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Encyclopedia > Invasion of Poland (1939)
Invasion of Poland (1939)
Part of World War II

German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, shelling Westerplatte, September 1, 1939.
Date 1 September6 October 1939
Location Poland
Result Decisive Axis and Soviet victory; Polish territory split between Germany and the USSR
Combatants
Poland Germany
Soviet Union
Slovakia
Commanders
Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock
(Army Group North),
Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South),
Mikhail Kovalev (Belorussian Front),
Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front),
Ferdinand Čatloš
(Field Army Bernolák)
Strength
Poland:
39 divisions,[1]
16 brigades,[1]
4,300 guns,[1]
880 tanks,
400 aircraft[2]
Total: 950,000[3]
Germany:
56 divisions,
4 brigades,
9,000 guns,[2]
2,500 tanks,[2]
2,315 aircraft[4]
Soviet Union:
33+ divisions,
11+ brigades,
4,959 guns,
4,736 tanks,
3,300 aircraft
Slovakia:
3 divisions
Total:
1,500,000 Germans,[2]
800,000+ Soviets,
50,000 Slovaks
Grand total: 2,350,000+[3]
Casualties
Poland:
66,000 dead,[5]
133,700 wounded,
694,000 captured
Germany:
16,343 dead,[5]
27,280 wounded,
320 missing
Soviet Union:
737 dead or missing,
1,125 wounded
Slovakia:
18 dead,
46 wounded,
11 missing

The Invasion of Poland, 1939 (in Poland also "the September Campaign," "Kampania wrześniowa," and "the 1939 Defensive War," "Wojna obronna 1939 roku"; in Germany, "the Poland Campaign," "Polenfeldzug," codenamed "Fall Weiss," "Case White," by the German General Staff, and sometimes called "the Polish-German War of 1939"), which precipitated World War II, was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and a small German-allied Slovak contingent. Combatants  United Kingdom  Canada  United States(1941–5)  Norway Poland Free French Navy  Germany  Italy (1940–3) Commanders  Sir Percy Noble  Sir Max K. Horton  Percy W. Nelles  Leonard W. Murray  Ernest J. King  Erich Raeder  Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Disputed border areas with Poland. ...


The invasion of Poland marked the start of World War II in Europe as Poland's western allies, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand,[6] declared war on Germany on September 3, soon followed by France, South Africa and Canada, among others. The invasion of Poland began September 1, 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and ended October 6, 1939, with Germany and the Soviet Union occupying the entirety of Poland. Although the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany soon after Germany attacked Poland, very little direct military action was rendered (see Western betrayal). Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through...


Following a German-staged "Polish attack" on August 31, 1939, on September 1, German forces invaded Poland from the north, south, and west. Spread thin defending their long borders, the Polish armies were soon forced to withdraw east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, the Germans gained an undisputed advantage. Polish forces then began a withdrawal southeast, following a plan that called for a long defense in the Romanian bridgehead area where the Polish forces were to await an expected Allied counter-attack and relief.[7] Gliwice Radio Tower. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Kutrzeba WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Bortnowski Gerd von Rundstedt Johannes von Blaskowitz Strength 8 infantry divisions, 2-4 cavalry brigades 12 infantry divisions, 5 armoured and motorised divisions Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of the Bzura (also known as the Battle of Kutno) was a World... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States...


On September 17, 1939, the Soviet Red Army invaded the eastern regions of Poland in cooperation with Germany.[8] The Soviets were carrying out their part of the secret appendix of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which divided Eastern Europe into Nazi and Soviet spheres of influence.[9] Facing the second front, the Polish government decided the defense of the Romanian bridgehead was no longer feasible and ordered the evacuation of all troops to neutral Romania.[10] By October 1, Germany and the Soviet Union had completely overrun Poland, although the Polish government never surrendered. In addition, Poland's remaining land and air forces were evacuated to neighboring Romania and Hungary. Many of the exiles subsequently joined the recreated Polish Army in allied France, French-mandated Syria, and the United Kingdom. is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... Look up evacuation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ...


In the aftermath of the September Campaign, a resistance movement was formed. Poland's fighting forces continued to contribute to Allied military operations and did so throughout the duration of World War II. Germany captured the Soviet-occupied areas of Poland when it invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, and lost the territory in 1944 to an advancing Red Army. Over the course of the war, Poland lost over 20% of its pre-war population under an occupation that marked the end of the Second Polish Republic. Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Main engagements of Polish forces Westerplatte – Mokra – Bzura – Enigma – Narvik – Battle of Britain – Tobruk – Gazala – Dieppe – Lenino – Monte Cassino – Ostra Brama – V2 Capture – Warsaw Uprising - Falaise – Studzianki - Market Garden – Scheldt – Seelow Heights – Bautzen – Berlin // 1939 poster. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ...

Contents

Opposing forces

Germany and Poland were the main opposing forces in the Polish September Campaign. ...

Germany

Germany had a significant numerical advantage over the Polish and had developed a significant military prior to the conflict. The Heer (Army) had some 2,400 tanks organized into six panzer divisions, utilizing a new operational doctrine. It held that these divisions should act in coordination with other elements of the military, punching holes in the enemy line and isolating selected enemy units which would be encircled and destroyed. This would be repeated and followed up by less mobile mechanized infantry and foot soldiers. The Luftwaffe (Air Force) provided both tactical and strategic air power, particularly dive bombers that attacked and disrupted the enemy's supply and communications lines. Together the new operational methods were nicknamed Blitzkrieg (lightning war). Historian Basil Liddell Hart and A. J. P. Taylor conclude "Poland was a full demonstration of the Blitzkrieg theory".[11] The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Panzer IV Ausf. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Aerial warfare is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ... Alan John Percivale Taylor (March 25, 1906 – September 7, 1990) was a renowned English historian of the 20th century. ...

German Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers.

Aircraft played a major role in the campaign. Bomber aircraft also attacked cities, causing huge losses amongst the civilian population through terror bombing. The Luftwaffe forces consisted of 1,180 fighter aircraft: 290 Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers, 1,100 conventional bombers (mainly of the He 111 and Dornier Do 17 type), and an assortment of 550 transport and 350 reconnaissance aircraft.[12][13] In total, Germany had close to 4,000 aircraft, all up to modern standards. A force of 2,315 aircraft were assigned to Weiss.[14] Due to its participation in the Spanish Civil War, the Luftwaffe was probably the most experienced, best trained and well equipped air force in the world in 1939. Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive-bombers. ... Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive-bombers. ... Stuka redirects here. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Terror bombing is a strategy of deliberately bombing civilian targets and strafing civilians in order to break the morale of the enemy and make its civilian population panic. ... Stuka redirects here. ... The Heinkel He 111 was the primary Luftwaffe medium bomber during the early stages of World War II, and is perhaps the most obvious symbol of the German side of the Battle of Britain. ... The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift (flying pencil), was a light bomber produced by Dornier. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


Poland

Polish 7TP light tank.

Between 1936 and 1939, Poland invested heavily in industrialization in the Central Industrial Region. Preparations for a defensive war with Germany were ongoing for many years, but most plans assumed fighting would not begin before 1942. To raise funds for industrial development, Poland sold much of the modern equipment it produced. In 1936, a National Defence Fund was set up collect funds necessary for improving the fighting ability of the Polish Armed forces. The Polish Army had about a million soldiers, but less than half of them were mobilized by September 1. Latecomers sustained significant casualties when public transport became targets of the Luftwaffe. The Polish military had fewer armoured forces than the Germans, and these units, being dispersed within the infantry, were unable to effectively engage the enemy. Single-turret 7TP tank. ... Single-turret 7TP tank. ... The 7TP was the Polish light tank of the Second World War. ... Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy (Polish for Central Industrial Region, abbreviated COP) was one of the biggest economic projects of the Second Polish Republic. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Experiences in the Polish-Soviet War shaped Polish Army organisational and operational doctrine. Unlike the trench warfare of the First World War, the Polish-Soviet War was a conflict in which the cavalry's mobility played a decisive role. Poland acknowledged the benefits of mobility but was unwilling to invest heavily in many of the expensive, unproven inventions since then and to make these additions to its armed forces. In spite of this, Polish Cavalry brigades were used as a mobile mounted infantry and had some successes against both German infantry and German cavalry. Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of Poznań in uniforms of 15th Poznań Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish: ) can trace its origins back to the days of Medieval mounted knights. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Mounted infantry were soldiers who rode horses instead of marching, but actually fought on foot with muskets or rifles. ...

Polish PZL P.11 fighter.
Polish PZL.37 Łoś medium bomber.

The Polish Air Force (Lotnictwo Wojskowe) was at a severe disadvantage against the German Luftwaffe although it was not destroyed on the ground. The Polish Air Force lacked modern fighter aircraft, but its pilots were among the world's best trained, as proven a year later in the Battle of Britain, in which the Poles played a major part in beating the Luftwaffe.[15] PZL P.11c Polish fighter The only PZL P.11c that survived the war. ... PZL P.11c Polish fighter The only PZL P.11c that survived the war. ... The PZL P.11 was a Polish fighter aircraft, designed in early-1930s by PZL in Warsaw. ... Image File history File links PZL 37 Łoś , Polish bomber aircraft File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links PZL 37 Łoś , Polish bomber aircraft File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... PZL.37 Łoś - the second prototype The PZL.37 Łoś (Polish: ) was a Polish twin-engine medium bomber, used in the Invasion of Poland in 1939. ... Polish Air Force (Siły Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Siły Powietrzne RP). ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... This article is about military history. ...


Overall, the Germans enjoyed numerical and qualitative aircraft superiority. Poland had only about 600 modern aircraft. The Polish Air Force had about 185 PZL P.11 and some 95 PZL P.7 fighters, 175 PZL.23 Karaś B, 35 Karaś A, and by September over 100 PZL.37 Łoś were produced. Additionally there were over a thousand obsolete transport, reconnaissance and training aircraft. However for the September Campaign only some 70% those aircraft were mobilised. Only 36 PZL.37 Łoś bomber aircraft were deployed for action. All those aircraft were of indigenous Polish design, with the bombers being more modern than fighters according to the Ludomil Rayski air force expansion plan relying on the strong bomber force. Polish fighter aircraft were a generation older than their German counterparts. The Polish PZL P.11 fighter, produced in the early 1930s, was capable of only 365 km/h (about 220 mi/hr), far less than German bombers; to compensate, the pilots relied on the P-11 maneuvrability and high diving speed. The PZL P.11 was a Polish fighter aircraft, designed in early-1930s by PZL in Warsaw. ... The PZL P.7 was the Polish fighter aircraft, designed in early-1930s in the PZL factory in Warsaw. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... The PZL.23 KaraÅ› was a Polish light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, designed in the mid-1930s by PZL in Warsaw. ... PZL.37 ŁoÅ› - the second prototype The PZL.37 ŁoÅ› (Polish: ) was a Polish twin-engine medium bomber, used in the Invasion of Poland in 1939. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... PZL.37 ŁoÅ› - the second prototype The PZL.37 ŁoÅ› (Polish: ) was a Polish twin-engine medium bomber, used in the Invasion of Poland in 1939. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ... LudomiÅ‚ Antoni Rayski (1892-1977) was a Polish engineer, pilot, military officer and aviator. ...


The Polish Navy was a small fleet comprising of destroyers, submarines and smaller support vessels. Most Polish surface units followed Operation Peking, leaving Polish ports on August 20 and escaping to the North Sea to join with the British Royal Navy. Submarine forces participated in Operation Worek, with the goal of engaging and damaging German shipping in the Baltic Sea, but they had much less success. In addition, many Polish Merchant Marine ships joined the British merchant fleet and took part in wartime convoys. Flag of the Polish Navy Polish Navy Ensign The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna RP, MW RP) is the branch of Polands armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Polish destroyers during the Peking Plan. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Polish submarines sectors as in the Worek Plan. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ...


The tank force consisted of two armoured brigades, four independent tank battalions and some 30 companies of TKS tankettes attached to infantry divisions and cavalry brigades.


Soviet Union

For more details on this topic, see Soviet order of battle for invasion of Poland in 1939.

The Soviet order of battle for invasion of Poland in 1939 details the major combat units arrayed for operations against Poland in September, 1939. ...

Slovakia

For more details on this topic, see Slovak invasion of Poland.

Disputed border areas with Poland. ...

Order of battle

Order of battle of Poland: An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ...

Order of battle of invading forces: Polish OOB during the September Campaign. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... This article details the Order of Battle of the Polish Navy prior to the outbreak of World War II and the Polish Defensive War of 1939 Following World War I, Polands shoreline was relatively short and included no major seaports. ... Polish Armament in 1939-45 // Aircrafts Oldest aircrafts SPAD XIII Fokker D.VII Oeffag D.III Ansaldo Balilla SPAD VII Albatros D.III Sopwith Dolphin Fokker E.V (D.VIII). ...

The German order of battle for Operation Fall Weiss details the major German combat units used during Operation Fall Weiss, Germanys code name for the invasion of Poland. ... The Soviet order of battle for invasion of Poland in 1939 details the major combat units arrayed for operations against Poland in September, 1939. ...

Prelude to the campaign

The Nazi Party, led by Adolf Hitler, took power in Germany in 1933. At first, Hitler pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland, culminating in the German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934. Early foreign policy worked to maneuver Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a cooperative front against the Soviet Union. Germany sought to grab hold of Soviet territory, acquire Lebensraum and expand Großdeutschland.[3] Poland would be granted territory of its own, to its northeast, but the concessions the Poles were expected to make meant that their homeland would become largely dependant on Germany, functioning as little more than a client state. Some felt Polish independence would eventually be threatened altogether.[4] German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, shelling Westerplatte, September 1, 1939. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The French for bring together. Used in English to describe the theory (that) says that children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. See Attachment theory This article is a stub. ... The German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact (German: , Polish: ) was an international treaty between Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic signed on January 26, 1934. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Lebensraum (German for habitat or living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... National assembly meeting in St. ...


In addition to Soviet territory, the Nazis were also interested in establishing a new border with Poland because the German exclave of East Prussia was separated from the rest of the Reich by the "Polish Corridor." Many Germans also wanted to incorporate the Free City of Danzig into Germany. While Danzig had a predominantly German population, the Corridor constituted land long disputed between Poland and Germany. After the Treaty of Versailles, Poland acquired the Corridor and this led to shifts in the region's population. Hitler sought to reverse this trend and made an appeal to German nationalism, promising to "liberate" the Germans still in the Corridor, as well as Danzig, since the port city was under the control of the League of Nations. D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ...


Poland participated in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement as it coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the city of Český Těšín by issuing an ultimatum to that effect on September 30, which was accepted by Czechoslovakia on the first of October.[16] The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... ÄŒeský Těšín (Polish: ) is a town in the northeastern Czech Republic, on the Olza river, in Moravian-Silesian Region. ...


In 1938, Germany began to increase its demands for Danzig while proposing that a roadway be built in order to connect East Prussia with Germany proper, running through the Polish Corridor.[5] Poland rejected this proposal, fearing that after accepting these demands, it would become increasingly subject to the will of Germany and eventually lose independence as the Czechs had.[6] The Poles also distrusted Hitler and his intentions.[7] At the same time, Germany's collaboration with anti-Polish Ukrainian nationalists from the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists further weakened German credibility in Polish eyes, which was seen as an effort to isolate and weaken Poland. The British were also aware of this. On March 30, Poland was backed by a guarantee from Britain and France, though neither country was willing to pledge military support in Poland's defense. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and his Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax, still hoped to strike a deal with Hitler regarding the Free City of Danzig (and possibly the Polish Corridor), and Hitler hoped for the same. By again resorting to appeasement, Chamberlain and his supporters believed war could be avoided and hoped Germany would agree to leave the rest of Poland alone. German hegemony over Central Europe was also at stake. Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists or OUN (Ukrainian: or ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement originally created in the interwar Poland. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ... The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... Cover of Time Magazine April 12, 1926 Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ... == // AZAAAAAA == Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ...

Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Behind him stand (left) German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and (right) Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
An official order of Adolf Hitler from 31.08.1939 for attack on Poland next day

With tensions mounting, Germany turned to aggressive diplomacy. On April 28, 1939, it unilaterally withdrew from both the German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934 and the London Naval Agreement of 1935. In early 1939, Hitler had already issued orders to prepare for a possible "solution of the Polish problem by military means." Another crucial step towards war was the surprise signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact on August 23, the denouement of secret Nazi-Soviet talks held in Moscow which capitalized on France and Britain's own failure to secure an alliance with the Soviet Union. As a result, Germany neutralized the possibility of Soviet opposition in a potential campaign against Poland. In a secret protocol of this pact, the Germans and the Soviets agreed to divide Eastern Europe, including Poland, into two spheres of influence; the western third of the country was to go to Germany and the eastern two-thirds to the Soviet Union. Image File history File links MolotovRibbentropStalin. ... Image File history File links MolotovRibbentropStalin. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (503 × 695 pixels, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (503 × 695 pixels, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Hitler redirects here. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact (German: , Polish: ) was an international treaty between Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic signed on January 26, 1934. ... The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which aimed to regulate submarine warfare and limited military shipbuilding. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


The German assault was originally scheduled to begin at 04:00 on August 26. However, on August 25, the Polish-British Common Defence Pact was signed as an annex to the Franco-Polish Military Alliance. In this accord, Britain had committed itself to the defence of Poland, guaranteeing to preserve Polish independence. At the same time, the British and the Poles were hinting to Berlin that they were willing to resume discussions - not at all how Hitler hoped to frame the conflict. Thus, he wavered and postponed his attack until September 1, managing to halt the entire invasion "in mid-leap", with the exception of a few units that were outside communication lines, towards the south (the Nazi press announced that fanatical Slovakians were behind the cross border raid). is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... British embassy in Warsaw, Poland The Polish-British Common Defence Pact was signed on August 25, 1939 between representatives of the United Kingdom and Poland. ... The term Franco-Polish Military Alliance refers to the military alliance between Poland and France that was active between 1921 and 1939. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 26, Hitler tried to dissuade the British and the French from interfering in the conflict, even pledging that the Wehrmacht forces would be made available to Britain's Empire in the future.[17] In any case, the negotiations convinced Hitler that there was little chance the Western Allies would declare war on Germany, and even if they did, because of the lack of territorial guarantees to Poland, they would be willing to negotiate a compromise favourable to Germany after its conquest of Poland. Meanwhile, the number of increased overflights by high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft and cross border troop movements signalled that war was imminent. is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ...


On August 29, prompted by the British, Germany issued one last diplomatic offer, with Case White yet to be rescheduled. At midnight on August 29, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop handed British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson the list of terms which would allegedly ensure peace in regards to Poland. Danzig was to return to Germany (Gdynia would remain with Poland), and there was to be a plebiscite in the Polish Corridor, based on residency in 1919, within the year.[18] An exchange of minority populations between the two countries was proposed.[19] A Polish plenipotentiary, with full powers, was to arrive in Berlin and accept these terms by noon the next day.[20] The British Cabinet viewed the terms as "reasonable," except the demand for the urgent plenipotentiary, a form of ultimatum.[21] When Polish Ambassador Lipski went to see Ribbentrop on August 30, he announced that he did not have the full power to sign, and Ribbentrop dismissed him. It was then broadcasted that Poland had rejected Germany's offer, and negotiations with Poland came to an end.[22] is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 30, the Polish Navy sent its destroyer flotilla to Britain executing Operation Peking. On the same day, Marshal of Poland Edward Rydz-Śmigły announced mobilization of Polish troops. However, he was pressured into revoking the order by the French, who apparently still hoped for a diplomatic settlement, failing to realize that the Germans were fully mobilized and concentrated at the Polish border. During the night of August 31 the Gleiwitz incident ("Polish" attack on the radio station) was staged near the German border city of Gleiwitz, in Upper Silesia. On August 31, 1939, Hitler ordered hostilities against Poland to start at 4:45 the next morning. Because of the prior discontinuation, Poland managed to mobilise only 70% of its planned forces, and many units were still forming or moving to their designated frontline positions. is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the Polish Navy Polish Navy Ensign The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna RP, MW RP) is the branch of Polands armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a flota of small ships, and this from French flotte), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ... Polish destroyers during the Peking Plan. ... Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. ... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... This article describes military mobilization. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gliwice Radio Tower. ... Gliwice (pronounce: [gliviʦε]; German: ), is an industrial city in southern Poland with 200,361 inhabitants (2004) over the KÅ‚odnica River, about 20 km to the west from Katowice. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Details of the campaign

Dispositions of opposing forces, August 31, 1939, and the German plan.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x956, 183 KB)http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x956, 183 KB)http://www. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Plans

German plan

The German plan Fall Weiss, for what became known as the September Campaign, was created by General Franz Halder, chief of the general staff, and directed by General Walther von Brauchitsch, the commander in chief of the upcoming campaign. The plan called for the start of hostilities before the declaration of war, which pursued a traditional doctrine of mass encirclement and the destruction of enemy forces. Germany's material advantages, including the use of modern airpower and tanks, were to be of great advantage. The infantry - far from completely mechanized but fitted with fast moving artillery and logistic support - was to be supported by German tanks and small numbers of truck-mounted infantry (the Schützen regiments, forerunners of the panzergrenadiers) to assist the rapid movement of troops and concentrate on localized parts of the enemy front, eventually isolating segments of the enemy, surrounding, and destroying them. The pre-war armored idea (which an American journalist in 1939 dubbed Blitzkrieg), which was advocated by some generals including Heinz Guderian, would have had the armor blasting holes in the enemy's front and ranging deep into the enemy's rear areas, but in actuality, the campaign in Poland would be fought along more traditional lines. This stemmed from conservatism on the part of the German high command, who mainly restricted the role of armor and mechanized forces to supporting the conventional infantry divisions. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Franz Halder Franz Ritter Halder (June 30, 1884 – April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. ... In the military systems of many countries, the Chief of the General Staff is the professional head of that countrys General Staff. ... Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ... A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Panzer IV Ausf. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Blitzkrieg relies on close co-operation between infantry and panzers (tanks). ... A military front is an area in which an army or nation expects to do most of its fighting. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ...


Poland was a country well suited for mobile operations when the weather cooperated - a country of flat plains with long frontiers totalling almost 5,600 kilometres (3,500 mi), Poland had long borders with Germany on the west and north (facing East Prussia) of 2,000 kilometres (1,250 mi). Those had been extended by another 300 kilometres (180 mi) on the southern side in the aftermath of the Munich Agreement of 1938; the German incorporation of Bohemia and Moravia and creation of the German puppet state of Slovakia meant that Poland's southern flank was exposed to invasion. In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Czech Republic (Czech: Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


German planners intended to fully utilise their advantageously long border with the great enveloping manoeuvre of Fall Weiss. German units were to invade Poland from three directions:

  • A main attack from the German mainland through the western Polish border. This was to be carried out by Army Group South commanded by General Gerd von Rundstedt, attacking from German Silesia and from the Moravian and Slovak border: General Johannes Blaskowitz's 8th Army was to drive eastward against Łódź; General Wilhelm List's 14th Army was to push on toward Kraków and to turn the Poles' Carpathian flank; and General Walter von Reichenau's 10th Army, in the centre with Army Group South's armour, was to deliver the decisive blow with a northestward thrust into the heart of Poland.
  • A second route of attack from the northern Prussian area. General Fedor von Bock commanded Army Group North comprising General Georg von Küchler's 3rd Army, which struck southward from East Prussia, and General Günther von Kluge's 4th Army, which struck eastward across the base of the Polish Corridor.
  • A tertiary attack by part of Army Group South's allied Slovak units from the territory of Slovakia.
  • From within Poland the German minority would assist in the assault on Poland by engaging in diversion and sabotage operations through Selbstschutz units prepared before the war.

All three assaults were to converge on Warsaw, while the main Polish army was to be encircled and destroyed west of the Vistula. Fall Weiss was initiated on September 1, 1939, and was the first operation of the Second World War in Europe. Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Łódź Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ... Wilhelm List (Siegmund Wilhelm von List) (May 14, 1880 - August 17, 1971), was a German Field Marshal during World War II. He entered the Army in 1898 and served as a staff officer in the First World War. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Field-Marshal Walther von Reichenau Walther von Reichenau (August 16, 1884 - January 17, 1942), German military commander, was the son of a Prussian general and joined the German Army in 1902. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was an officer in the German military from 1898 to 1942, attaining the rank of Generalfeldmarschall during World War 2. ... Field Marshal Georg von Küchler Georg Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Küchler (May 30, 1881 - May 25, 1968) was a German field marshal during World War II. Born in Philippsruhe castle near Hanau, Küchler led the German German Eighteenth Army in 1940 in the invasion of neutral Holland... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... Selbstschutz (German: ) stands for two organisations: it was (1) a name used by a number of paramilitary organisations created by ethnic Germans in Central Europe and (2) is a name for self-defence measures and units in ethnic German, Austrian, and Swiss civil defence. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Polish plan

Deployment of German and Polish divisions, September 1, 1939.

The Polish defense plan, Zachód (West), was shaped by political determination to deploy forces directly at the German-Polish border, based upon London's promise to come to Warsaw's military aid in the event of invasion. Moreover, with the nation's most valuable natural resources, industry and highly populated regions near the western border (Silesia region), Polish policy centered on the protection of such regions, especially since many politicians feared that if Poland should retreat from the regions disputed by Germany (like the Polish Corridor, cause of the famous "Danzig or War" ultimatum), Britain and France would sign a separate peace treaty with Germany similar to the Munich Agreement of 1938. In addition, none of those countries specifically guaranteed Polish borders or territorial integrity. On those grounds, Poland disregarded French advice to deploy the bulk of their forces behind the natural barriers of the wide Vistula and San rivers, even though some Polish generals supported it as a better strategy. The Zachód plan did allow the Polish armies to retreat inside the country, but it was supposed to be a slow retreat behind prepared positions near rivers (Narew, Vistula and San), giving the country time to finish its mobilisation, and was to be turned into a general counteroffensive when the Western Allies would launch their own promised offensive. Download high resolution version (883x933, 229 KB)Polish and German divisions on Sept. ... Download high resolution version (883x933, 229 KB)Polish and German divisions on Sept. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dispositions of opposing forces, August 31, 1939, and the German plan. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that nation-states should not attempt to promote secessionist movements or to promote border changes in other nation-states. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with SAN. (Discuss) Look up san, -san in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ...

Polish infantry during the campaign.

The Polish Army's most pessimistic fall-back plan involved retreat behind the river San to the southeastern voivodships and their lengthy defence (the Romanian bridgehead plan). The British and French estimated that Poland should be able to defend that region for two to three months, while Poland estimated it could hold it for at least six months. This Polish plan was based around the expectation that the Western Allies would keep their end of the signed alliance treaty and quickly start an offensive of their own. However, neither the French nor the British government made plans to attack Germany while the Polish campaign was fought. In addition, they expected the war to develop into trench warfare much like World War I had, forcing the Germans to sign a peace treaty restoring Poland's borders. The Polish government, however, was not notified of this strategy and based all of its defence plans on promises of a quick relief action by their Western Allies.[23][24] Image File history File links Polish infantry File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Polish infantry File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...


The plan to defend the borders contributed vastly to the Polish defeat. Polish forces were stretched thin on the very long border and, lacking compact defence lines and good defence positions along unadvantegeous terrain, mechanized German forces often were able to encircle them. In addition, supply lines, were often poorly protected. Approximately one-third of Poland's forces were concentrated in or near the Polish Corridor (in northwestern Poland), where they were perilously exposed to a double envelopment — from East Prussia and the west combined and isolated in a pocket. In the south, facing the main avenues of a German advance, the Polish forces were thinly spread. At the same time, nearly another one-third of Poland's troops were massed in reserve in the north-central part of the country, between the major cities of Łódź and Warsaw, under commander in chief Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły. The Poles' forward concentration in general forfeited their chance of fighting a series of delaying actions, since their army, unlike some of Germany's, traveled largely on foot and was unable to retreat to their defensive positions in the rear or to staff them before they were overrun by German mechanized columns. Motorized forces or military units are those that have trucks, or other wheeled, un-armoured transport as an integral part of their organization. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Łódź Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ...


The political decision to defend the border was not the Polish high command's only strategic mistake. Polish pre-war propaganda stated that any German invasion would be easily repelled, so that the eventual Polish defeats in the September Campaign came as a shock to many civilians, who, unprepared for such news and with no training for such an event, panicked and retreated east, spreading chaos, lowering troop morale and making road transportation for Polish troops very difficult. The propaganda also had some negative consequences for the Polish troops whose communications, disrupted by German mobile units operating in the rear and civilians blocking roads, were further thrown into chaos by bizarre reports from Polish radio stations and newspapers which often reported imaginary victories and other military operations. This led to some Polish troops being encircled or taking a stand against overwhelming odds, when they thought they were actually counterattacking or would soon receive reinforcements from other victorious areas.[25] Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Phase 1: German invasion

German battleship Schleswig-Holstein shells the Westerplatte.
German forces during failed assault on Warsaw's Wola district, September 9, 1939.
Situation up to September 14, 1939.
Motto painted on a German Ju-52 transport plane: "Whether figures, gasoline, bombs or bread, we bring Poland death."
Polish Bofors 40 mm antiaircraft gun and a bombed Polish Army column during the Battle of the Bzura.

Following several German-staged incidents (Operation Himmler), which gave German propaganda an excuse to claim that German forces were acting in self-defense, the first regular act of war took place on September 1, 1939, at 04:40, when the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) attacked the Polish town of Wieluń, destroying 75% of the city and killing close to 1,200 people, most of them civilians. Five minutes later, at 04:45, the old German battleship Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on the Polish military transit depot at Westerplatte, in the Free City of Danzig on the Baltic Sea. At 08:00, German troops, still without a formal declaration of war issued, attacked near the Polish town of Mokra; the battle of the border had begun. Later that day, the Germans opened fronts along Poland's western, southern and northern borders, while German aircraft began raids on Polish cities. Main routes of attack led eastwards from Germany proper through the western Polish border. A second route carried supporting attacks from East Prussia in the north, and a co-operative German-Slovak tertiary attack by units (Army "Bernolak") from the territory of German-allied Slovakia in the south. All three assaults converged on the Polish capital of Warsaw. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Schleswig-Holstein was a German battleship that fought in both World Wars. ... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Henryk Sucharski (nominal) Franciszek DÄ…browski (de-facto) Friedrich Eberhardt (land) Gustav Kleikamp (sea) Strength 182 soldiers 25 civilians 1 M1902 gun 2 Bofors 37 mm AT guns 4 Brandt 81 mm mortars 41 MGs 3,500 soldiers 47-70 Stuka dive bombers 65 guns... Image File history File links Warsaw_siege4. ... Image File history File links Warsaw_siege4. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Area 19,26 km² Population 143 996 (2003) Population density 7476/km² Mayor ZdzisÅ‚aw Sipiera Notable landmarks PowÄ…zki Cemetery Wola Website For other meanings of the word, see WOLA. Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Download high resolution version (1256x956, 402 KB)Polish Campaign - Operations - September 1-14 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (1256x956, 402 KB)Polish Campaign - Operations - September 1-14 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The Junkers Ju 52 nicknamed Tante Ju (Auntie Ju) and Iron Annie was a civilian airliner and military transport aircraft and bomber manufactured between 1932 and 1945 by Junkers. ... Polish Bofors AA gun and a bombed column of Polish Army during the Battle of Bzura This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Polish Bofors AA gun and a bombed column of Polish Army during the Battle of Bzura This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Bofors 40 mm gun is a famous anti-aircraft auto-cannon designed by the Swedish firm of Bofors. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Kutrzeba WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Bortnowski Gerd von Rundstedt Johannes von Blaskowitz Strength 8 infantry divisions, 2-4 cavalry brigades 12 infantry divisions, 5 armoured and motorised divisions Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of the Bzura (also known as the Battle of Kutno) was a World... Gliwice Radio Tower. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bombing of WieluÅ„ in World War II refers to the German bomb raid on a Polish city of WieluÅ„ at the outbreak of World War II. On September 1, 1939 at 4. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Schleswig-Holstein, a German battleship, started World War II by firing at the Polish base at Westerplatte on 1 September 1939. ... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Henryk Sucharski (nominal) Franciszek DÄ…browski (de-facto) Friedrich Eberhardt (land) Gustav Kleikamp (sea) Strength 182 soldiers 25 civilians 1 M1902 gun 2 Bofors 37 mm AT guns 4 Brandt 81 mm mortars 41 MGs 3,500 soldiers 47-70 Stuka dive bombers 65 guns... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Poland Commanders Georg-Hans Reinhardt Friedrich Kirchner Julian Filipowicz Strength 1st Panzer Division 4th Panzer Division 31st Infantry Division Volhynian Cavalry Brigade 7th Infantry Division Casualties 700 KIA, 300 WIA, 160 tanks and AFVs 100 KIA, 300 WIA, five guns, four AA guns, 300 horses Monument to... Forces as of 31 August and German plan of attack. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


The Allied governments declared war on Germany on September 3; however, they failed to provide Poland with any meaningful support. The German-French border had a few minor skirmishes, although the majority of German forces, including eighty-five percent of their armoured forces, were engaged in Poland. Despite some Polish successes in minor border battles, German technical, operational and numerical superiority forced the Polish armies to withdraw from the borders towards Warsaw and Lwów. The Luftwaffe gained air superiority early in the campaign. By destroying communications the Luftwaffe increased the pace of the advance which overran Polish airstrips and early warning sites and causing logistical problems for the Poles. Many Polish Air Force units were now low on supplies, 98 of their number withdrew into neutral (at that time) Romania.[26] The Polish initial strength of 400 had been reduced to just 54 by 14 September and air opposition virtually ceased.[26] is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through... The French attack on Saarland was a French sortie into the Saarland in the early stages of World War II. The purpose of the attack was to assist Poland, which was then under attack. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... Polish Air Force (SiÅ‚y Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SiÅ‚y Powietrzne RP). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By September 3, when Günther von Kluge in the north had reached the Vistula (some 10 kilometres from the German border at that time) river and Georg von Küchler was approaching the Narew River, Walther von Reichenau's armour was already beyond the Warta river; two days later his left wing was well to the rear of Łódź and his right wing at the town of Kielce; and by September 8 one of his armoured corps was on the outskirts of Warsaw, having advanced 225 kilometres (140 mi) in the first week of war. Light divisions on Reichenau's right were on the Vistula between Warsaw and the town of Sandomierz by September 9, while List, in the south, was on the river San above and below the town of Przemyśl. At the same time, Guderian led his 3rd Army tanks across the Narew, attacking the line of the Bug River already encircling Warsaw. All the German armies had made progress in fulfilling their parts of the Fall Weiss plan. The Polish armies were splitting up into uncoordinated fragments, some of which were retreating while others were delivering disjointed attacks on the nearest German columns. is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Field Marshal Georg von Küchler Georg Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Küchler (May 30, 1881 - May 25, 1968) was a German field marshal during World War II. Born in Philippsruhe castle near Hanau, Küchler led the German German Eighteenth Army in 1940 in the invasion of neutral Holland... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... Walther von Reichenau (August 16, 1884 - January 17, 1942), German military commander, was the son of a Prussian general and joined the German Army in 1902. ... Warta (Latin: Varta, German: Warthe) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder river. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Łódź Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ... Map of the centre of Kielce Monastery Exbud headquarters-symbol of todays Kielce City The monument to commemorate of tragedy in New York 11 September 2001 Bishops Palace Building of Stefan Å»eromski Theatre The new stadium in Kielce Bus Station in Kielce of characterisic shape of alien saucer Kielce... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Flag of Sandomierz Sandomierz Coat of Arms Sandomierz(Sandomir) ( listen) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Length 433 km Basin area 16,861 km² Origin Carpathian Mountains Tributary of Vistula River Countries Poland, Ukraine San River. ... PrzemyÅ›l (pronounce: pʃεmiÉ•l, Ukrainian: Перемишль, Peremyshl) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 67,847 inhabitants (2005). ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західн&#1080...


Polish forces abandoned regions of Pomerania, Greater Poland and Silesia in the first week of the campaign. Thus the Polish plan for border defence was proven a dismal failure. The German advance as a whole was not slowed down, and the Germans moved quickly, overwhelming secondary positions. On September 10, the Polish commander in chief, Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły, ordered a general retreat to the southeast, towards the so-called Romanian bridgehead. Meanwhile, the Germans were tightening their encirclement of the Polish forces west of the Vistula (in the Łódź area and, still farther west, around Poznań) and also penetrating deeply into eastern Poland. Warsaw, under heavy aerial bombardment since the first hours of the war, was attacked on September 9 and was put under siege on September 13. Around that time, advanced German forces had also reached the city of Lwów, a major metropolis of eastern Poland. 1,150 German aircraft bombed Warsaw on September 24. Pommern redirects here. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cities with at least 500. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The largest battle during this campaign, the Battle of Bzura, took place near the Bzura river west of Warsaw and lasted from September 9 to September 19. Polish armies Poznań and Pomorze, retreating from the border area of the Polish Corridor, attacked the flank of the advancing German 8th army, but the counterattack failed after initial success. After the defeat, Poland lost its ability to take the initiative and counterattack on a large scale. German air power was instrumental during the battle. The Luftwaffe's offensive broke what remained of Polish resistance in an "awesome demonstration of air power".[27] The Luftwaffe quickly destroyed the bridges across the Bzura river. Afterward the Polish forces were trapped out in the open, and were attacked by wave after wave of Stukas, dropping 50 kg 'light bombs' which caused huge numbers of casualties. The Polish flak positions ran out of ammunition and they retreated to the forests but were then 'smoked out' by the Heinkel He 111 and Dornier Do 17s dropping 100 kg incendiaries. The Luftwaffe had left the Army with the simple task of mopping up survivors. The Stukageschwaders alone dropped 388 tonnes of bombs during this battle".[27] Battle of Bzura (also known as Battle of Kutno) took place during the Second World War, Polish September Campaign between 9 September 1939 and 19 September1, 1939 and was fought between Polish and German Nazi forces. ... Bzura is a river in central Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river (in Wyszogrod), with a length of 166 kilometres (25th longest) and the basin area of 7,788 sq. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Heinkel He 111 was the primary Luftwaffe medium bomber during the early stages of World War II, and is perhaps the most famous symbol of the German side of the Battle of Britain. ... The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift (flying pencil), was a light bomber produced by Dornier. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ...


The Polish government (of president Ignacy Mościcki) and the high command (of Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły) left Warsaw in the first days of the campaign and headed southeast, arriving in Brześć on September 6. General Rydz-Śmigły ordered the Polish forces to retreat in the same direction, behind the Vistula and San rivers, beginning the preparations for the long defence of the Romanian bridgehead area. Office Term of office from June 1, 1926, until September 30, 1939 Profession Professor of chemistry Political party none (until 1892, Proletariat) Spouse Maria, née DobrzaÅ„ska Date of birth December 1, 1867 Place of birth Mierzanów, Poland Date of death October 2, 1946 Place of death Versoix... Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Phase 2: Soviet aggression

For more details on this topic, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939).
Situation after September 14, 1939.
Invasion of Poland: Germany and its allies from the west (blue), Soviets from the east (red).

From the beginning of the Polish campaign, the German government repeatedly asked Joseph Stalin and Molotov to act upon the August agreement and attack Poland from the east.[28] Worried by an unexpectedly rapid German advance and eager to grab their allotted share of the country, Soviet forces attacked Poland on September 17. It was agreed that the USSR would relinquish its interest in the territories between the new border and Warsaw in exchange for inclusion of Lithuania in the Soviet "zone of interest." The USSR had openly supported German aggression, and Molotov stated after the Polish defeat: Germany, which has lately united 80 million Germans, has submitted certain neighboring countries to her supremacy and gained military strength in many aspects, and thus has become, as clearly can be seen, a dangerous rival to principal imperialistic powers in Europe - England and France. That is why they declared war on Germany on a pretext of fulfilling the obligations given to Poland. It is now clearer than ever, how remote the real aims of the cabinets in these countries were from the interests of defending the now disintegrated Poland or Czechoslovakia[29] For Nazi Germanys military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Nazi Germanys invasion of Poland (1939). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x956, 1898 KB)http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x956, 1898 KB)http://www. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x926, 147 KB) Summary Polish Defensive War 1939. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x926, 147 KB) Summary Polish Defensive War 1939. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

A Soviet propaganda poster depicting the Red Army's advance into Western Ukraine as a liberation of the Ukrainians. The Ukrainian text reads: "We stretched our hand to our brothers so that they could straighten their backs and throw off the despised rule of the whips that lasted for centuries." The person thrown off the peasants' backs, shown wearing a Polish military uniform and holding the whip, could be interpreted as a caricature of Piłsudski.
1939, Residents of a small town in Western Belarus attend a meeting to greet the arrival of the Red Army. Such manifestations were not spontaneous, but usually organized by activists of Communist Party of Poland.[30]

By September 17, 1939, the Polish defense was already broken, and their only hope was to retreat and reorganize along the Romanian bridgehead. However, these plans were rendered obsolete nearly overnight, when the over 800,000 strong Soviet Union Red Army entered and created the Belarussian and Ukrainian fronts after invading the eastern regions of Poland. This was in violation of the Riga Peace Treaty, the Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, and other international treaties, both bilateral and multilateral.[31] Soviet diplomacy claimed that they were "protecting the Ukrainian and Belarusian minorities of eastern Poland in view of Polish imminent collapse. Vyacheslav Molotov delivered a speech on September 17, 1939: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x733, 295 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soviet invasion of Poland (1939) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x733, 295 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soviet invasion of Poland (1939) ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1918-1938 Communist Party of Poland. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Belarussian Front may refer to several Soviet fronts of the Second World War: Belorussian Front formed during the Polish September Campaign 1st Belorussian Front 2nd Belorussian Front 3rd Belorussian Front Category: ... A Front (фронт) was a major military organization in the Soviet Army, roughly equivalent to an army or army group in British or American military terminology. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... The Peace of Riga signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... The Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact (Polish: , Russian: ) was an international treaty of non-aggression signed in 1932 by representatives of Poland and the USSR. The pact was unilaterally broken by the Soviet Union on September 17, 1939, during the Nazi and Soviet invasion of Poland. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Events arising out of the Polish‑German War has revealed the internal insolvency and obvious impotence of the Polish state. Polish ruling circles have suffered bankruptcy. . . . Warsaw as the capital of the Polish state no longer exists. No one knows the whereabouts of the Polish Government. The population of Poland have been abandoned by their ill‑starred leaders to their fate. The Polish state and its government have virtually ceased to exist. In view of this‑state of affairs, treaties concluded between the Soviet Union and Poland have ceased to operate. A situation has arisen in Poland which demands of the Soviet‑Government especial concern for the security of its state. Poland has become a fertile field for any accidental and unexpected contingency that may create a menace to the Soviet Union. . . . Nor can it be demanded of the Soviet Government that it remain indifferent to the fate of its blood brothers, the Ukrainians and Byelorussians [White Russians] inhabiting Poland, who even formerly were without rights and who now have been abandoned entirely to their fate. The Soviet Government deems it its sacred duty to extend the hand of assistance to its brother Ukrainians and brother Byelorussians inhabiting Poland[32]

Polish border defence forces in the east, known as the Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza, consisted of about 25 battalions. Edward Rydz-Śmigły ordered them to fall back and not engage the Soviets. This, however, did not prevent some clashes and small battles, like the Battle of Grodno, as soldiers and local population attempted to defend the city. The Soviets murdered numerous Poles, including prisoners of war like General Józef Olszyna-Wilczyński.[33][34] Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists rose against the Poles, and communist partisans organised local revolts, robbing and murdering Poles. Those movements were quickly disciplined by the NKVD. The Soviet invasion was one of the decisive factors that convinced the Polish government that the war in Poland was lost.[10] Prior to the Soviet attack from the east, the Polish military's fall-back plan had called for long-term defence against Germany in the southern-eastern part of Poland, while awaiting relief from a Western Allies attack on Germany's western border.[10] However, the Polish government refused to surrender or negotiate a peace with Germany and ordered all units to evacuate Poland and reorganize in France. Border Defence Corps (Polish Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza, KOP) was a Polish military unit created in 1924 for defence of the eastern border against armed Soviet raids and local bandits. ... The Battle of Grodno took place between September 21 and September 24, 1939, during the Polish Defensive War. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Józef Konstanty Olszyna-WilczyÅ„ski (1890-1939) was a Polish general and one of the high-ranking commanders of the Polish Army. ... Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists or OUN (Ukrainian: or ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement originally created in the interwar Poland. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ...


Meanwhile, Polish forces tried to move towards the Romanian bridgehead area, still actively resisting the German invasion. From September 17 to September 20, the Polish Armies Kraków and Lublin were crippled at the Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski, the second largest battle of the campaign. The city of Lwów capitulated on September 22 because of Soviet intervention; the city had been attacked by the Germans over a week earlier, and in the middle of the siege, the German troops handed operations over to their Soviet allies. Despite a series of intensifying German attacks, Warsaw—defended by quickly reorganised retreating units, civilian volunteers and militia—held out until its capitulation on September 28. The Modlin Fortress north of Warsaw capitulated on September 29 after an intense 16-day battle. Some isolated Polish garrisons managed to hold their positions long after being surrounded by German forces. Westerplatte enclave's tiny garrison capitulated on September 7, and Oksywie garrison held until September 19; Hel was defended until October 2. is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski took place from 17th September to 26th September 1939 near the town of Tomaszów Lubelski. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Modlin Fortress (Polish Twierdza Modlin) is one of the biggest 19th century fortresses in Poland. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Modlin Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date September 13 to September 29, 1939 Place Modlin village, Modlin Fortress Result Polish capitulation During the Polish September Campaign at the beginning of the Second World War, Modlin Fortress was a headquarters of the Modlin Army until it retreated eastwards. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Henryk Sucharski (nominal) Franciszek DÄ…browski (de-facto) Friedrich Eberhardt (land) Gustav Kleikamp (sea) Strength 182 soldiers 25 civilians 1 M1902 gun 2 Bofors 37 mm AT guns 4 Brandt 81 mm mortars 41 MGs 3,500 soldiers 47-70 Stuka dive bombers 65 guns... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oksywie in early 20th century Oksywie (German: ) is a neighbourhood of the city of Gdynia. ... The battle of KÄ™pa Oksywska took place in the Oksywie Heights outside of the city of Gdynia between September 10 and September 19, 1939. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HEL can mean: Helsinki-Vantaa Airport Hensall railway station, England; National Rail station code HEL High energy laser (weapon) Hel (band), a Swedish vikingarock band Category: ... Hel Peninsula as seen from Landsat satellite in 2000 Battle of Hel was one of the longest battles of the Polish Defence War of 1939 in 1939. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite a Polish victory at the battle of Szack, after which the Soviets executed all the NCOs and officers they had managed to capture, the Red Army reached the line of rivers Narew, Western Bug, Vistula and San by September 28, in many cases meeting German units advancing from the other side. Polish defenders on the Hel peninsula on the shore of the Baltic Sea held out until October 2. The last operational unit of the Polish Army, General Franciszek Kleeberg's Samodzielna Grupa Operacyjna "Polesie", capitulated after the 4-day Battle of Kock near Lublin on October 6, marking the end of the September Campaign. Combatants Soviet Union Poland Commanders Wilhelm Orlik-Rueckemann Strength 52 Rifle Division 4000 strong KOP group including artillery Casualties about 500 KIA 1600 WIA several guns a few AFVs 7 tanks (Soviet counts) up to 40 tanks (Polish counts) about 350 KIA more than 900 WIA a few trucks Battle... A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hel Peninsula as seen from Landsat satellite in 2000 Kitesurfing, Hel Peninsula Hel Peninsula (Polish Mierzeja Helska, Kashubian Hélskô Sztremlëzna, German Halbinsel Hela) is a 35-km-long sand bar peninsula in northern Poland separating the Bay of Puck from the open Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Franciszek Kleeberg (1888-1941) was a Polish general. ... Independent Operational Group Polesie (Samodzielna Grupa Operacyjna Polesie, SGO Polesie) was one of the Polish Army Corps that took part in the Polish Defence War of 1939. ... The Battle of Kock was the final battle of the Polish September Campaign at the beginning of World War II. It took place from October 2nd through October 5th, 1939, near the town of Kock, Poland. ... Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Civilian losses

The Polish September Campaign was an instance of total war that was repeated continuously throughout World War II. Consequently, civilian casualties were high during and after combat. From the start of the campaign, the Luftwaffe attacked civilian targets and columns of refugees along the roads to wreak havoc, disrupt communications and target Polish morale. Apart from the victims of the battles, the German forces (both SS and the regular Wehrmacht) are credited with the mass murder of several thousands of Polish POWs and civilians. Also, during a planned Operation Tannenberg, nearly 20,000 Poles were shot in 760 mass execution sites by special units, the Einsatzgruppen, in addition to regular Wehrmacht, SS and Selbstschutz. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... Operation Tannenberg (German: Unternehmen Tannenberg) was the codename for one of the extermination actions directed at the Polish people during World War II, part of the Generalplan Ost. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Selbstschutz (German: ) stands for two organisations: it was (1) a name used by a number of paramilitary organisations created by ethnic Germans in Central Europe and (2) is a name for self-defence measures and units in ethnic German, Austrian, and Swiss civil defence. ...


Altogether, the civilian losses of Polish population amounted to 150,000 while German civilian losses amounted to roughly 5,000.[citation needed]


Aftermath

Soviet (left) and German officers meet after the Soviets' invasion of Poland.
Execution of some 300 Polish POWs at Ciepielów by the German 15th Motorized Regiment.
October 5, 1939: Wehrmacht soldiers hold a victory parade on Warsaw's Aleje Ujazdowskie, which was watched by Adolf Hitler.

At the end of the September Campaign, Poland was divided among Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania and Slovakia. Nazi Germany annexed parts of Poland, while the rest was governed by the so-called General Government. On September 28, another secret German-Soviet protocol modified the arrangements of August: all Lithuania was to be a Soviet sphere of influence, not a German one; but the dividing line in Poland was moved in Germany's favor, to the Bug River. Even though water barriers separated most of the spheres of interest, the Soviet and German troops met each other on numerous occasions. The most remarkable event of this kind happened in Brest-Litovsk on September 22. The German 19th panzer corps under the command of Heinz Guderian had occupied Brest-Litovsk, which lay within the Soviet sphere of interest. When the Soviet 29th Tank Brigade under the command of S. M. Krivoshein approached Brest-Litovsk, the commanders negotiated that the German troops would withdraw and the Soviet troops would enter the city saluting each other.[35] Just three days earlier, however, the parties had a more damaging encounter near Lviv, when the German 137th Gebirgsjägerregimenter (mountain infantry regiment) attacked a reconnaissance detachment of the Soviet 24th Tank Brigade; after a few casualties on both sides, the parties turned to negotiations. The German troops left the area, and the Red Army troops entered L'viv on September 22. At Brest-Litovsk, Soviet and German commanders held a joint victory parade before German forces withdrew westward behind a new demarcation line.[8] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Mass grave of 300 Polish POWs murdered near Ciepielów by the German 15th Motorized Infantry Regiment of German 29th Motorized Division Commanded by General Joachim Lemelsen File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Mass grave of 300 Polish POWs murdered near Ciepielów by the German 15th Motorized Infantry Regiment of German 29th Motorized Division Commanded by General Joachim Lemelsen File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Mass grave of 300 Polish POWs of the Polish 74 Infantry Regiment murdered near Ciepielów by the German 15th Motorized Infantry Regiment of German 29th Motorized Division Commanded by General Joachim Lemelsen Massacre in Ciepielów on 8 September 1939 was one of the largest and best documented war... Download high resolution version (1285x812, 152 KB)German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland on October 5, 1939. ... Download high resolution version (1285x812, 152 KB)German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland on October 5, 1939. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In international law and international relations, a protocol is a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. ... For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... Victory Parade on Red Square, Moscow on June 24, 1945. ...


About 65,000 Polish troops were killed in the fighting, with 420,000 others being captured by the Germans and 240,000 more by the Soviets (for a total of 660,000 prisoners). Up to 120,000 Polish troops escaped to neutral Romania (through the Romanian Bridgehead) and Hungary, and another 20,000 escaped to Latvia and Lithuania, with the majority eventually making their way to France or Britain. Most of the Polish Navy succeeded in evacuating to Britain as well. German personnel losses were less than their enemies (~16,000 KIA). Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ...


Neither side—Germany, the Western Allies or the Soviet Union—expected that the German invasion of Poland would lead to the war that would surpass World War I in its scale and cost. It would be months before Hitler would see the futility of his peace negotiation attempts with Great Britain and France, but the culmination of combined European and Pacific conflicts would result in what was truly a "world war". Thus, what was not visible to most politicians and generals in 1939 is clear from the historical perspective: The Polish September Campaign marked the beginning of the Second World War in Europe, which combined with the Japanese invasion of China in 1937 and the Pacific War in 1941, formed the cataclysm known as World War II. Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


The invasion of Poland led to Britain and France to declare war on Germany on September 3; however, they did little to affect the outcome of the September Campaign. This lack of direct help during September 1939 led many Poles to believe that they had been betrayed by their Western allies. is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through...

Survivor of bombing of Warsaw.

On May 23, 1939, Adolf Hitler explained to his officers that the object of the aggression was not Danzig, but the need to obtain German Lebensraum and details of this concept would be later formulated in the infamous Generalplan Ost. [8] [9] The blitzkrieg decimated urban residential areas, civilians soon became indistinguishable from combatants, and the forthcoming German occupation (General Government, Reichsgau Wartheland) was one of the most brutal episodes of World War II, resulting in over 6 million Polish deaths (over 20% of the country's total population, and over 90% of its Jewish minority),-including the mass murder of 3 million Poles, regardless of religious beliefs,[10]- in extermination camps like Auschwitz, in concentation camps, and in numerous ad hoc massacres where civilians were rounded up, taken to a nearby forest, machine-gunned, and then buried, regardless of whether they were actually dead or not. Survivor of German aerial bombardment of Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Survivor of German aerial bombardment of Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers both to the terror bombing campaign on Warsaw by Luftwaffe during the September Campaign (siege of Warsaw and to the German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lebensraum (German for habitat or living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen) was the name given by Nazi German government to the largest subdivision of the territory of Greater Poland which was directly incorporated into the German Reich after defeating the Polish army in 1939. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ...


The Red Army occupied the Polish territories with mostly Ukrainian and Belarusian population. Soviets, met at the beginning as liberators by local people, shortly after started to introduce communist ideology in the area. This led to a powerful anti-Soviet resistance in the West Ukraine. Soviet occupation between 1939 and 1941 resulted in the death or deportation of least 1.8 million former Polish citizens, when all who were deemed dangerous to the communist regime were subject to sovietization, forced resettlement, imprisonment in labour camps (the Gulags) or murdered, like the Polish officers in the Katyn massacre. Part of these casualties were retributions for the attacks of the Ukrainian nationalists on the Polish villages in the West Ukraine, where vengeful feeling was particularly strong. Soviet atrocities commenced again after Poland was "liberated" by the Red Army in 1944, with events like the persecution of the Home Army soldiers and execution of its leaders (Trial of the Sixteen). Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Sovietization is term that may be used with two distinct (but related) meanings: the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers councils). ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Katyn and KatyÅ„ redirect here. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... The term sometimes is also applied to First Moscow Trial during the Great Purges in USSR The Trial of the Sixteen (Polish: Proces szesnastu) was a staged trial of 16 leaders of the Polish Secret State held by the Soviet Union in Moscow in 1945. ...


Myths

Graves of Polish soldiers at Powązki Cemetery, Warsaw.

There are several common misconceptions regarding the Polish September Campaign: Download high resolution version (1080x1440, 571 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1080x1440, 571 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... PowÄ…zki Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz PowÄ…zkowski) is the oldest and most famous cemetery in Warsaw, Poland, which is situated in the western part of the city. ...

  • Myth: The Polish military fought tanks with cavalry.
        Although Poland had 11 cavalry brigades and its doctrine emphasized cavalry units as elite units, other armies of that time (including German and Soviet) also fielded and extensively used horse cavalry units. Polish cavalry (equipped with modern small arms and light artillery like the highly effective Bofors 37 mm antitank gun) never charged German tanks or entrenched infantry or artillery directly but usually acted as mobile infantry (like dragoons) and reconnaissance units and executed cavalry charges only in rare situations, against enemy infantry. The article about the Battle of Krojanty (when Polish cavalry were fired on by hidden armored vehicles, rather than charging them) describes how this myth originated.
  • Myth: The Polish air force was destroyed while on the ground in the first days of the war.
        The Polish Air Force, though numerically inferior, was not destroyed on the ground because combat units had been moved from air bases to small camouflaged airfields shortly before the war. Only some trainers and auxiliary aircraft were destroyed on the ground on airfields. The Polish Air Force remained active in the first two weeks of the campaign, causing damage to the Luftwaffe. Many skilled Polish pilots escaped afterwards to the United Kingdom and were deployed by the RAF during the Battle of Britain. Fighting from British bases, Polish pilots were on average the most successful in shooting down German aircraft.[36]
  • Myth: Poland offered little resistance and surrendered quickly.
        Germany sustained relatively heavy losses, especially in vehicles and planes: Poland cost Germans approximately the equipment of an entire armored division and 40% of its air strength.[11] As for duration, the September Campaign lasted only about one week less than the Battle of France in 1940, even though the Anglo-French allied forces were much closer to parity with the Germans in numerical strength and equipment.[37] Poland also never officially surrendered to the Germans.
  • Myth: The German Army used new concepts of warfare strategically.
        The myth of Blitzkrieg has been dispelled by some authors, notably Matthew Cooper. Cooper writes (in The German Army 1939–1945: Its Political and Military Failure): "Throughout the Polish Campaign, the employment of the mechanised units revealed the idea that they were intended solely to ease the advance and to support the activities of the infantry…. Thus, any strategic exploitation of the armoured idea was still-born. The paralysis of command and the breakdown of morale were not made the ultimate aim of the … German ground and air forces, and were only incidental by-products of the traditional manoeuvers of rapid encirclement and of the supporting activities of the flying artillery of the Luftwaffe, both of which had as their purpose the physical destruction of the enemy troops. Such was the Vernichtungsgedanke of the Polish campaign." Vernichtungsgedanke was a strategy dating back to Frederick the Great, and was applied in the Polish Campaign little changed from the French campaigns in 1870 or 1914. The use of tanks "left much to be desired...Fear of enemy action against the flanks of the advance, fear which was to prove so disastrous to German prospects in the west in 1940 and in the Soviet Union in 1941, was present from the beginning of the war." Many early postwar histories, such as Barrie Pitt's in The Second World War (BPC Publishing 1966), attribute German victory to "enormous development in military technique which occurred between 1918 and 1940", citing that "Germany, who translated (British inter-war) theories into action… called the result Blitzkrieg." John Ellis, writing in Brute Force (Viking Penguin, 1990) asserted that "…there is considerable justice in Matthew Cooper's assertion that the panzer divisions were not given the kind of strategic (emphasis in original) mission that was to characterise authentic armoured blitzkrieg, and were almost always closely subordinated to the various mass infantry armies." Zaloga and Madej, in The Polish Campaign 1939 (Hippocrene Books, 1985), also address the subject of mythical interpretations of Blitzkrieg and the importance of other arms in the campaign. "Whilst Western accounts of the September campaign have stressed the shock value of the panzers and Stuka attacks, they have tended to underestimate the punishing effect of German artillery (emphasis added) on Polish units. Mobile and available in significant quantity, artillery shattered as many units as any other branch of the Wehrmacht."

Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of PoznaÅ„ in uniforms of 15th PoznaÅ„ Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish: ) can trace its origins back to the days of Medieval mounted knights. ... The Bofors 37 mm was a very common anti-tank gun used by all Allied forces during WW2. ... Mobile infantry is one of several military terms usually referring to infantry units equipped with vehicles. ... French dragoon, 1745. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The Battle of Krojanty was part of the Polish September Campaign of the Second World War. ... A trainer is a training aircraft used to develop piloting, navigational or weapon-aiming skills in flight crew. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... “RAF” redirects here. ... This article is about military history. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Vernichtungsgedanke, meaning the concept of annihilation in German, is a Prussian / German tactical doctrine, dating to Frederick the Great. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Brute Force is a controversial book by historian John Ellis which proposes that the Allied Forces won World War II not by the skill of their leaders but by brute force. ...

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Polish September Campaign
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Polish Defensive War of 1939

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Armenian quote is a paragraph allegedly included in a speech by Adolf Hitler to Wehrmacht commanders at his Obersalzberg home on August 22, 1939, a week before the German invasion of Poland. ... The history of Poland from 1939 through 1945 encompasses the German invasion of Poland through to the end of World War II. On September 1, 1939, without a formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... The following is a standard order of battle of the Polish cavalry brigade in 1939. ... Main engagements of Polish forces Westerplatte – Mokra – Bzura – Enigma – Narvik – Battle of Britain – Tobruk – Gazala – Dieppe – Lenino – Monte Cassino – Ostra Brama – V2 Capture – Warsaw Uprising - Falaise – Studzianki - Market Garden – Scheldt – Seelow Heights – Bautzen – Berlin // 1939 poster. ... September 1: World War II begins with the invasion of Poland by Germany. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Vernichtungsgedanke, meaning the concept of annihilation in German, is a Prussian / German tactical doctrine, dating to Frederick the Great. ... War crimes of the Wehrmacht are those carried out by traditional German armed forces during World War II. While the principal perpetrators of the Holocaust amongst German armed forces were the Nazi German political armies (the Waffen-SS and particularly the Einsatzgruppen), the traditional armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht... This article deals with the treatment of Polish citizens by occupation forces during the Second World War (1939 - 1945). ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Переслегин. Вторая мировая: война между реальностями.- М.:Яуза, Эксмо, 2006, с.22; Р. Э. Дюпюи, Т. Н. Дюпюи. Всемирная история войн. — С-П,М: АСТ, кн.4, с.93
  2. ^ a b c d Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The 1939 Campaign Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005
  3. ^ a b Various sources contradict each other so the figures quoted above should only be taken as a rough indication of the strength estimate. The most common range differences and their brackets are: German personnel 1,500,000 (thats the official figure of the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs) - or 1,800,000. Polish tanks: 100–880, 100 is the number of modern tanks, 880 number includes older IWWs tanks and tankettes. For all numbers, primary source is Encyklopedia PWN, article on 'Kampania Wrześniowa 1939' or the website of the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs - the Poles on the Front Lines.
  4. ^ E.R Hooton, p85
  5. ^ a b Various sources contradict each other so the figures quoted above should only be taken as a rough indication of losses. The most common range brackets for casualties are: Polish casualties—63,000 to 66,300 KIA, 134,000 WIA; German KIA—8,082 to 16,343, with MIA from 320 to 5,029, total KIA and WIA given at 45,000. The discrepancy in German casualties can be attributed to the fact that some German statistics still listed soldiers as missing decades after the war. Today the most common and accepted number for German KIA casualties is 16,343. Soviet official losses are estimated at 737–1,475 killed or missing, and 1,859–2,383 wounded. The often cited figure of 420,000 Polish prisoners of war represents only those captured by the Germans, as Soviets captured about 250,000 Polish POWs themselves, making the total number of Polish POWs about 660,000–690,000. Equipment losses are given as 236 German tanks and approximately 1,000 other vehicles to 132 Polish tanks and 300 other vehicles, 107–141 German planes to 327 Polish planes (118 fighters) (Polish PWN Encyclopedia gives number of 700 planes lost), 1 German small minelayer to 1 Polish destroyer (ORP Wicher), 1 minelayer (ORP Gryf) and several support craft. Soviets lost approximately 42 tanks in combat while hundreds more suffered technical failures.
  6. ^ History Group of the Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Wellington, New Zealand (2005). Overview - New Zealand and the Second World War (English). New Zealand's History online. Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  7. ^ Baliszewski, Most honoru
  8. ^ a b Fischer 1999–2000
  9. ^ Cienciala, Anna M. (2004). The Coming of the War and Eastern Europe in World War II. University of Kansas. Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  10. ^ a b c (Sanford 2005, pp. 20–24)
  11. ^ B.H.Hart & A.J.P Taylor, p41
  12. ^ Bombers of the Luftwaffe, Joachim Dressel and Manfred Griehl, Arms and Armour, 1994
  13. ^ The Flying pencil, Heinz J. Nowarra, Schiffer Publishing,1990,p25
  14. ^ A History of World War Two, A.J.P Taylor, Octopus, 1974, p35
  15. ^ Michael Alfred Peszke, Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of Strategic Unity in World War II, McFarland & Company, 2004, ISBN 0-7864-2009-X, Google Print, p.2
  16. ^ Nowa Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN 1997, vol. VI, 981.
  17. ^ http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/psf/box31/t295s04.html see also the original [1]
  18. ^ Documents Concerning the Last Phase of the German-Polish Crisis, Proposal for a settlement of the Danzig and the Polish Corridor Problem as well as of the question concerning the German and Polish Minorities (New York: German Library of Information), p 33–35...see also: Documents Concerning German-Polish Relations and the Outbreak of Hostilities Between Great Britain and Germany on September 3, 1939 (Miscellaneous No. 9) Message which was communicated to H.M. Ambassador in Berlin by the State Secretary on August 31, 1939 at 9:15 p.m. (London: His Majesty's (HM) Stationary Office) p. 149–153.
  19. ^ see: Documents Concerning German-Polish Relations, 149–153.
  20. ^ see: Documents Concerning German-Polish Relations, 149–153.
  21. ^ Final Report By the Right Honourable Sir Nevile Henderson (G.C.M.G) on the circumstances leading to the termination of his mission to Berlin September 20, 1939. (London: His Majesty's Stationary Office), p. 24
  22. ^ see: Final Report By the Right Honourable Sir Nevile Henderson, p. 16–18
  23. ^ (Polish) Henryk Piątkowski (1943). Kampania wrześniowa 1939 roku w Polsce. Jerusalem: Sekcja Wydawnicza APW, 39. 
  24. ^ (English) Count Edward Raczyński (1948). The British-Polish Alliance; Its Origin and Meaning. London: Mellville Press. 
  25. ^ Dariusz Baliszewski, Wojna sukcesów, Tygodnik "Wprost", Nr 1141 (10 October 2004)
  26. ^ a b E.R Hooton, p87
  27. ^ a b E.R Hooton, p91
  28. ^ Telegram: The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union, (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office. Moscow, September 10, 1939-9:40 p. m. and Telegram 2: he German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office. Moscow, September 16, 1939. Source: The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Last accessed on 14 November 2006
  29. ^ Molotov's report on March 29, 1940 http://www.histdoc.net/history/molotov.html
  30. ^ (Polish) Marek Wierzbicki, Stosunki polsko-białoruskie pod okupacją sowiecką (1939–1941). „Białoruskie Zeszyty Historyczne” (НА СТАРОНКАХ КАМУНІКАТУ, Biełaruski histaryczny zbornik) 20 (2003), p. 186–188. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
  31. ^ Apart from the two pacts mentioned, the treaties violated by the Soviet Union were: the 1919 Covenant of the League of Nations (to which the USSR adhered in 1934), the Briand-Kellog Pact of 1928 and the 1933 London Convention on the Definition of Aggression; see for instance: (English) Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide.... McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. 
  32. ^ [2]
  33. ^ Sanford, p. 23; (Polish) Olszyna-Wilczyński Józef Konstanty, Encyklopedia PWN. Retrieved 14 November 2006.
  34. ^ (Polish) Śledztwo w sprawie zabójstwa w dniu 22 września 1939 r. w okolicach miejscowości Sopoćkinie generała brygady Wojska Polskiego Józefa Olszyny-Wilczyńskiego i jego adiutanta kapitana Mieczysława Strzemskiego przez żołnierzy b. Związku Radzieckiego. (S 6/02/Zk) Polish Institute of National Remembrance. Internet Archive, 16.10.03. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
  35. ^ Кривошеин С.М. Междубурье. Воспоминания. Воронеж, 1964. (Krivoshein S. M. Between the Storms. Memoirs. Voronezh, 1964. in Russian); Guderian H. Erinnerungen eines Soldaten Heidelberg, 1951 (in German — Memoirs of a Soldier in English)
  36. ^ No. 303 "Kościuszko" Polish Fighter Squadron formed from Polish pilots in the United Kingdom almost 2 months after the Battle of Britain begun is famous for achieving the highest number of enemy kills during the Battle of Britain of all fighter squadrons then in operation.
  37. ^ Polish to Germany forces in the September Campaign: 1,000,000 soldiers 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 435 aircraft (Poland) to 1,800,000 soldiers, 10,000 guns, 2,800 tanks, 3,000 aircraft (Germany). French and participating Allies to German forces in the Battle of France: 2,862,000 soldiers, 13,974 guns, 3,384 tanks, 3,099 aircraft 2 (Allies) to 3,350,000 soldiers, 7,378 guns, 2,445 tanks, 5,446 aircraft (Germany).

// Foreign affairs administration covers Poland’s relations with other states and international organizations, representation and protection of interests of the Republic of Poland and of Polish nationals and legal persons abroad, cooperation with Poles living abroad, promotion of the Republic of Poland abroad. ... Polish TK-3. ... Volumes 1 thru 11 Wielka Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN (Great Universal Encyclopedia) is the largest Polish encyclopedia ever written. ... ORP Wicher was a name of two destroyers of the Polish Navy: ORP Wicher commissioned in 1930 and sunk during the Polish Defence War of 1939 ORP Wicher commissioned from the Soviet Union in 1958 and scrapped in 1974 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... ORP Gryf (eng. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anna M. Cienciala is a Professor Emeritus of History and Russian and Eastern European Studies at Kansas University. ... The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Alfred Peszke (born 1932, Dęblin, Poland) is a Polish-American psychiatrist and historian of the Polish Armed Forces in World War II. After the outbreak of World War II and the Soviet invasion of eastern Poland, Peszke, his mother Eugenia Halina Grębocka Peszke, and his... Term of office from 1979 until 1986 Profession Lawyer Political party none Spouse Date of birth July 19, 1891 Place of birth Zakopane Date of death July 30, 1993 Place of death London Edward RaczyÅ„ski (1891-1993) was a Polish aristocrat, diplomat, politician and President of Poland in exile... Wprost (Direct) is a weekly newsmagazine in Poland. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... The Kellogg-Briand Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, after the city where it was signed on August 27, 1928, is an international treaty providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy. ... The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, commonly called the London Convention or LC 72, covers the deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter from vessels, aircraft, and platforms. ... Tadeusz Piotrowski can refer to: Tadeusz Piotrowski (mountaineer). ... Volumes 1 thru 11 Wielka Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN (Great Universal Encyclopedia) is the largest Polish encyclopedia ever written. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Institute of National Remembrance (Polish: ; IPN) is a Polish institution created by the IPN Act in 18 December 1998. ... No. ... This article is about military history. ...

References

  • Cooper, Matthew (1978). The German Army 1939–1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York: Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-2468-7. 
  • Baliszewski, Dariusz (2004-10-10). "Wojna sukcesów" (in Polish). Wprost (1141). Retrieved on 2005-03-24. 
  • Baliszewski, Dariusz (2004-09-19). "Most honoru" (in Polish). Wprost (1138). Retrieved on 2005-03-24. 
  • Chodakiewicz, Marek Jan (2004). Between Nazis and Soviets: Occupation Politics in Poland, 1939–1947. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0484-5. 
  • Ellis, John (1999). Brute Force: Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War, 1st American ed., Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-80773-7. 
  • Fischer, Benjamin B. (Winter 1999–2000). "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field". Studies in Intelligence. Retrieved on 2005-12-10. 
  • Gross, Jan T. (2002). Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09603-1. 
  • Hooton, E. R. (2007). Luftwaffe at War: Gathering Storm 1933–1939 Volume 1. London: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-903223-71-7. 
  • Kennedy, Robert M. (1980). The German Campaign in Poland (1939). Zenger. ISBN 0-89201-064-9. 
  • Lukas, Richard C. (2001). Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939–1944. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0901-0. 
  • Majer, Diemut; et al. (2003). Non-Germans under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe, with Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6493-3. 
  • Prazmowska, Anita J. (1995). Britain and Poland 1939–1943: The Betrayed Ally. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48385-9. 
  • Rossino, Alexander B. (2003). Hitler Strikes Poland: Blitzkrieg, Ideology and Atrocity. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1234-3. 
  • Sanford, George (2005). Katyn and the Soviet Massacre Of 1940: Truth, Justice And Memory. London, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415338735. 
  • Smith, Peter Charles (1998). Stuka Spearhead: The Lightning War from Poland to Dunkirk 1939–1940. Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-329-3. 
  • Sword, Keith (1991). The Soviet Takeover of the Polish Eastern Provinces, 1939–41. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-05570-6. 
  • Stachiewicz, Wacław (1998). Wierności dochować żołnierskiej (in Polish). OW RYTM. ISBN 83-86678-71-2. 
  • Taylor, A. J. P.; Mayer, S. L. (eds.) (1974). A History Of World War Two. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 0-70640-399-1. 
  • Zaloga, Steve; Gerrard, Howard (2002). Poland 1939: The Birth of Blitzkrieg. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-408-6. 
  • Zaloga, Steve (1982). The Polish Army 1939–1945. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-417-4. 
  • "KAMPANIA WRZEŚNIOWA 1939". Internetowa encyklopedia PWN. Retrieved on 2005-12-10. 

Dariusz Baliszewski is a Polish historian, journalist and writer. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wprost (Direct) is a weekly newsmagazine in Poland. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dariusz Baliszewski is a Polish historian, journalist and writer. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wprost (Direct) is a weekly newsmagazine in Poland. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (born in 1962 in Warsaw, Poland) is an American historian specializing in East Central European history of the 19th and 20th century. ... Brute Force is a controversial book by historian John Ellis which proposes that the Allied Forces won World War II not by the skill of their leaders but by brute force. ... Benjamin B. Fischer has worked for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for nearly 30 years, and has been headquartered at its Center for the Study of Intelligence, History Staff, in recent years. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan Tomasz Gross (born December 8, 1947 in Warsaw)- a controversial Polish-American historian of Jewish origin. ... right|thumb|Richard C. LukasRichard C. Lukas is a noted American historian and author of numerous books and articles on Polish history and Polish-Jewish relations. ... Anita J. Prazmowska is a professor and a Senior Lecturer in International History at the London School of Economics. ... George Sanford is a British scholar. ... Brigadier General Wacław Stachiewicz (1894-1973) was an officer of the Polish Army, geologist and a Polish writer. ... Internetowa encyklopedia PWN (Internet PWN encyclopedia) also known as Nowa encyklopedia powszechna PWN (New Universal PWN Encyclopedia) is a Polish language encyclopedia published by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Its content is available online. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Böhler, Jochen (2006). Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg; Die Wehrmacht in Polen 1939 (Preface to the War of Annihilation: Wehrmacht in Poland) (in German). Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-596-16307-2. 

External links

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - Invasion of Poland (1939) (6503 words)
The invasion of Poland began September 1, 1939, one week after the signing of the secret Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and ended October 6, 1939, with Germany and the Soviet Union occupying the entirety of Poland.
Poland was a country well suited for mobile operations when the weather cooperated - a country of flat plains with long frontiers totalling almost 3,500 miles, Poland had long borders with Germany on the west and north (facing East Prussia) of 1,250 miles.
Soviet occupation between 1939 and 1941 resulted in the death or deportation of least 1.8 million former Polish citizens, when all who were deemed dangerous to the communist regime were subject to sovietization, forced resettlement, imprisonment in labour camps (the Gulags) or simply murdered, like the Polish officers in the Katyn massacre.
Invasion of Poland (1939) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6648 words)
With Poland refusing to abandon its sovereignty to German demands, Germany withdrew from both the German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934 and the London Naval Agreement of 1935 on April 28, 1939.
Poland was a country well suited for mobile operations when the weather cooperated - a country of flat plains with long frontiers totalling almost 3,500 miles, Poland had long borders with Germany on the west and north (facing East Prussia) of 1,250 miles.
Soviet occupation between 1939 and 1941 resulted in the death or deportation of least 1.8 million former Polish citizens, when all who were deemed dangerous to the communist regime were subject to sovietization, forced resettlement, imprisonment in labour camps (the Gulags) or simply murdered, like the Polish officers in the Katyn massacre.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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