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Encyclopedia > Inventor

An inventor is a person who creates or discovers new methods, means, or devices for performing a task. The word inventor comes form the latin verb invenire, invent-, to find.[1][2] Though most commonly used to specifically describe those who have been granted a patent (see inventor (patent)), casual usage generally encompases those performing creative acts in categories well beyond those recognized by governments in the grant of exclusionary rights. Inventor may refer to: Inventor, the occupational or personal trait. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... In patent law, an inventor is the person, or persons in United States patent law, who contribute to the claims of a patentable invention. ...

Contents

Artistic Invention

Invention has a long and important history in the arts. Inventive thinking has always played a vital role in the creative process. Some inventions in the arts are patentable and some are not.


Invention in Visual Art


Artists, designers and architects commonly think like inventors, though only a rare few are inventors and not all inventions in the visual arts are patentable. Like other inventors, artists, designers and architects commonly question convention and if it is not useful or optimal, they discard it. Their creative process involves exploring their subject at a fundemental level, pushing against barriers, and breaking into new, unknown territory where unanticipated challenges confront them in the effort to create meaningful work that is unlike anything that has ever existed before.


Some visual artists like Picasso become inventors in the process of creating art. While the inventions of others are separate from their art. Leonardo's scientific inventions are examples. Among other artists, designers and architects who are or were inventors are: Georges Braque, Alexander Calder, Marcel Duchamp, Le Corbusier, Naum Gabo, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Buckminster Fuller, Jackson Pollock, Man Ray, Yves Klein, Henry N. Cobb, I. M. Pei, Kenneth Snelson, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, Helen Frankenthaler and Charles Hoberman. Some of their inventions have been patented. Others might have fulfilled the requirements of a patent, like the Cubist image invented by Picasso and Braque, and the collage invented by Picasso. There are also inventions in visual art that do not fit into the requirements of a patent in any country, such as Duchamp's readymade.


Inventions in the visual arts that may be patentable might be new processes, they might be new materials (mediums, compositions), or they might be novel designs. An example of the patenting of an artist method/process is the patent by Yves Klein on a particular blue.[3][4] This blue color is known as "Kleinian Blue" or International Klein Blue. Inventions by Louis Comfort Tiffany, Buckminster Fuller, Kenneth Snelson, and others are also in patents. Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ... The International Klein Blue (IKB) is a deep blue hue first mixed by the French artist Yves Klein. ...


Invention in Other Arts


Invention is critical in other arts. An example is actor Paul Newman's statement of his reasons for retiring from acting, "You start to lose your memory, your confidence, your invention. So that's pretty much a closed book for me."[5] This article is about the American actor and race team owner. ...


Invention in Mathematics

Inventions in mathematics may be indelibly associated with a given person, such as Stirling's formula associated with James Stirling. Some philosophers of mathematics[attribution needed] dispute the notion that mathematical objects may be "invented". They propose that mathematical objects exist independently of mathematicians as abstract objects, so that mathematicians can only "discover" them. In that sense, Stirling is the discoverer of the eponymous formula, not its inventor. In mathematics, Stirlings approximation (or Stirlings formula) is an approximation for large factorials. ... James Stirling (April 22, 1692–December 5, 1770) was a Scottish mathematician. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... For other uses, see Abstract It is a commonplace in philosophy that every thing or object is either abstract or concrete. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ...


Distinguished from trademark or "-esque"[dubious ]

Sometimes a characteristic of a creation like an artwork, a body of artwork or even an invention is so distinctive that it becomes identified with its creator and is thus considered to be that creator's trademark (whether it meets the legal criteria for a trademark or not). Although such a trademark can be an invention, it usually is not. Occasionally when such a trademark or something similar to it is visible in a work (esp. an artwork) by someone other its owner, it is identified by appending the trademark owner's name with the suffix "esque", e.g. "Rubenesque Woman Has Picassoesque Face".[6]


The distinction between the "-esque" characteristic and trademark on an artist's name is subtle and has been litigated.


Artistic printed designs can be copyrighted and artistic mechanical designs can be patented (with a D prefix on the patent number in the US).


Formal sense

Inventorship is a key determination in establishing patent rights. The system of patents was established to encourage inventors by granting limited-term, limited monopoly on inventions determined to be sufficiently novel, non-obvious, and useful. In the U.S. the intellectual property clause of the Constitution permits laws to be passed establishing patent and other intellectual property rights. In patent law, an inventor is the person, or persons in United States patent law, who contribute to the claims of a patentable invention. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the economic term. ... Novelty is a patentability test, according to which an invention is not patentable if it was already known before the date of filing, or before the date of priority if a priority is claimed, of the patent application. ... The inventive step and non-obviousness reflect a same general patentability requirement present in most patent laws, according to which an invention should be sufficiently inventive, i. ... In United States patent law, utility is a patentability requirement. ... The intellectual property clause of the United States Constitution confers power on the United States Congress. ... Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of government, Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ...


See also

Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ... This is a list of inventors. ... For a list of engineers see: List of aerospace engineers List of chemical engineers List of civil engineers List of electrical engineers List of industrial engineers List of materials engineers List of mechanical engineers List of inventors List of architects List of urban planners List of scientists List of heroic... This page contains links to lists of scientists. ... The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanitys understanding of science and technology has changed over the millennia. ... An inventors notebook is used by inventors, scientists and engineers to record their ideas, invention process, experimental tests and results and observations. ... In patent law, an inventor is the person, or persons in United States patent law, who contribute to the claims of a patentable invention. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ...

References

External links

East London Inventors Club (also known as ELIC) was setup at the University of East London (at their Docklands campus) as a way for inventors in the area to get together and share their expertise and resources. ...

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