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Encyclopedia > Invertebrate
Thelenota ananas, a sea cucumber (phylum: Echinodermata)
Thelenota ananas, a sea cucumber (phylum: Echinodermata)

An invertebrate is an animal lacking a vertebral column. The group includes 97% of all animal species[1] — all animals except those in the Chordate subphylum Vertebrata (fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals). Orders Subclass Apodacea Apodida Molpadiida Subclass Aspidochirotacea Aspidochirotida Elasipodida Subclass Dendrochirotacea Dactylochirotida Dendrochirotida The sea cucumber is an echinoderm of the class Holothuroidea, with an elongated body and leathery skin, which is found on the sea floor worldwide. ... Classes Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Crinoidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoderms (Echinodermata) is a phylum of marine animals found in the ocean at all depths. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...


Carolus Linnaeus' Systema Naturae divided these animals into only two groups, the Insecta and the now-obsolete vermes (worms). Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who was appointed to the position of "Curator of Insecta and Vermes" at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in 1793, both coined the term "invertebrate" to describe such and divided the original two groups into ten, by splitting off Arachnida and Crustacea from the Linnean Insecta, and Mollusca, Annelida, Cirripedia, Radiata, Coelenterata and Infusoria from the Linnean Vermes. They are now classified into over 30 phyla, from simple organisms such as sea sponges and flatworms to complex animals such as arthropods and molluscs. Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Vermes (worms) is an obsolete taxon used by Carolus Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck for all non-arthropod invertebrate animals. ... Worms may refer to: The plural form of worm Worms (computer game), a series of turn-based computer games Worms, Germany, a city in the southwest of Germany René Worms, founder of the Institut International de Sociologie in 1893 Worms (family) The common term for an animals condition of... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... The Muséum national dHistoire naturelle (MNHN) is the French national museum of natural history. ... Orders Acarina Amblypygi Araneae Opiliones Palpigradi Pseudoscorpionida Ricinulei Schizomida Scorpiones Solifugae Uropygi The arachnids, Arachnida, are a class of invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ... Classes Remipedia Cephalocarida Branchiopoda Ostracoda Maxillopoda Malacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods (55,000 species), usually treated as a subphylum. ... Classes Aplacophora † ?Bellerophontida Bivalvia Caudofoveata Cephalopoda Gastropoda † Helcionelloida Monoplacophora Polyplacophora † Rostroconchia Scaphopoda † Tentaculita The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum of invertebrate animals known as Mollusca. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata    Oligochaeta - Earthworms and others    Acanthobdellida    Branchiobdellida    Hirudinea - Leeches Class Myzostomida Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic) Class Echiura *Some authors consider the subclasses under Clitellata to be classes The annelids, collectively called Annelida, are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented worms, with about... Orders Ascothoracica Acrothoracica Thoracica Rhizocephala A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea and is hence distantly related to crabs and lobsters. ... Phyla Cnidaria Ctenophora The Radiata are the radially symmetric animals of the Eumetazoa subregnum. ... Phyla Ctenophora Cnidaria Coelenterata is an obsolete yet common term encompassing two animal phyla, the Ctenophora (comb jellies) and the Cnidaria (coral animals, true jellies, sea anemones, sea pens, and their allies). ... Infusoria is a collective term for minute aquatic creatures like ciliates, euglena, paramecia, protozoa and unicellular algae that exist in freshwater pond water. ... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Platyhelminthes Wikispecies has information related to: Platyhelminthes The flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes from the Greek platy, meaning flat and helminth, meaning worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes Aplacophora † ?Bellerophontida Bivalvia Caudofoveata Cephalopoda Gastropoda † Helcionelloida Monoplacophora Polyplacophora † Rostroconchia Scaphopoda † Tentaculita The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum of invertebrate animals known as Mollusca. ...


Invertebrates form a paraphyletic group. (For a full list of animals considered to be invertebrates, see animal.) All the listed phyla are invertebrates along with two of the three subphyla in Phylum Chordata: Urochordata and Cephalochordata. These two, plus all the other known invertebrates, have only one cluster of Hox genes, while the vertebrates have duplicated their original cluster more than once. Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Classes Ascidiacea Thaliacea Appendicularia Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates or sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with input and output siphons. ... Families Asymmetronidae Branchiostomidae The lancelets (subphylum Cephalochordata, and traditionally known as the amphioxus) are a group of primitive chordates. ... A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. ...


Within paleozoology and paleobiology, invertebrates big and small are often studied within the fossil discipline called invertebrate paleontology. Paleozoology (Greek: paleon = old and zoon = animal) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of animal remains from archeological (or even geological) contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and economies. ... Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... A Classification of Invertebrate Paleontology Kingdom Protoctista Phylum Protozoa Subphylum Sarcomastigophora Class Sarcodina Subclass Rhizopoda Order Foraminifera Suborder Allogromiina Suborder Textulariina Suborder Fusulinina Suborder Miliolina Suborder Rotaliina Subclass Actinopoda Order Radiolaria Kingdom Monera Division Schizomycophyta (bacteria) Division Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera (sponges) Phylum Coelenterata / Cnidaria Phylum Bryzoa Phylum...

Contents

Phyla and common examples

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2332 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2332 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Calopteryx virgo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Beautiful Demoiselle Calopteryx virgo is a European damselfly. ... Families Amphipterygidae Calopterygidae - Demoiselles Chlorocyphidae - Jewels Coenagrionidae - Pond Damselflies Dicteriadidae - Barelegs Euphaeidae - Gossamerwings Hemiphlebidae - Reedlings Isosticidae - Narrow-wings Lestidae - Spreadwings Lestoididae Megapodagrionidae - Flatwings Perilestidae - Shortwings Platycnemidae - Brook Damselflies Platystictidae - Forest Damselflies Polythoridae - Bannerwings Protoneuridae - Pinflies Pseudostigmatidae - Forest Giants Synlestidae - Sylphs The Damselfly (Suborder Zygoptera) is an insect in the Order... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata    Oligochaeta - Earthworms and others    Acanthobdellida    Branchiobdellida    Hirudinea - Leeches Class Myzostomida Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic) Class Echiura *Some authors consider the subclasses under Clitellata to be classes The annelids, collectively called Annelida, are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented worms, with about... For the LPG album, see The Earthworm (album). ... For other uses, see Leech (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Palpata Scoleoida Tomopteris from plankton The Polychaeta or polychaetes are a class of annelid worms, generally marine. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Arachnid (disambiguation). ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Subphylum/Classes[2] Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones Medusozoa:[1] Cubozoa â€” sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa â€” hydroids, hydra-like animals Polypodiozoa Scyphozoa — jellyfish Staurozoa — stalked jellyfish Unranked: Myxozoa - parasites Cnidaria[3] (pronounced [4]) is a phylum containing some 11,000 species of apparently simple animals found exclusively in aquatic... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Families Many, see text. ... Species Hydra americana Hydra attenuata (or Hydra vulgaris) Hydra canadensis Hydra carnea Hydra cauliculata Hydra circumcincta Hydra hymanae Hydra littoralis Hydra magnipapillata Hydra minima Hydra oligactis Hydra oregona Hydra pseudoligactis Hydra rutgerensis Hydra utahensis Hydra viridis Hydra viridissima Hydra is a genus of simple, fresh-water animals possessing radial symmetry. ... Subphyla & Classes Homalozoa Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea Homoiostelea Stylophora † Ctenocystoidea Robison & Sprinkle, 1969 Crinozoa Crinoidea Paracrinoidea † Regnéll, 1945 Cystoidea †von Buch, 1846 Asterozoa Ophiuroidea Asteroidea Echinozoa Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiocistioidea Helicoplacoidea † Arkarua † Homalozoa † Pelmatozoa † Edrioasteroidea † Blastozoa † Blastoidea † Eocrinoidea †Jaekel, 1899 † = extinct Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata, from the Greek for spiny skin... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[1]) Paxillosida (255 species[1]) Notomyotida (75 species[1]) Spinulosida (120 species[1]) Valvatida (695 species[1]) Velatida (200 species[1]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Subclass Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Subclass Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Wikispecies has information related to... Orders Subclass Apodacea Apodida Molpadiida Subclass Aspidochirotacea Aspidochirotida Elasipodida Subclass Dendrochirotacea Dactylochirotida Dendrochirotida The sea cucumber is an echinoderm of the class Holothuroidea, with an elongated body and leathery skin, which is found on the sea floor worldwide. ... Classes Aplacophora † ?Bellerophontida Bivalvia Caudofoveata Cephalopoda Gastropoda † Helcionelloida Monoplacophora Polyplacophora † Rostroconchia Scaphopoda † Tentaculita The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum of invertebrate animals known as Mollusca. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... Classes Nectonematoida Gordioidea Nematomorpha (sometimes called Gordiacea, and commonly known as horsehair worms or Gordian worms) are a phylum of parasitic animals which are morphologically and ecologically similar to nematode worms, hence the name. ... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek platy: flat; helminth: worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Platyhelminthes Wikispecies has information related to: Platyhelminthes The flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes from the Greek platy, meaning flat and helminth, meaning worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... The sponge, in the phylum Porifera, is a very primitive and specialized animal. ... This article is about the aquatic animal. ...

Macroinvertebrates

The term macroinvertebrates is traditionally used to refer to aquatic invertebrates including insects (e.g. larval Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera), crustaceans (e.g. amphipods), molluscs (e.g. aquatic snails) and worms (e.g. Platyhelminthes), which inhabit a river channel, pond, lake, wetland or ocean. Historically, their abundance and diversity have been used as an indicator of ecosystem health and of local biodiversity. They are a key component of the food chain. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... The mayflies are an order (Ephemeroptera) of insects that grow up in fresh water, and live very briefly as adults, as little as a few hours but more typically a day or two. ... Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Families about 200 partial list Alpheidae Ampeliscidae Amphilochidae Ampithoidae Anisogammaridae Aoridae Artesiidae Bogideillidae Bosminidae Caprellidae Corophiidae Crangonyctidae Eusiridae Gammaridae Hadziidae Haustoriidae Iphimediidae Ischyroceridae Leucothoidae Liljeborgiidae Lysianassidae Melitidae Phoxocephalidae Sebidae Talitridae Amphipoda (amphipods) include about 4600 different species of small, shrimp_like crustaceans. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Worm (disambiguation). ... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek platy: flat; helminth: worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ...


Most indices that are used to determine water quality rank the various forms of benthic macroinvertebrates with respect to pollution sensitivity. The presence of pollution sensitive macroinvertebrates indicates that the body of water is healthy. Alternatively, the excessive presence of pollution tolerant macroinvertebrates indicates poor water quality. Ideally, a healthy body of water will hold an abundant and diverse macroinvertebrate population. In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ...


The macroinvertebrates traditionally seen as being pollution sensitive include: mayflies (Ephemeroptera), caddisflies (trichoptera), and stoneflies (Plecoptera). The macroinvertebrates that have been traditionally considered pollution tolerant include: aquatic worms (Oligocheata), leeches (Hirudinea) and non-biting midges or commonly known as "blood worms" (Chironomidae). Suborders Suborder Schistonota  Superfamily Baetoidea    Siphlonuridae    Baetidae    Oniscigastridae    Ameletopsidae    Ametropodidae  Superfamily Heptagenioidea    Coloburiscidae    Oligoneuriidae    Isonychiidae    Heptageniidae  Superfamily Leptophlebioidea    Leptophlebiidae  Superfamily Ephemeroidea    Behningiidae    Potamanthidae    Euthyplociidae    Polymitarcydae    Ephemeridae    Palingeniidae Suborder Pannota  Superfamily Ephemerelloidea    Ephemerellidae    Leptohyphidae    Tricorythidae  Superfamily Caenoidea    Neoephemeridae    Baetiscidae    Caenidae    Prosopistomatidae Mayflies are insects which belong to the Order Ephemeroptera (from... Trichoptera, or caddis fly as they are more commonly known, can be divided into two groups, those which live in standing water (such as pond and lakes) and those which live in flowing water (rivers and streams). ... Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies. ...


Flow, food, habitat and water quality are the primary determinants of macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity. Food sources include phytoplankton, biofilms (i.e. the layers of bacteria or other micro-organisms that cover submerged surfaces) and terrestrial organic material (e.g. leaves) that enter the water from the riparian vegetation. Major predation occurs from other macroinvertebrates and fish. Key habitats for macroinvertebrates are the benthic sediments, aquatic vegetation and woody debris. Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity have a significant impact. Look up flow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Oxygen saturation or dissolved oxygen (DO) is a measure of amount of oxygen dissolved in a given medium. ... Turbidity standards of 5, 50, and 500 NTU Turbidity is a cloudiness or haziness of a fluid, or of air, caused by individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. ...


There are many different kinds of arthropods. but they mainly have the structure of a segmented body and jointed legs.


See also

  • Marine invertebrates
  • Life Cycle of Macroinvertebrates

http://www.lakecountyohio.org/soil/monitoring_information.htm


Macroinvertebrates go through a life cycle in usually one season or less. They go through complete or incomplete metamorphosis. Learn more about the stages at this website.


References

  1. ^ Encarta Reference Library Premium 2005 DVD. Article - Invertebrate.

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ...

Further reading

  • Hyman, L. H. 1940. The Invertebrates (6 volumes) New York : McGraw-Hill. A classic work.
  • Anderson, D. T. (Ed.). (2001). Invertebrate zoology (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Brusca, R. C., & Brusca, G. J. (2003). Invertebrates (2nd ed.). Sunderland, Mass. : Sinauer Associates.
  • Miller, S.A., & Harley, J.P. (1996). Zoology (4th ed.). Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill.
  • Pechenik, Jan A. (2005). Biology of the invertebrates. Boston: McGraw-Hill, Higher Education, 590 pp. ISBN 0072348992. 
  • Ruppert, E. E., Fox, R. S., & Barnes, R. D. (2004). Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach. Belmont, CA: Thomas-Brooks/Cole.

Libbie Henrietta Hyman (Dec 6, 1888- Aug 3, 1969), zoologist, was born in Des Moines, Iowa, the daughter of Joseph Hyman and Sabina Neumann. ...

External links

  • A. R. Maggenti & S. Gardner (2005). Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology. 
  • Support for endangered invertebrates

  Results from FactBites:
 
Invertebrate - MSN Encarta (1892 words)
Invertebrates live in a vast range of habitats, from forests and deserts to caves and seabed mud.
Among the simplest invertebrates are the sponges (phylum Porifera).
Some invertebrates reproduce by asexual reproduction, in which all offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
Invertebrate Printouts - EnchantedLearning.com (1435 words)
Invertebrates are are cold-blooded; their body temperature depends on the temperature of their environment.
The limpet is a marine invertebrate (a gastropod) with a flattened, cone-shaped shell.
Whelks are marine invertebrates with a spiral shell.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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