FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Invincible class aircraft carrier
The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible.
The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible.

The Invincible-class aircraft carrier is a design currently in use by the Royal Navy. There are three carriers of this class in operation - HMS Invincible (R05, 1980), HMS Illustrious (R06, 1982) and HMS Ark Royal (R07, 1985) (initially planned as Indomitable). Image File history File links HMS_Invincible. ... Image File history File links HMS_Invincible. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship whose main role is to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... The sixth and current HMS Invincible (R05) is a light aircraft carrier, the lead ship of three in her class. ... The fifth HMS Illustrious (R06) is an Invincible-class light aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy, affectionately known as Lusty to her crew. ... HMS Ark Royal (R07), the last Invincible-class light aircraft carrier, is the fifth ship of the Royal Navy named in honour of the flagship of the English fleet that defeated the Spanish Armada. ...

Contents


Development

The original class design was for a 12,500 tonne anti-submarine escort carrier as a complement to the much larger CVA-01 fleet carrier project. The CVA-01 was cancelled in 1966 and the escort carrier design was reworked for a ASW cruiser with six helicopters and command capability. The helicopter complement was then increased to nine and the vessel was again redesigned into a 19,500 ton carrier. Politics determined that they were carefully termed 'through-deck cruisers' not 'aircraft carrier' by the RN: the cancellation of CVA-01 was intended to mean the UK's abandonment of aircraft carriers for good. The successful development of the Sea Harrier meant that the design was reworked again to include a small complement of these STOVL aircraft. In order to launch the Harrier from its comparatively short flight deck of 170 m, a 'ski-jump' was incorporated, with the slope initially set at 7° for Invincible and Illustrious and 12° for Ark Royal. The class also has a secondary role as an helicopter carrier, or LPH, in the reinforcement of NATO's Northern flank in Norway. HMS Ocean, with a hull form based on the Invincible class design, was commissioned in 1998 for this role. CVA-01 Carrier (Artists Impression) The CVA-01 Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carrier was designed to replace the small, warbuilt carriers of the Royal Navy in the 1960s. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE Systems Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ... HMS Ocean A Landing Platform, Helicopter is a warship designed to deliver troops into a war zone by helicopter, but which usually has a limited capability of landing troops by sea using small landing craft. ... The sixth HMS Ocean (L12) of the Royal Navy is a Landing Platform, Helicopter Cruiser, the only one in its class, built by Kvaerner Govan on the Clyde taking advantage of commercial build methods and facilities, before sailing from Barrow-in-Furness for fitting out prior to acceptance into service...


Armament

The ships are armed with a variety of weapons. As built, they had two 20 mm Oerlikon GAM-B01 guns, which they retain, and the Sea Dart surface-to-air missile mounted on the forecastle. Because of lessons learnt during the 1982 Falklands War, CIWS guns were added to the design. Illustrious having them fitted at the last minute before commissioning, Ark Royal had them added as a normal part of the building process, and Invincible had them fitted during her first overhaul after the Falklands. Initially, Invincible and Illustrious were fitted with two Vulcan Phalanx units; these have since been replaced with three Goalkeeper systems. Ark Royal on the other hand has the three Phalanx CIWS systems she was fitted with when built (she can be easily told from her sisters by Phalanx's distinctive white "R2-D2" radome). Electronic countermeasures are provided by a Thales jamming system and ECM system. Seagnat launchers provide for chaff or flare decoys. As part of upgrades during the mid 1990s, all three ships had the Sea Dart removed, with the forecastle filled in to increase the size of the flight deck. Oerlikon is a Swiss anti-aircraft artillery manufacturer made famous by its Oerlikon 20 mm autocannon design of 1914, used in the First and Second World Wars, and still today. ... Sea Dart Type surface-to-air, surface-to-surface Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform ship Target aircraft or ship History Builder British Aerospace Date of design Production period Service duration 1973 Operators UK (Royal Navy), Argentina Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was a war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, between March and June of 1982. ... Phalanx CIWS A Close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a naval shipboard weapon system for detecting and destroying incoming anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft at short range (the threat(s) having penetrated the ships available outer defences). ... Block 1B CIWS The Phalanx CIWS (Close-in weapon system, pronounced see-whizz) is an anti-missile system that was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. ... Goalkeeper CIWS Goalkeeper is a Dutch close-in weapon system, the purpose of which is to defend a ship against incoming missiles and ballistic shells. ... Block 1B CIWS The Phalanx CIWS (Close-in weapon system, pronounced see-whizz) is an anti-missile system that was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. ... For the weapons system nicknamed R2-D2, see Phalanx CIWS. R2-D2 (called R2 for short), is an astromech droid and colleague of C-3PO in the fictional Star Wars universe, created not long before 32 BBY. R2-D2 was played by Kenny Baker in all 6 Star Wars films... The Seagnat Control System (sometimes spelt SeaGnat or Sea Gnat) is a decoy system used on many NATO warships to safeguard against incoming missiles. ...


Falklands

Prior to 1982, Invincible's air group consisted purely of Sea King HAS1 anti-submarine aircraft and Sea Harrier FRS1 aircraft. Typically, nine Sea Kings, and four or five Sea Harriers were embarked. This was due to the fact that the originally envisioned mission for the ships was to provide the heart of ASW hunter-killer groups in the North Atlantic during a war against the Soviet Union. In that context, the main weapon of the carrier would not be its fighter aircraft, but its ASW helicopters. The fighters were on board to shoot down the occasional Soviet maritime patrol aircraft nosing around the ship and its escorts. 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sea King helicopter is the only helicopter used by the Norwegian rescue service The Westland Sea King is a license-built version of the Sikorsky helicopter of the same name, built by Westland Helicopters. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE Systems Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ...


The Falklands War changed all of that, since it proved that Britain still needed to retain the capability to use carrier air power in its traditional role of power projection, both over land, and against enemy fleets (the Falklands nearly saw the first carrier vs carrier battle since WWII). The Falklands had seen Invincible, and the other aircraft carrier deployed, the larger and older HMS Hermes filled to the gunwales with both the Sea Harrier, and the Royal Air Force Harrier GR3 ground attack variant of the aircraft, along with ASW helicopters. The RAF Harriers proved to be a temporary aberration at the time, but a permanent addition to the usual air group was made due to lessons learnt during the war. That addition was a new type of Sea King, an Sea King AEW2A (Airborne Early Warning) version. Illustrious carried the first examples of the type when it was rushed south in the aftermath of the Falklands to relieve Invincible of its guard duty around the islands. The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was a war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, between March and June of 1982. ... Power projection is a term used in military and political science (specifically international relations) circles, referring to the ability of a state to implement policy by means of force, or the threat thereof. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a military conflict that took place between 1939 and 1945. ... The second HMS Hermes (R12) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, the last of the postwar conventional aircraft carriers commissioned into the Royal Navy. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... See also BAE Sea Harrier The Hawker-Siddeley Harrier and the AV-8A are the first generation of the Harrier series, a successful close-support and reconnaissance fighter aircraft with V/STOL capabilities. ... The Westland Sea King ASaC7 is a Royal Navy helicopter operated in the Airborne Surveillance and Area Control (ASaC) role, previously the Airborne Early Warning (AEW) role. ... An Airborne Early Warning (AEW) system is a radar system carried by an aircraft which is designed to detect other aircraft. ...


In the aftermath of the Falklands, the typical air group was 3 AEW Sea Kings, 9 ASW Sea Kings and 8 or 9 Sea Harriers. Analysis of the Sea Harrier's performance during the war lead to the requirement for an upgrade, approval for which was granted in 1984. Initially to be known as the FRS.2, the Sea Harrier FA2 entered service on April 2, 1993, deploying on Invincible to Bosnia in 1994. The FA2 features the Blue Vixen radar which is described as one of the most advanced pulse Doppler radars in the world. The Blue Vixen formed the basis for the Typhoon's CAPTOR radar. The FA2 carries the AIM-120 AMRAAM. The final new-build Sea Harrier FA2 was delivered on January 18, 1999. Other improvements were made to the class during the 1980s and early 1990s, with probably the most important being the increase of the ski jump angle on Invincible and Illustrious to match the 12° slope of Ark Royal. See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE Systems Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... 2 April is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII in Roman) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... British Eurofighter Development Aircraft (DA) The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine multi-role canard-delta strike fighter aircraft, designed and built by a consortium of European aerospace manufacturers, Eurofighter GmbH, formed in 1983. ... CAPTOR Radar set The Euroradar CAPTOR (formerly ECR-90) is a next generation multi-mode pulse doppler radar designed for the Eurofighter Typhoon. ... The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM (pronounced am-ram), commonly known to air crews as the Slammer, is a modern air-to-air missile (AAM). ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Modernisation

In more recent years, three other changes have been made. One was the removal of the Sea Dart system, creating an increased deck park for aircraft, making the ships look a great deal more like pure aircraft carriers than the hybrid cruiser / aircraft carrier form in which they were originally built. It is quite surprising how much the removal of the SAM system and its associated fire control radars alters the lines of the ships. The Sea Dart magazines were converted to increase air-to-surface weapons stowage, and new aircrew briefing facilities created under the extended flight deck, both to support the embarkation of RAF Harrier GR7s as a routine part of the air group. The ships have all also been fitted to handle the new Merlin helicopters. The HM1 variant of the Merlin has replaced the HAS6 variant of the Sea King in the carrier-borne ASW role. Since the integration of the Harrier GR7, typical deployments have included 7 or 8 of those aircraft, pushing the Merling onto the carrier's escorting [[Fort class replenishment ship]. USS Port Royal, a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1994. ... The AgustaWestland EH101 is a medium-lift helicopter originally developed as a joint venture between Westland Helicopters in the UK and Agusta in Italy for military applications but also marketed for civil use. ...


The two most recent wartime deployments of the class have seen them in their secondary LPH role, as it was officially judged that Sea Harriers could provide no useful role in the missions. During those deployments, the class has embarked RAF Chinook helicopters, in lieu of their fixed wing complement. A field artillery section slingloading a M-198 howitzer for airlift by a CH-47 Chinook The CH-47 Chinook is a versatile, twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. ...


Future

The Sea Harrier retires on 1st April 2006, and went to sea for the last time in October 2005. From now until the decommissioning of the ships, their principal weapon will be the Harrier GR9 flown by two FAA and two RAF squadrons. Invincible was decommissioned in July 2005, and has been mothballed (available for reactivation on notice) until 2010. Illustrious has taken over as the Flagship and is planned to decommission in 2012, and Ark Royal in 2015, as two new, much larger future Royal Navy carriers. They are expected to displace around 60,000 tonnes each - three times the displacement of the Invincible class. Rumours that one of the Invincibles upon decommissioning will be converted into a full-time LPH to complement Ocean should be discounted because of the expense of running an aging, crew-intensive Invincible, and the limitations of the design in such a role. CVF, literally Aircraft Carrier Future, but commonly called the Future Carrier is a new generation of aircraft carrier being developed for the United Kingdoms Royal Navy. ... The sixth HMS Ocean (L12) of the Royal Navy is a Landing Platform, Helicopter Cruiser, the only one in its class, built by Kvaerner Govan on the Clyde taking advantage of commercial build methods and facilities, before sailing from Barrow-in-Furness for fitting out prior to acceptance into service...


The ships have given fine service to the Royal Navy during their careers, despite the inherent limitations of the design. Invincible played a large part in winning the largest naval war since WWII, and they have kept Royal Navy fixed wing aviation alive through a very lean period. The Fleet Air Arm is the operational group of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ...


Specification

  • Length: 209 m
  • Beam: 36.1 m
  • Draught: 8.4 m
  • Displacement: 20,400
  • Crew: around 1000 including aircrew, can carry an extra 500 soldiers
  • Power: 4 of Rolls-Royce Olympus gas turbines (COGAG) 100,000 shp (75 MW), 8 Paxman Valenta diesel generators.
  • Speed: 28 knots, 18 knots cruising
  • Range: 7000 nm at 18 knots


Rolls-Royce plc (LSE: RR.) (also known as Rolls-Royce Aero Engines) is the second-largest aircraft engine maker in the world, behind General Electrics GE Aircraft Engines division. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... Paxman is a major brand of diesel engines. ...

Invincible-class aircraft carrier
Invincible | Illustrious | Ark Royal

List of aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Aircraft carrier - definition of Aircraft carrier in Encyclopedia (2882 words)
Aircraft carriers are generally the largest ships operated by navies; a Nimitz-class carrier powered by two nuclear reactors and four steam turbines is 1092 ft (333 m) long and costs about $5 billion.
By the late 1930s, aircraft carriers around the world typically carried three types of aircraft: torpedo bombers, also used for conventional bombings and reconnaissance; dive bombers, also used for reconnaissance (in the US Navy this type of aircraft were known as "scout bombers"); and fighters for fleet defence and bomber escort duties.
Aircraft carriers played a significant role in World War II, the most notable of which is considered to be the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Invincible class aircraft carrier - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1351 words)
The original class design was for a 12,500 tonne anti-submarine escort carrier as a complement to the much larger CVA-01 fleet carrier project.
The Falklands had seen Invincible, and the other aircraft carrier deployed, the larger and older HMS Hermes filled to the gunwales with both the Sea Harrier, and the Royal Air Force Harrier GR3 ground attack variant of the aircraft, along with ASW helicopters.
Rumours that one of the Invincibles upon decommissioning will be converted into a full-time LPH to complement Ocean should be discounted because of the expense of running an aging, crew-intensive Invincible, and the limitations of the design in such a role.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m