from the high solubility of the I3- ion. Dissolved bromides also improve water solubility of iodine. Iodine is soluble in a number of organic solvents, including ethanol (20.5 g/100 ml at 15 °C, 21.43 g/100 ml at 25 °C), diethyl ether (20.6 g/100 ml at 17 °C, 25.20 g/100 ml at 25 °C), chloroform, acetic acid, glycerol, benzene (14.09 g/100 ml at 25 °C), carbon tetrachloride (2.603 g/100 ml at 35 °C), and carbon disulfide (16.47 g/100 ml at 25 °C).[2] Aqueous and ethanol solutions are brown. Solutions in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide are violet. An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Sodium iodide (NaI) is used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Categories: Chemistry stubs ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... CS2 redirects here. ...


Elemental iodine can be prepared by oxidizing iodides with chlorine: An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ...

2I + Cl2 → I2 + 2Cl

or with manganese dioxide in acid solution:[1] Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, commonly called manganese dioxide. ...

2I + 4H+ + MnO2 → I2 + 2H2O + Mn2+

Iodine is reduced to hydroiodic acid by hydrogen sulfide:[3] Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...

I2 + H2S → 2HI + S↓

or by hydrazine: Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ...

2I2 + N2H4 → 4HI + N2

Iodine is oxidized to iodate by nitric acid:[4] An iodate is a salt of iodic acid. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ...

I2 + 10HNO3 → 2HIO3 + 10NO2 + 4H2O

or by chlorates:[4] The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3−. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ...

I2 + 2ClO3 → 2IO3 + Cl2

Iodine is converted in a two stage reaction to iodide and iodate in solutions of alkali hydroxides (such as sodium hydroxide):[1] An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... An iodate is a salt of iodic acid. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...

I2 + 2OH → I + IO + H2O (K = 30)
3IO → 2I + IO3 (K = 1020)

Notable inorganic iodine compounds

HI He
LiI BeI2 BI3 CI4 NI3 I2O4 I2O5 I4O9 IF IF3 IF5 IF7 Ne
NaI MgI2 AlI3 SiI4 PI3 S ICl ICl3 Ar
KI CaI2 Sc TiI4 V Cr MnI2 Fe Co NiI2 CuI ZnI2 Ga2I6 GeI2 GeI4 As Se IBr Kr
RbI SrI2 Y ZrI4 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd AgI CdI2 InI3 SnI4 SnI2 SbI3 TeI4 I Xe
CsI BaI2 Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt AuI HgI2 TlI PbI2 Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
La Ce Pr Nd Pm SmI2 Eu Gd TbI3 Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac ThI4 Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

See also iodine compounds HAHAHAHAHAHAAHAHAHAHAHAHAH YOU SUCK Hydrogen iodide (HI) is a diatomic molecule. ... Lithium iodide, or LiI, is a compound of lithium and iodine. ... Carbon tetraiodide is CI4. ... Nitrogen triiodide, also called nitrogen iodide, is the chemical compound with the formula NI3. ... Iodine pentafluoride, IF5, is a fluoride of iodine. ... Iodine heptafluoride, IF7, is a fluoride of iodine. ... Sodium iodide (NaI) is used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Categories: Chemistry stubs ... Aluminium iodide is any chemical compound containing only aluminium and iodine. ... Phosphorus triiodide (PI3) is an unstable red solid which reacts violently with water. ... Iodine monochloride is the compound with the formula ICl. ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Categories: | | | ... Titanium tetraiodide is TiI4. ... The chemical compound copper(I) iodide has the formula CuI, more commonly known as cuprous iodide. ... Zinc iodide is composed of Zinc and Iodine. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Zirconium(IV) iodide is the chemical compound with the formula ZrI4. ... Silver iodide (AgI) is a chemical compound used in photography, an antiseptic in medicine, rainmaking and cloud seeding. ... Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine. ... Tin(II) iodide, also known as stannous iodide, is an ionic compound of tin and iodine with the formula SnI2. ... Caesium iodide is an ionic compound often used as the input phosphor of an x-ray image intensifier tubes found in Fluoroscopy equipment. ... Barium iodide occurs in two forms, one anhydrous and the other hydrated. ... Gold halides are compounds of gold with the halogens. ... Mercury(II) iodide (HgI2) is a chemical compound with an appearance of red-orange crystals. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Lead (II) iodide (PbI2) is a toxic, yellowish solid. ... Samarium(II) iodide (SmI2) is a green solid composed of samarium and iodine, with a melting point of 520 °C [1]. It can be formed by high temperature decomposition of SmI3 (the more stable iodide), but a convenient lab preparation is to react Sm powder with 1,2-diiodoethane in... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...


Stable iodine in biology

Iodine is an essential trace element, the heaviest-known element needed by living organisms. Its only known roles in animal biology are as constituents of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These are made from addition condensation products of the amino acid tyrosine, and are stored prior to release in a protein-like iodine-containing molecule called thyroglobulin. T4 and T3 contain four and three atoms of iodine per molecule, respectively. The thyroid gland actively absorbs iodide from the blood to make and release these hormones into the blood, actions which are regulated by a second hormone TSH from the pituitary. Thyroid hormones are phylogenetically very old molecules which are synthesized by most multicellular organisms, and which even have some effect on unicellular organisms. Microminerals (also known as trace elements) are micronutrients that are chemical elements. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Thyroglobulin is a protein secreted by the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ...


Thyroid hormones play a very basic role in biology, acting on gene transcription to regulate the basal metabolic rate. The total deficiency of thyroid hormones can reduce basal metabolic rate up to 50%, while in excessive production of thyroid hormones the basal metabolic rate can be increased by 100%. T4 acts largely as a precursor to T3, which is (with some minor exceptions) the biologically active hormone.


Human dietary intake

The United States Food and Drug Administration recommends 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women.[5] This is necessary for proper production of thyroid hormone.[5] Natural sources of iodine include sea life, such as kelp and certain seafood, as well as plants grown on iodine-rich soil.[6][7] Salt for human consumption is often fortified with iodine and is referred to as iodized salt.[7] FDA redirects here. ... Kg redirects here. ... Iodised salt is ordinary table salt mixed with a tiny amount of iodine salts, so that it prevents disease of the thyroid gland. ...


Iodine deficiency

Main article: Iodine deficiency

In areas where there is little iodine in the diet—typically remote inland areas and semi-arid equatorial climates where no marine foods are eaten—iodine deficiency gives rise to hypothyroidism, symptoms of which are extreme fatigue, goitre, mental slowing, depression, weight gain, and low basal body temperatures.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ...


Iodine deficiency is also the leading cause of preventable mental retardation, an effect which happens primarily when babies and small children are made hypothyroid by lack of the element. The addition of iodine to table salt has largely eliminated this problem in the wealthier nations, but as of March 2006, iodine deficiency remained a serious public health problem in the developing world. [8] Half-wit redirects here. ... Hypothyroidism is a pathologic state caused by insufficient secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. ...


Radioiodine and biology

Radioiodine and the thyroid

Human exposure to radioactive iodine will cause thyroid uptake, as with all iodine, leading to elevated chances of thyroid cancer. Isotopes with shorter half-lives such as I131 present a greater risk than those with longer half-lives since they generate more radiation per unit of time. Taking large amounts of regular iodine will saturate the thyroid and prevent uptake. Iodine pills are sometimes distributed to persons living close to nuclear establishments, for use in case of accidents that could lead to releases of radioactive iodine.

  • Iodine-123 and iodine-125 are used in medicine as tracers for imaging and evaluating the function of the thyroid.
  • Uncombined (elemental) iodine is mildly toxic to all living things.

The artificial radioisotope 131I (a beta emitter), has a half-life of 8.0207 days. Also known as radioiodine, 131I has been used in treating cancer and other pathologies of the thyroid glands. 123I is the radioisotope most often used in nuclear imaging of the kidney and thyroid as well as thyroid uptake scans (used for the evaluation of Graves' Disease). The most common compounds of iodine are the iodides of sodium and potassium (KI) and the iodates (KIO3). Iodine-123 is often used as a radioactive substance used in whole-body nuclear scanning. ... Iodine-125 is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays and in radiation therapy to treat prostate cancer and brain tumors. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioiodine is the common name for iodine-131, a radioisotope of iodine. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Human submaxillary gland. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Graves disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goiter, exophthalmos, and hyperthyroidism. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa...


Potassium iodide (KI tablets, or "SSKI" = "Saturated Solution of KI" liquid drops) can be given to people in a nuclear disaster area when fission has taken place, to block the uptake of iodine-131 by the thyroid. The protective effect of KI lasts approximately 24 hours, so it should be dosed daily until a risk of significant exposure to radioiodines no longer exists.[9][10] The exposure can be reduced by evacuation, sheltering, and by control of the food supply. Iodine-131 also decays rapidly, with a half-life of 8 days, so that 99.95% of the original radioiodine is gone after three months. R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ...


Iodine-129 129I (half-life 15.7 million years) is a product of cosmic ray spallation on various isotopes of xenon in the atmosphere, in cosmic ray muon interaction with tellurium-130, and also and uranium and plutonium fission, both in subsurface rocks and nuclear reactors. Nuclear processes, in particular nuclear fuel reprocessing and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests have now swamped the natural signal for this isotope. 129I was used in rainwater studies following the Chernobyl accident. It also has been used as a ground-water tracer and as an indicator of nuclear waste dispersion into the natural environment. Iodine-129 (129I) is a radioisotope of iodine, which decays with a half-life of 16. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Cosmic ray spallation is a form of naturally occuring nuclear fission and nucleosynthesis. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... Air redirects here. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... The muon (from the letter mu (μ)--used to represent it) is an elementary particle with negative electric charge and a spin of 1/2. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... The nuclear power plant at Chernobyl prior to the completion of the sarcophagus. ...


Radioiodine and the kidney

In the 1970s imaging techniques were developed in California to utilize radioiodine in diagnostics for renal hypertension. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ...


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of iodine

There are 37 isotopes of iodine and only one, 127I, is stable. Although iodine (I) has multiple isotopes, only one of these isotopes is stable; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ...


In many ways, 129I is similar to 36Cl. It is a soluble halogen, fairly non-reactive, exists mainly as a non-sorbing anion, and is produced by cosmogenic, thermonuclear, and in-situ reactions. In hydrologic studies, 129I concentrations are usually reported as the ratio of 129I to total I (which is virtually all 127I). As is the case with 36Cl/Cl, 129I/I ratios in nature are quite small, 10−14 to 10−10 (peak thermonuclear 129I/I during the 1960s and 1970s reached about 10−7). 129I differs from 36Cl in that its half-life is longer (15.7 vs. 0.301 million years), it is highly biophilic, and occurs in multiple ionic forms (commonly, I and IO3) which have different chemical behaviors. This makes it fairly easy for 129I to enter the biosphere as it becomes incorporated into vegetation, soil, milk, animal tissue, etc. Chlorine-36 is an isotope of chlorine. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... An iodate is a salt of iodic acid. ...


Excesses of stable 129Xe in meteorites have been shown to result from decay of "primordial" Iodine-129 produced newly by the supernovas which created the dust and gas from which the solar system formed. 129I was the first extinct radionuclide to be identified as present in the early solar system. Its decay is the basis of the I-Xe Iodine-xenon radiometric dating scheme, which covers the first 83 million years of solar system evolution. Iodine-129 (129I) is a radioisotope of iodine, which decays with a half-life of 16. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, based on a comparison between the observed abundance of particular naturally occurring radioactive isotopes and their known decay rates. ... This article is about the Solar System. ...


Effects of various radioiodine isotopes in biology are discussed above. For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ...


Toxicity of iodine

Excess iodine has symptoms similar to those of iodine deficiency. Commonly encountered symptoms are abnormal growth of the thyroid gland and disorders in functioning and growth of the organism as a whole. Elemental iodine, I2, is a deadly poison if taken in larger amounts; if 2-3 grams of it is consumed, it is fatal to humans. Iodides are similar in toxicity to bromides.


Precautions for stable iodine

Direct contact with skin can cause lesions, so it should be handled with care. Iodine vapor is very irritating to the eye and to mucous membranes. Concentration of iodine in the air should not exceed 1 mg/ (eight-hour time-weighted average). When mixed with ammonia, it can form nitrogen triiodide which is extremely sensitive and can explode unexpectedly. For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Nitrogen triiodide, also called nitrogen iodide, is the chemical compound with the formula NI3. ...


Clandestine use

In the United States, the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) regards iodine and compounds containing iodine (ionic iodides, iodoform, ethyl iodide, and so on) as reagents useful for the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine. Persons who attempt to purchase significant quantities of such chemicals without establishing a legitimate use are likely to find themselves the target of a DEA investigation. Persons selling such compounds without doing due diligence to establish that the materials are not being diverted to clandestine use may be subject to stiff penalties, such as expensive fines or even imprisonment.[11][12] Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Due diligence is a term used for a number of concepts involving either the performance of an investigation of a business or person, or the performance of an act with a certain standard of care. ...


See also

Over three billion years ago, blue-green algae were the most primitive oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, ancestors of multicellular eukaryotic algae (1). ... Iodized table salt (left) and non-iodized table salt (right) The Morton Salt company began iodizing salt for Americans in the fall of 1924. ... Chemical oxygen iodine laser, or COIL, is an infrared chemical laser. ... The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and various other slight variations) is a label required on most pre-packaged foods in North America, United Kingdom and other countries. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Advanced Inorganic Chemistry by Cotton and Wilkinson, 2nd ed.
  2. ^ Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed.
  3. ^ General Chemistry (volume 2) by N.L. Glinka, Mir Publishing 1981
  4. ^ a b General Chemistry by Linus Pauling, 1947 ed.
  5. ^ a b Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2000), Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), Institute of Medicine (IOM)
  6. ^ International Council for the Control of Iodine Definiciency Disorders - Sources of iodine
  7. ^ a b MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Iodine in diet
  8. ^ Micronutrients - Iodine, Iron and Vitamin A. UNICEF.
  9. ^ Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)
  10. ^ Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies
  11. ^ 21 USC Sec. 872 01/22/02
  12. ^ Chemical Supplier Convicted of Diversion of Iodine

External links

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The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

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Iodine (929 words)
Iodine is vital for good thyroid function, which in turn is essential for health.
Iodine is typically undesirably low (about 50 micrograms/day compared to a recommended level of about 150 micrograms per day) in UK vegan diets unless supplements, iodine rich seaweeds or foods containing such seaweeds (e.g.
Excessive iodine has a complex disruptive effect on the thyroid and may cause either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, in susceptible individuals, as well as increasing the risk of thyroid cancer.
Potassium Iodide Anti-Radiation Pill FAQ. Iodine pills, tablets, sources. (12645 words)
Iodine is normally used in doses of 8 PPM to treat clear water for a 10 minute contact time.
To attempt to achieve a thyroid-blocking dose of nearly 100 mg of iodine (the iodine content of a 130 mg KI tablet) would thus require exceeding that proven safe level by a factor of at least four to seven times for an 180 lb adult.
Ingesting elemental free iodine, such as 'tincture of iodine', in quantities sufficient to attempt thyroid-blocking in a nuclear emergency is not a safe, nor an effective, alternative.
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