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Encyclopedia > Investment
Finance

Financial Markets
Bond market
Stock (Equities) Market
Forex market
Derivatives market
Commodities market
Spot (cash) Market
OTC market
Real Estate market
Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 183 KB) Wall Street Sign. ... In economics a financial market is a mechanism that allows people to easily buy and sell (trade) financial securities (such as stocks and bonds), commodities (such as precious metals or agricultural goods), and other fungible items of value at low transaction costs and at prices that reflect efficient markets. ... The bond market, also known as the debit, credit, or fixed income market, is a financial market where participants buy and sell debt securities usually in the form of bonds. ... The New York Stock Exchange A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... In finance, the exchange rate between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. ... The derivatives markets are the financial markets for derivatives. ... Chicago Board of Trade Commodity market Commodity markets are markets where raw or primary products are exchanged. ... Template:The Spot Market The Spot Market or Cash Marketis a commodities or securities market in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) trading is to trade financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, or derivatives directly between two parties. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...

Market Participants
Investors
Speculators
Institutional Investors
There are two basic financial market participant catagories, Investor vs. ... Investment is a term with several closely related meanings in finance and economics. ... Speculation is the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, commodities, futures, currencies, collectibles, real estate, or any valuable thing to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income - dividends, rent etc. ... An institutional investor is an investor who is an institution like a bank, insurance fund, retirement fund, or mutual fund manager. ...

Corporate finance
Structured finance
Capital budgeting
Financial risk management
Mergers and Acquisitions
Accounting
Financial Statements
Auditing
Credit rating agency
Corporate finance is a specific area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools as well as analyses used to make these decisions. ... Structured finance describes any non-standard way of raising money. ... The process of determining which potential long-term projects are worth undertaking, by comparing their expected discounted cash flows with their internal rates of return. ... Financial risk management is the practice of creating value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk. ... Merger redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... Historical financial statement Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of a business financial activities. ... Basic definition Audit is the examination of records and reports of a company, in order to check that what is provided is relevant and accurate. ... A credit rating agency, credit reporting agency (CRA), or credit bureau (US), or credit reference agency (UK) is a company that assigns credit ratings for corporations and individuals. ...

Personal finance
Credit and Debt
Employment contract
Retirement
Financial planning
Personal finance is the application of the principles of finance to the monetary decisions of an individual or family unit. ... Look up credit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... An employment contract is an agreement entered into between an employer and an employee at the commencement of the period of employment and stating the exact nature of their business relationship, specifically what compensation the employee will receive in exchange for specific work performed. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment. ... A financial planner is a professional who helps people with various financial needs including: college planning, retirement planning, investments, life insurance, estate planning and more. ...

Public finance
Tax
Public finance (government finance) is the field of economics that deals with budgeting the revenues and expenditures of a public sector entity, usually government. ... This article is the current Taxation Collaboration of the Month. ...

Banks and Banking
Central Bank
List of banks
Deposits
Loan
Banker redirects here; see wiktionary:banker for more meanings. ... [[NatThis is a list of banks throughout the world. ... Main article deposit (bank) A deposit is a specific sum of money taken and held on account, by a bank as a service provided for its clients. ... A loan is a type of debt. ...

Financial regulation
Finance designations
Accounting scandals
Financial supervision is government supervision of financial institutions by regulators. ... There are a variety of Finance designations or Accreditations that can be earned, and awarded to those in the finance industry. ... Accounting scandals, or corporate accounting scandals are political and business scandals which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by trusted executives of large public corporations. ...

History of finance
Stock market bubble
Recession
Stock market crash
A stock market bubble is a type of economic bubble taking place in stock markets, in which a wave of public enthusiasm causes an exaggerated bull market. ... A recession is traditionally defined in macroeconomics as a decline in a countrys real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for two or more successive quarters of a year (equivalently, two consecutive quarters of negative real economic growth). ... Black Monday (1987) on the Dow Jones Industrial Average A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market. ...

v d

Investment or investing[1] is a term with several closely-related meanings in business management, finance and economics, related to saving or deferring consumption. An asset is usually purchased, or equivalently a deposit is made in a bank, in hopes of getting a future return or interest from it. Literally, the word means the "action of putting something in to somewhere else" (perhaps originally related to a person's garment or 'vestment'). Invest may refer to: One of the biggest mistakes in investing is overpaying for the investment. ... Management (from Old French ménagement the art of conducting, directing, from Latin manu agere to lead by the hand) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In common usage, saving generally means putting money aside, for example, by putting money in the bank or investing in a pension plan. ... In Keynesian economics consumption refers to personal consumption expenditure, i. ... In business and accounting an asset is anything owned which can produce future economic benefit, whether in possession or by right to take possession, by a person or a group acting together, e. ... In finance, the return on investment (ROI) or just return is a calculation used to determine whether a proposed investment is wise, and how well it will repay the investor. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran and Anglican Churches. ...

Contents

Types of investment

The difference in the use of the term investment between the economics field and the finance field is that economists refer to a real investment (such as a machine or a house), while financial economists refer to a financial asset, such as money that is put into a bank or the market, which may then be used to buy a real asset.


Business Management

The investment decision (also known as capital budgeting) is one of the fundamental decisions of business management: managers determine the assets that the business enterprise obtains; these assets may be physical (e.g. buildings or machinery), intangible (e.g. patents, software, goodwill), or financial (see below). Whatever the type of asset, the manager must assess whether the net present value of the investment to the enterprise is positive; the net present value is calculated using the enterprise's marginal cost of capital. The process of determining which potential long-term projects are worth undertaking, by comparing their expected discounted cash flows with their internal rates of return. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). ... Net present value (NPV) is a standard method for financial evaluation of long-term projects. ... The cost of capital for a firm is a weighted sum of the cost of equity and the cost of debt (see the financing decision). ...


Economics

  • In economics, investment means the production per unit of time of goods which are not consumed but instead to be used for future production. Examples include tangibles (such as building a railroad or factory) and nontangibles (such as a year of schooling or on-the-job training). In measures of national income and output, gross investment I is also a component of GDP, given in the formula GDP = C + I + G + NX. I is divided into non-residential investment (such as factories, machinery, etc.) and residential investment (new houses). Net investment deducts depreciation from gross investment. It is the value of the net increase in the capital stock per year.
  • Investment, as production over a period of time ("per year"), is not (yet) capital. The time dimension of investment makes it a flow. This is in contrast to capital, which is a stock, that is, an accumulation measurable at at a point in time (say December 31st).
  • Investment is often modelled as a function of income and interest rates, given by the relation I = f(Y, r). An increase in income will encourage higher investment, whereas a higher interest rate may discourage investment as it becomes costlier to borrow money. Even if a firm chooses to use its own funds in an investment, the interest rate represents an opportunity cost of investing those funds rather than loaning them out for interest.

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A good or commodity in economics is any object or service that increases utility, directly or indirectly, not be confused with good in a moral or ethical sense (see Utilitarianism and consequentialist ethical theory). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... A factory worker in 1940s Fort Worth, Texas. ... Template:Push up GNP redirects here. ... Declining-balance depreciation of a $50,000 asset with $6,500 salvage value over 20 years. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... In economics, the distinction is often made between stock magnitudes and flow magnitudes. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... In economics, opportunity cost, or economic cost, is the cost of something in terms of an opportunity forgone (and the benefits that could be received from that opportunity), or the most valuable forgone alternative (or highest-valued option forgone), i. ...

Finance

  • Types of financial investments include shares or other equity investment, and bonds (including bonds denominated in foreign currencies). These financial assets are then expected to provide income or positive future cash flows, but may increase or decrease in value giving the investor capital gains or losses.
  • Trades in contingent claims or derivative securities do not necessarily have future positive expected cash flows - so are not considered to be assets, or strictly speaking, securities or investments. Nevertheless, since their cash flows are closely related to (or derived from) those of specific securities, they are often studied as or treated as investments.

Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... For security (collateral), the legal right given to a creditor by a borrower, see security interest A security is a fungible, negotiable interest representing financial value. ... A money market is a financial market for short-term borrowing and lending, typically up to thirteen months. ... The capital market (securities markets)is the market for securities, where companies and the government can raise long-term funds. ... Market liquidity is a business or economics term that refers to the ability to quickly buy or sell a particular item without causing a significant movement in the price. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Valuation can mean: Look up valuation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Equity investment generally refers to the buying and holding of shares of stock on a stock market by individuals and funds in anticipation of income from dividends and capital gain as the value of the stock rises. ... In finance, a bond is a debt security, in which the issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to repay the principal and interest (the coupon) at a later date, termed maturity. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Derivatives traders at the Chicago Board of Trade. ... In barter, an intermediary is a person or group who stores valuables in trade until they are needed, parties to the barter or others have space available to take delivery of them and store them, or until other conditions are met. ... Banker redirects here; see wiktionary:banker for more meanings. ... A mutual fund is a form of collective investment that pools money from many investors and invests their money in stocks, bonds, short-term money market instruments, and/or other securities. ... A pension (also known as superannuation) is a retirement plan intended to provide a person with a secure income for life. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... A collective investment scheme is a way of investing money with other people to participate in a wider range of investments than may be feasible for an individual investor and to share the costs of doing so. ... An investment club is a group of individuals who meet on a regular basis for the purpose of investing money. ...

Personal finance

  • Within personal finance, money used to purchase shares, put in a collective investment scheme or used to buy any asset where there is an element of capital risk is deemed an investment. Saving within personal finance refers to money put aside, normally on a regular basis. This distinction is important as investment risk can cause a capital loss when an investment is realized, unlike saving(s) where the more limited risk is cash devaluing due to inflation.
  • In many instances the term saving and investment are used interchangeably which confuses this distinction. For example many deposit accounts are labeled as investment accounts by banks for marketing purposes. To help establish whether an asset is saving(s) or an investment you should consider where your money is invested. If the answer is cash then it is savings, if it is a type of asset which can fluctuate in value then it is investment.

Personal finance is the application of the principles of finance to the monetary decisions of an individual or family unit. ... See stock (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term stock A stock, also referred to as a share, is commonly a share of ownership in a corporation. ... A collective investment scheme is a way of investing money with other people to participate in a wider range of investments than may be feasible for an individual investor and to share the costs of doing so. ... Save might refer to: Save (sport) - to stop a goal or maintain the lead To save a document in computer file management (see also Saving a webpage) The River Save (Zimbabwe), Zimbabwe The River Save (Hungary), Hungary -- joins the Danube just above Belgrade. ... On ground of assurance of the return, there are two kinds of Investments - Riskless and Risky. ... In common usage, saving generally means putting money aside, for example, by putting money in the bank or investing in a pension plan. ... A deposit account is an account at a banking institution that allows money to be held on behalf of the account holder. ...

Real Estate Investment

  • Within real estate, money used to purchase property for the sole purpose of holding or leasing for income and where there is an element of capital risk is deemed a real estate investment. Real Estate investment is distinct from other forms of economic or financial investment in that a real estate is purchased.

Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Property designates those things that are commonly recognized as being the possessions of a person or group. ...

See also

Appreciation is a term used in accounting relating to the increase in value of an asset. ... Most generally, the accumulation of capital refers simply to the gathering or amassment of objects of value; the increase in wealth; or the creation of wealth. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Diversification (finance). ... In finance and economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of asset, for either financial or social goals. ... Financial economics is the branch of economics concerned with resource allocation over time. ... Foreign direct investment (FDI) is defined as a long-term investment by a foreign direct investor in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that in which the foreign direct investor is based. ... This article discusses buying gold as an investment. ... An investor profile or style defines an investors preferences in money decisions, for example: Short term trading or Long term holding (buy and hold Risk averse or risk tolerant / seeker All classes of assets or just one (stocks for example) Value or growth stocks, big cap or small cap... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Kelly criterion. ... Bull and bear statues in front of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange In investing, financial markets are commonly believed to have market trends that can be classified as primary trends, secondary trends (short-term), and secular trends (long-term). ... A megaproject is an extremely large scale investment project. ... Philatelic Investment, the investment of funds in collectible postage stamps for the purpose of realizing a profit, is a relatively recent phenomenon. ... The Securities and Exchange Commissions Regulation Fair Disclosure, also commonly referred to as Regulation FD or Reg FD was an SEC ruling implemented in October 2000 ([1]). It mandated that all publicly traded companies must disclose material information to all investors at the same time. ... It has been suggested that Rate of return on investment be merged into this article or section. ... In common usage, saving generally means putting money aside, for example, by putting money in the bank or investing in a pension plan. ... A 500 gram silver bullion bar Silver, like other precious metals, may be used as an investment. ... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... A stock trader or a stock investor is an individual or firm who buys and sells financial instruments (such as stocks or bonds) in the financial markets. ... The New York Stock Exchange Value investing is a style of investment strategy from the so-called Graham & Dodd School. ... This is a list of over 200 articles on marketing topics. ... This is a list of articles on general management and strategic management topics. ... This aims to be a complete list of the articles on economics. ... This is a list of topics which are relevant to Accountancy. ... What follows is a list of over 250 Wikipedia articles on finance topics. ... This is an alphabetical list of well-known economists. ...

Notes

  1. ^ British- and American English, respectively.

English language prevalence in the United States. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Investment - Encyclopedia Article (147 words)
Investment is a term with several closely related meanings in finance and economics.
In theoretical economics, investment means the production of capital goods - goods which are not consumed but instead used in future production.
In finance, investment means buying assets, for example equity investment or real estate investment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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