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Encyclopedia > Invention

An invention is an object, process, or technique which displays an element of novelty. An invention may sometimes be based on earlier developments, collaborations or ideas, and the process of invention requires at least the awareness that an existing concept or method can be modified or transformed into an invention. However, some inventions also represent a radical breakthrough in science or technology which extends the boundaries of human knowledge. Legal protection can sometimes be granted to an invention by way of a patent. In music, an invention is a short composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with two-part counterpoint. ... Illustration of a physical process: a geyser in action. Process (lat. ... Novelty is a patentability test, according to which an invention is not patentable if it was already known before the date of filing, or before the date of priority if a priority is claimed, of the patent application. ... Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...

Contents

The process of invention

Over time, humanity invented objects and methods for accomplishing tasks which fulfill some purpose in a new or different manner, usually with the objective of realizing that purpose in a faster, more efficient, easier or cheaper way. This article is about modern humans. ...


Ideas as a starting point

Although a new or useful object or method may be developed to fulfill a specific purpose, the original idea may never be fully realised as a working invention, perhaps because the concept is in some way unrealistic or impractical. IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute...


A "castle in the air" or a "pie in the sky" (or "castles in Spain") may refer to a creative idea which does not reach fruition due to practical considerations. The history of invention is full of such castles, because inventions are not necessarily invented in the order that is most useful; for example, the design of the parachute was worked out before the invention of powered flight. Other inventions simply solve problems for which there is no economic incentive to provide a solution. For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... This article is about the device. ... For other uses, see Flight (disambiguation). ...


On the other hand, any barriers to implementation may simply be an issue of engineering or technology which can be overcome in time with scientific advances. History is also replete with examples of ideas which have taken some time to reach physical reality, as demonstrated by various ideas originally attributed to Leonardo da Vinci which are now expressed in everyday physical form. Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...


Commercialization

Inventors may be inspired to invent through a desire to create something new or better, simple altruism, or for competitive or commercial reasons. An invention may also result from a combination of these motivating factors. Although many inventors may have in mind the commercialization of their product, very few will secure the funding and support often needed to develop and launch a product in the marketplace, and fewer still will experience lasting commercial success or the economic reward they may have expected. However, inventor associations and clubs and business incubators can be used to provide the mentoring, commercial skills and economic resources which private inventors may often lack. Entrepreneurship and an awareness of the demands of a changing marketplace are typical characteristics of successful inventors. For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. ...


Most great inventors developed countless prototypes, changing their designs innumerable times. Today much emphasis is placed on research and development, prototyping and finding solutions. This is a list of inventors. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use...


Inventions are one of the chief examples of "positive externalities" (an economist's name for a beneficial side-effect that falls on those outside a transaction or activity). One of the central concepts of economics is that externalities should be internalized: unless some of the benefits of this positive externality can be captured by the parties, the parties will be under-rewarded for their inventions, and systematic under-rewarding will lead to under investment in activities that lead to inventions. One important economic effect of the patent system is to capture those positive externalities for the inventor (or the party that hired the inventor), so that the economy as a whole will invest a more-closely-optimum amount of resources in the process of invention. In economics, an externality is an impact (positive or negative) on anyone not party to a given economic transaction. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... In economics, an externality is an impact (positive or negative) on anyone not party to a given economic transaction. ...


Innovation

Main article: Innovation

Following the terminology of political economist Joseph Schumpeter, an invention differs from an innovation. While an invention is merely theoretical (even though the legal protection of a patent may have been sought), an innovation is an invention that has been put into practice. However, these conflicts with the theory of social anthropologists and other social sciences researchers. In social sciences, an innovation is anything new to a culture. The innovation does not need to have been adopted. The theory for adoption (or non-adoption) of an innovation is called diffusion of innovations. This theory, first put forth by Everett Rogers, considers the likelihood that an innovation will ever be adopted and the taxonomy of persons likely to adopt it or spur its adoption. Gabriel Tarde also dealt with the adoption of innovations in his Laws of Imitation.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production and the relationships of buying and selling and their relationship to laws, customs and government. ... Joseph Schumpeter Joseph Alois Schumpeter (February 8, 1883 – January 8, 1950) was an economist from Austria and an influential political scientist. ... The study of the diffusion of innovation is the study of how, why, and at what rate new ideas spread through cultures. ... Everett M. Rogers (1931 in Carroll, Iowa - Albuquerque, New Mexico, 21 October 2004), communications scholar, pioneer of diffusion of innovations theory, writer, and teacher. ... Gabriel Tarde (March 12, 1843 in Dordogne, France – May 13, 1904 in Paris) French sociologist and social psychologist who conceived sociology as based on small psychological interactions among individuals (much as if it were chemistry), the fundamental forces being imitation and innovation. ...


See also

The Bayh-Dole Act or Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act is a United States legislation of 1980. ... Chindōgu (珍道具) is the Japanese art of inventing ingenious everyday gadgets that, on the face of it, seem like an ideal solution to a particular problem. ... For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ... Cultural invention describes any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people but which does not exist as a physical object. ... The study of the diffusion of innovation is the study of how, why, and at what rate new ideas spread through cultures. ... The European Union (EU) Directive 98/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 1998 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions required two legislative procedures to be adopted. ... The European Union (EU) Directive on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions (2002/0047/COD) was a proposal for an EU law which aimed to harmonise EU national patent laws and practices, which involved the granting of patents for computer-implemented inventions provided they meet certain criteria. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Edisonian approach to innovation is characterized by trial and error discovery rather than a systematic theoretical approach. ... Everett M. Rogers (1931 in Carroll, Iowa - Albuquerque, New Mexico, 21 October 2004), communications scholar, pioneer of diffusion of innovations theory, writer, and teacher. ... Fritz Zwicky (February 14, 1898 – February 8, 1974) was an American-based Swiss astronomer. ... Gabriel Tarde (March 12, 1843 in Dordogne, France – May 13, 1904 in Paris) French sociologist and social psychologist who conceived sociology as based on small psychological interactions among individuals (much as if it were chemistry), the fundamental forces being imitation and innovation. ... Under United States patent law, an invention promoter is a person or company that provides services to inventors to help them develop or market unpatented (or non-utility patent pending) inventions. ... The inventive step and non-obviousness reflect a same general patentability requirement present in most patent laws, according to which an invention should be sufficiently inventive, i. ... Within the context of a national or multilateral body of law, an invention is patentable if it meets the relevant legal conditions to be granted a patent. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Melvin Kranzbergs six laws of technology state: 1st - Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral. ... The Lemelson-MIT Prize, endowed in 1994 by Jerome H. Lemelson, and administered through the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is awarded to inventors from the United States for outstanding achievement. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... American inventors have made many advances since the 18th century. ... This is a list of inventions followed by name of the inventor (or whom it is named after). ... This is a list of inventors. ... They LAUGHED at my theories at the institute! Fools! Ill destroy them all! Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — one popular stereotype of mad scientist. ... Exterior of the National Inventors Hall of Fame museum, 2005 The National Inventors Hall of Fame is an organization that honors important inventors from the whole world. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This is a chronological list of inventions. ... TRIZ (IPA: ) is a romanized acronym for Russian “” () meaning Theory of solving inventive problems or Theory of inventive problem solving. It was developed by Soviet engineer and researcher Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues starting in 1946. ...

Bibliography

  • Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery, Harper & Row, 1989. ISBN 0-06-015612-0
  • De Bono, Edward, "Eureka! An Illustrated History of Inventions from the Wheel to the Computer", Thames & Hudson, 1974.
  • Gowlett, John. Ascent to Civilization, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-07-544312-0
  • Platt, Richard, "Eureka!: Great Inventions and How They Happened", 2003.

Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Edward de Bono (born May 19, 1933) is a Maltese psychologist and physician. ...

External links

Look up Invention in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • List of PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty) Notable Inventions (on the WIPO web site)

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