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Encyclopedia > Ioannis Metaxas
Ioannis Metaxas
Greek: Ιωάννης Μεταξάς
Ioannis Metaxas

In office
1936 – 1941
Preceded by Konstantinos Demertzis
Succeeded by Alexandros Korizis

Born April 12, 1871
Kefalonia, Greece
Died January 29, 1941
Athens, Greece
Political party Freethinker's Party

Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. Image File history File links Metaxas. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Alexandros Korizis (1885-1941) was a Greek Prime Minister briefly in 1941. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Kefalonia, also known as Cephallenia, Cephallania, Cephallonia, Kefallinia, or Kefallonia (Ancient Greek: Κεφαλληνία; Modern Greek: Κεφαλλονιά or Κεφαλονιά ), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis as of 2007 Area    - City 39 km²  - Urban 427 km²  - Metro 3... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents

Life

Born in Kefalonia, Metaxas was a career military officer, first seeing action in 1897 fighting the Turkish army in the Thessalian campaign. Following studies in Germany, he returned to join the General Staff and was part of the modernizing process of the Greek Army before the Balkan Wars (1912-1913), in which he actively participated. He was appointed as Chief of the Greek General Staff in 1913 and was promoted to General. Kefalonia, also known as Cephallenia, Cephallania, Cephallonia, Kefallinia, or Kefallonia (Ancient Greek: Κεφαλληνία; Modern Greek: Κεφαλλονιά or Κεφαλονιά ), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League Bulgaria Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev The outcome... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


A staunch monarchist, he supported Constantine I and opposed Greek entry into WW I. Eleftherios Venizelos, the prime minister, resigned over the refusal of Metaxas to aid the unsuccessful Dardanelles campaign and used the war as the major issue in the elections. When Venizelos won the March 1915 elections he mobilised the army but was dismissed by the king. In June 1917, with Allied support and 60,000 Cretan soldiers, the king was deposed and Venizelos came to power, declaring war on June 29, 1917. Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... A prime minister (aka Gavinder Johal) is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Metaxas followed the king into exile, neither returning until 1920. When the monarchy was displaced in 1922 Metaxas moved into politics and founded the Freethinkers' Party in 1923. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Dictator

After a disputed plebiscite George II, son of Constantine I, returned to take the throne in 1935. The elections of 1936 produced a deadlock between Panagis Tsaldaris and Themistoklis Sophoulis. The political situation was further polarized by the gains made by the Communist Party of Greece (KKE). Disliking the Communists and fearing a coup, George II appointed Metaxas, then minister of war, to be interim prime minister and the appointment was confirmed by the Greek parliament. George II (Greek: Γεώργιος [Geōrgios]; 20 July 1890 — 1 April 1947), King of the Hellenes (Greece) ruled from 1922-1924 and 1935-1947. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Panagis Tsaldaris (1868-1936) (or Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris, Greek: Παναγής Τσαλδάρης) was a revered conservative politician and leader for many years (1922-1936) of the dominant before the World War II Peoples Party. ... Themistoklis Sophoulis (1860-1949) (or Themistoklis Sofoulis, Greek: Θεμιστοκλής Σοφούλης) was a prominent centrist politician, belonging to the centre-left wing of the Liberal Party, which he led for many years. ... Party logo The Communist Party of Greece (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), better known by its acronym ΚΚΕ (usually pronounced koo-koo-eh) , is the communist party in Greece. ...

 Ioannis Metaxas, architect of the famous Greek "No" against Italian dictator Mussolini, with King George II of Greece, crown prince Paul of Greece and General Alexander Papagos at the successful Albanian Campaign against invading fascist Italy during World War II.
Ioannis Metaxas, architect of the famous Greek "No" against Italian dictator Mussolini, with King George II of Greece, crown prince Paul of Greece and General Alexander Papagos at the successful Albanian Campaign against invading fascist Italy during World War II.

Widespread industrial unrest in May allowed Metaxas to declare a state of emergency. He suspended the parliament indefinitely and suspended various articles of the constitution. In August 4, 1936 Metaxas declared the 4th of August Regime. The regime's propaganda presented Metaxas as "the First Peasant", "the First Worker" and as "the National Father" of the Greeks. Metaxas adopted the title of Arhigos, Greek for "leader" or "chieftain", and claimed a "Third Hellenic Civilization" based upon ancient Greece and the Greek Byzantine Empire of the Middle Ages. Image File history File links Metaxasalexandrospapagospaulgeorge. ... Image File history File links Metaxasalexandrospapagospaulgeorge. ... Ioannis Metaxas Celebrated throughout Greece on October 28 each year, Oxi day commemorates the answer of the Greek dictator (in power from August 4, 1936 until January 29, 1941), Ioannis Metaxas, to the Italian ultimatum which asked Greece to allow Italian forces to use the land of Greece for military... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown from power. ... George II (Greek: Γεώργιος [Geōrgios]; 20 July 1890 — 1 April 1947), King of the Hellenes (Greece) ruled from 1922-1924 and 1935-1947. ... Paul, King of the Hellenes (December 14, 1901 - March 6, 1964), was King of Greece from 1947 to 1964. ... Alexander Papagos (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Παπάγος, Alexandros Papagos). ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years and was extinguished by the newly-powerful Christianity. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


Patterning his regime on other authoritarian European governments (most notably Mussolini's fascist regime), Metaxas banned political parties, arrested communists, prohibited strikes and introduced widespread censorship of the media. Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


The Metaxas government promoted various popular measures, such as the 8-hour working day and mandatory improvements to the working conditions of workers. He established the Greek social security fund (IKA), still the biggest social security institution in Greece, and improved the country's defences. For rural areas agricultural prices were raised and farm debts were taken on by the government. Despite these efforts the Greek people generally moved towards the political left, but without actively opposing Metaxas.


In foreign policy Metaxas had a clear pro-British stance. He saw in the Mediterranean the British as a natural ally and their fleet was a major force while the expansionist goals of Mussolini were clearly threatening to Greece. The policy of Metaxas to keep Greece out of WWII was decisively broken by the blunt demands of Mussolini in October 1940. He demanded occupation rights to strategic Greek sites and was met with a curt reply by Metaxas "Alors, c'est la guerre" ("then it is war"), which was encapsulated in Greek popular feeling in the single word "No". Italy invaded Greece from Albania on October 28. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Ioannis Metaxas Celebrated throughout Greece on October 28 each year, Oxi day commemorates the answer of the Greek dictator (in power from August 4, 1936 until January 29, 1941), Ioannis Metaxas, to the Italian ultimatum which asked Greece to allow Italian forces to use the land of Greece for military... Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 25,067 missing, 50,874 wounded, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ...


Thanks to preparations and an inspired defence the Greeks were able to mount a successful defense and counter offensive, forcing the Italians back into Albania and occupying large parts of Northern Epirus (Southern Albania). Metaxas died in Athens on January 29 of a phlegmon of the pharynx which subsequently led to uncurable toxaemia. At the time it was speculated that he was poisoned by the British. He was succeeded by Alexandros Korizis. After Metaxas' death, the Germans had a hard time facing the fortifications constructed by Metaxas in Northern Greece, which were called the Metaxas Line. Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis as of 2007 Area    - City 39 km²  - Urban 427 km²  - Metro 3... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pre-eclampsia (previously called toxemia) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. ... Alexandros Korizis (1885-1941) was a Greek Prime Minister briefly in 1941. ... The Metaxas Line was a chain of fortifications constructed along the line of the Graeco-Bulgarian border, designed to protect Greece in case of a Bulgarian invasion during World War II. It was named after Ioannis Metaxas, the then dictatorial ruler of Greece, and chiefly consists of tunnels that led...


To this day, Metaxas remains a highly controversial figure in Greek history. He is reviled by some for his dictatorial state, and admired by others for his popular policies, patriotism, defence to aggression, and his military victory against Italy. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 25,067 missing, 50,874 wounded, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ...


See also

From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by a authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 100,000 men 20,000 men and women[] Casualties 12,777 killed 37,732 wounded 4,527 missing 38,000 killed[] 40,000 captured or surrendered The... Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 25,067 missing, 50,874 wounded, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ... The Metaxas Line was a chain of fortifications constructed along the line of the Graeco-Bulgarian border, designed to protect Greece in case of a Bulgarian invasion during World War II. It was named after Ioannis Metaxas, the then dictatorial ruler of Greece, and chiefly consists of tunnels that led... From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ...

External links

  • Metaxas Project - Inside Fascist Greece Pro-fascist website.
Preceded by
Konstantinos Demertzis
Prime Minister of Greece
April 13, 1936 - January 29, 1941
Succeeded by
Alexandros Korizis

  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - Ioannis Metaxas (781 words)
Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941.
Ioannis Metaxas, architect of the famous Greek "No"?title=against Italian dictator Mussolini, with King George II of Greece, crown prince Paul of Greece and General Alexander Papagos at the successful Albanian Campaign against invading fascist Italy during World War II.
Metaxas died in Athens on January 29 of a phlegmon of the pharynx which subsequently led to uncurable toxaemia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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