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Encyclopedia > Invasion of Grenada
Invasion of Grenada
Part of the Cold War


U.S. Army Rangers parachute into Grenada during the invasion.
Date October 25, 1983 - December 15, 1983
Location Grenada
Result Decisive U.S.-led victory
Military regime toppled
Combatants
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda
Flag of Barbados Barbados
Flag of Dominica Dominica
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica
Flag of Saint Lucia Saint Lucia
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Flag of Grenada Grenada
Flag of Cuba Cuba
Commanders
Flag of the United States Ronald Reagan
Flag of the United States Joseph Metcalf
Flag of the United States H. Norman Schwarzkopf
Flag of Grenada Hudson Austin
Flag of Cuba Pedro Tortolo
Strength
7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars
Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1]
Casualties
19 killed; 116 wounded[2] Grenada: 45 military and at least 24 civilian deaths; 358 wounded.
Cuba: 24 killed, 59 wounded, 638 taken prisoner.[3]

The Invasion of Grenada, codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, was an invasion of the island nation of Grenada by the United States of America and several other nations in response to Prime Minister Maurice Bishop being illegally deposed and executed. On October 25, 1983, the United States, Barbados, Jamaica and members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States landed ships on Grenada, defeated Grenadian and Cuban resistance and overthrew the military government of Hudson Austin. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links US_Army_Rangers_parachute_into_Grenada_during_Operation_Urgent_Fury. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Hudson Austin (born April 26, 1938) was a Grenadian military leader. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Maurice Bishop Maurice Rupert Bishop (May 29, 1944 – October 19, 1983) was a Grenadian revolutionary leader. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) includes the member states of: Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda British Virgin Islands Dominica Grenada Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines The OECS was created on 18 June 1981, with the Treaty of Basseterre, named after the capital... Hudson Austin (born April 26, 1938) was a Grenadian military leader. ...


The invasion received a mixed reception, although it enjoyed broad public support in the United States as well as in segments of the population in Grenada. October 25 is a national holiday in Grenada, called Thanksgiving Day, to commemorate this event. Conversely, the invasion was criticised by the United Kingdom, Trinidad and Tobago and Canada. Approximately 100 people lost their lives. is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Background

On March 13, 1979 the New Jewel Movement under Maurice Bishop launched a revolution against the government of Eric Gairy to establish a people's provisional government. The government suspended the constitution and began to rule by decree. All other political parties were banned and no elections were ever held. Internationally, the government quickly aligned itself with Cuba and other communist governments. Under Bishop, Grenada began a military build-up. The New Jewel Movement was a populist, Marxist-Leninist political movement in the Caribbean island nation of Grenada. ... Maurice Bishop Maurice Rupert Bishop (May 29, 1944 – October 19, 1983) was a Grenadian revolutionary leader. ... Sir Eric Matthew Gairy (February 18, 1920 - August 23, 1997) was a Grenadian politician. ... Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


The government also began constructing an international airport with the help of Cuba and other nations. U.S. President Ronald Reagan pointed to this airport and several other sites as evidence of the potential threat posed by Grenada towards the United States. Pointing to the 9,000-foot runway and the oil storage tanks, he asserted that these were unnecessary for commercial flights, and could only mean that the airport was to become a Cuban-Soviet airbase. An International airport is an airport where flights from other countries land and/or take off. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


The airport had been first proposed by the British government in 1954, when Grenada was still a colony. It had been designed by the Canadians, underwritten by the British government, and partly built by a London firm. The U.S. government accused Grenada of constructing facilities to aid a Soviet-Cuban military build-up in the Caribbean, and to assist Soviet and Cuban transports in transporting weapons to Central American insurgents. Bishop’s government claimed that the airport was built to accommodate commercial aircraft carrying tourists. “West Indian” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


On October 13, 1983, a party faction led by Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard seized power illegally. Bishop was placed under house arrest. Mass protests against the action led to Bishop escaping detention and reasserting his authority as the head of the government. Bishop was eventually captured and murdered along with several government officials loyal to him. The army under Hudson Austin then stepped in and formed a military council to rule the country. The Governor-General of Grenada, Paul Scoon, was placed under house arrest. The army announced a four-day total curfew where anyone seen on the streets would be subject to summary execution. is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Winston Bernard Coard (born August 10, 1944) was a Grenadian politician who was part of the coup détat that overthrew Maurice Bishops government in 1983. ... Hudson Austin (born April 26, 1938) was a Grenadian military leader. ... This page contains a list of Governors-General of Grenada. ... Sir Paul Scoon (b. ...


The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) appealed to the United States, Barbados, and Jamaica for assistance. According to Mythu Sivapalan of the New York Times (October 29, 1983), this formal appeal was at the behest of the U.S. government, which had decided to take military action. U.S. officials cited the murder of Bishop and general political instability in a country near its own borders, as well as the presence of American medical students at St. George's University on Grenada, as reasons for military action. Sivapalan also claimed that the latter reason was cited in order to gain public support.[4] Map of the Eastern Caribbean showing OECS member states (dark green) and associate member states (light green) Secretariat Castries, St. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Medical school generally refers to a tertiary educational institution (or part of such an institution) which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners (medical doctors). ...


As the U.S. invaded, Cuba released a series of official documents to the press. According to these documents, when the murder of Maurice Bishop was reported on October 20, the government of Cuba declared that it was "deeply embittered" by the murder and rendered "deep tribute" to the assassinated leader. The same official statement reported instructions to Cubans in Grenada that "they should abstain absolutely from any involvement in the internal affairs of the Party and of Grenada," while attempting to maintain the "technical and economic collaboration that could affect essential services and vital economic assistance for the Grenadian people." On October 22, 1983, Castro sent a message to Cuban representatives in Grenada, stressing that they should take no action in the event of a U.S. invasion unless they are "directly attacked." If U.S. forces "land on the runway section [of the airport that Cubans were constructing with British assistance] near the university or on its surroundings to evacuate their citizens," Cubans were ordered "to fully refrain from interfering." The military rulers of Grenada were informed that "sending reinforcements is impossible and unthinkable" because of the actions in Grenada that Cuba and the Grenadan people deplore, and Cuba urged them to provide "total guarantees and facilities for the security and evacuation of U.S., English and other nationals." The message was repeated on October 23, stating that reinforcement would be politically wrong and "morally impossible before our people and the world" after the Bishop assassination. On October 24, Cuba again informed the Grenadan regime that Cubans would only defend themselves if attacked, and advised that the airport runway be cleared of military personnel. is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


On October 26, Alma Guillermoprieto reported in the Washington Post that at a "post-midnight news conference" with "almost 100 foreign and local journalists," Castro "released texts of what he said were diplomatic communications among Cuba, Grenada and the United States," giving the essential facts. U.S. sources "confirmed the exchange of messages," she added, but said they could not respond to Cuba at once because the telephone lines of the U.S. interest section in Havana were down from the evening of October 23 to late at night on October 24. Alma Guillermoprieto (born May 27, 1949) is a Mexican journalist who has written extensively about Latin America for the British and American press. ... ...


White House spokesman Larry Speakes, she reported, said that "the U.S. disregarded Cuban and Grenadan assurances that U.S. citizens in Grenada would be safe because, 'it was a floating craps game and we didn't know who was in charge'." The same issue was reported by Alan Berger in the Boston Globe on the same day. Larry Speakes (born September 13, 1939) was the spokesman for the White House under President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1987. ... Craps (previously known as crabs[1]) is a casino dice game. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ...


The invasion

The invasion, which commenced at 05:00 on October 25, was the first major operation conducted by the U.S. military since the Vietnam War. Fighting continued for several days and the total number of American troops reached some 7,000 along with 300 troops from the OECS. The invading forces encountered about 1,500 Grenadian soldiers and about 600 Cubans, most of whom were disguised as construction workers. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942. ...


Official U.S. sources state that the defenders were well-prepared, well-positioned and put up stubborn resistance, to the extent that the U.S. called in two battalions of reinforcements on the evening of October 26. However, the total naval and air superiority of the invading forces — including helicopter gunships and naval gunfire support — proved to be significant advantages. Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... A helicopter gunship is a military helicopter armed for attacking targets on the ground, using automatic cannon and machinegun fire, rockets, and precision guided missiles such as the Hellfire. ... Naval gunfire support (NGFS) comprises the use of naval artillery to provide fire support support for amphibious assault troops. ...


U.S. forces suffered 19 fatalities and 116 injuries.[5] Grenada suffered 45 military and at least 24 civilian deaths, along with 358 soldiers wounded. Cuba had 24 killed in action, with 59 wounded and 638 taken prisoner.


Reaction in the United States

A month after the invasion, Time magazine described it as having "broad popular support."[6] A congressional study group concluded that the invasion had been justified, as most members felt that the students could be taken hostage as U.S. diplomats in Iran had been four years previously. The group's report caused House Speaker Tip O'Neill to change his position on the issue from opposition to support. “TIME” redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ...


However, some members of the study group dissented from its findings. Congressman Louis Stokes stated that "Not a single American child nor single American national was in any way placed in danger or placed in a hostage situation prior to the invasion. The Congressional Black Caucus denounced the invasion and seven Democratic congressmen, led by Ted Weiss, attempted to impeach Reagan.[6] Louis B. Stokes Louis Stokes (born February 23, 1925 in Cleveland, Ohio) is a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... The Congressional Black Caucus is an organization representing African American members of the Congress of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Theodore S. Weiss (September 17, 1927 - September 14, 1992) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from New York. ...


International opposition and criticism

Grenada was part of the Commonwealth of Nations and — following the invasion — it requested help from other Commonwealth members. The invasion was opposed by the United Kingdom, Trinidad & Tobago and Canada, among others.[7] British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher personally opposed the U.S. invasion, and her Foreign Minister, Geoffrey Howe, announced to the House of Commons on the day before the invasion that he had no knowledge of any possible U.S. intervention. Ronald Reagan, President of the United States, assured her that an invasion was not contemplated. Reagan later said, "She was very adamant and continued to insist that we cancel our landings on Grenada. I couldn't tell her that it had already begun."[8] The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926), known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a senior British Conservative politician. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... Reagan redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


After the invasion, Prime Minister Thatcher wrote to President Reagan:

This action will be seen as intervention by a Western country in the internal affairs of a small independent nation, however unattractive its regime. I ask you to consider this in the context of our wider East-West relations and of the fact that we will be having in the next few days to present to our Parliament and people the siting of Cruise missiles in this country...I cannot conceal that I am deeply disturbed by your latest communication.[9]

Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ...

Aftermath

Following the U.S. victory, Grenada's Governor-General, Paul Scoon, announced the resumption of the constitution and appointed a new government. US Forces remained in Grenada after combat operations finished in December. Elements remaining included military police, special forces, and a specialized intelligence detachment. Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Sir Paul Scoon (b. ...


The invasion showed problems with the U.S. government's "information apparatus," which Time described as still being in "some disarray" three weeks after the invasion. For example, the U.S. State Department falsely claimed that a mass grave had been discovered that held 100 bodies of islanders who had been killed by Communist forces.[6] Department of State redirects here. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Also of concern were the problems that the invasion showed with the military. There was a lack of intelligence about Grenada, which exacerbated the difficulties faced by the quickly assembled invasion force. For example, it was not known that the students were actually at two different campuses and there was a thirty-hour delay in rescuing students at the second campus.[6] Maps provided to soldiers on the ground were rudimentary, did not show contour or relief, and were not marked with crucial positions. The landing strip was drawn in by hand.[citation needed] Analysis by the U.S. Department of Defense showed a need for improved communications and coordination between the different branches of the Armed Forces. Some of these recommendations resulted in the formation of the United States Special Operations Command in 1987 .[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Emblem of the United States Special Operations Command. ...


Order of battle

U.S. and allied land forces

U.S.

** The 75th Ranger Regiment had not been formed at the time of Operation Urgent Fury. Both existing Ranger battalions, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry and 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, took part in the operation. A year later both units were incorporated into the newly formed 75th Ranger Regiment. United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... The 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized)—also known as the Victory Division—was an infantry division of the United States Army with base of operations at Fort Riley, Kansas originally organized out of the old Hawaiian Division. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Official force name 75th Ranger Regiment Rangers Other names Airborne Rangers Army Rangers Task Force Ranger U.S. Army Rangers Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Special Operations Force, rapidly deployable light infantry force. ... SEALs in from the water. ... The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense — is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) (160th SOAR (A)) is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides helicopter aviation support to general purpose forces and Special Operations Forces. ... 1/75 Ranger Regiment Shoulder Sleeve Insignia 1/75 Ranger Regiment Beret Flash The 1st Ranger Battalion was formed upon Americas entry into World War II. Major General Lucian Truscott, U.S. Army, in liaison with the British General Staff, submitted proposals to General George Marshall that we undertake... On April 1, 1943 the 2nd Ranger Battalion was formed at Camp Forrest, Tennessee along with the 5th Ranger Battalion. ...


U.S. naval forces

Amphibious Squadron Four USS Guam USS Barnstable County, USS Manitowoc, USS Fort Snelling, USS Trenton The third USS Guam (LPH-9), an Iwo Jima class amphibious assault ship, was laid down by the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 15 November 1962; launched 22 August 1964; sponsored by Mrs. ... USS Manitowoc (LST 1180) was the second ship of the Newport class LST in the United States Navy. ... USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) was a Thomaston-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy. ... USS Trenton (LPD-14), the lead ship of her class of amphibious transport dock, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the capital of New Jersey. ...


Independence Task Group USS Independence, USS Richmond K. Turner, USS Coontz, USS Caron, USS Moosbrugger, USS Clifton Sprague, USS Suribachi The fifth USS Independence (CVA-62), a Forrestal-class aircraft carrier, was launched by New York Navy Yard 6 June 1958; sponsored by Mrs. ... USS (DLG-20 / CG-20) was a Leahy class destroyer leader in the United States Navy. ... The keel of the USS Coontz was laid at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in March 1957, just 39 years after Admiral Robert E. Coontz left his post as the shipyards commander. ... USS Caron (DD-970), named for Hospital Corpsman Third Class Wayne Maurice Caron (1946-1968), assigned to Headquarters and Service Company, Third Battalion, Seventh Marines, First Marine Division, killed in action at Quang Nam Province in the Republic of Vietnam on 28 July 1968, and posthumously awarded the Medal of... USS MOOSBRUGGER (DD-980), affectionately nicknamed the Moose by her crews, was named for Vice Admiral Frederick Moosbrugger USN, was a Spruance class destroyer built by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division of Litton Industries at Pascagoula in Mississippi. ... USS Clifton Sprague (FFG-16), is an Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile frigate of the United States Navy, the tenth ship of that class. ... USS Suribachi (AE-21) was laid down on 31 January 1955 at Sparrows Point, Maryland, by Bethlehem Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc. ...


In addition, the following ships supported naval operations: USS America, USS Aquila, USS Aubrey Fitch, USS Briscoe, USS Portsmouth, USS Recovery, USS Saipan, USS Sampson. USS Samuel Eliot Morison and USS Taurus. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... USS Aquila (PHM-4) was the fourth ship in a class of hydrofoils operated by the U.S. Navy. ... USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34), twenty-sixth ship of the Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for Admiral Aubrey Fitch (1883–1978). ... USS Briscoe (DD-977), named for Rear Admiral Robert Pearce Briscoe USN, was a Spruance class destroyer built by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division of Litton Industries at Pascagoula in Mississippi. ... USS Portsmouth (SSN-707), a Los Angeles-class submarine, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy to be named for Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and Portsmouth, Virginia. ... The second USS Saipan (LHA-2) is a Tarawa-class amphibious assault ship in the United States Navy. ... USS Sampson (DDG-10), named for Admiral William T. Sampson USN (1840–1902), was a -class guided missile destroyer in the United States Navy. ... USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13), the seventh Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate, was named for Rear Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison (1887–1976), one of Americas most distinguished naval historians, who wrote more than 40 books on naval history. ... USS Taurus (PHM-3) was the third ship in a class of hydrofoils operated by the U.S. Navy. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Ronald H. Cole, 1997, Operation Urgent Fury: The Planning and Execution of Joint Operations in Grenada 12 October - 2 November 1983 Joint History Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Washington, DC, p.6, p.26, p. 62.] (Retrieved November 9, 2006).
  2. ^ Cole, op. cit., p.6, 62
  3. ^ Cole, op. cit., p.6, 62
  4. ^ Cole, op. cit., p.1, 57
  5. ^ Cole, op. cit., p. 6, 62
  6. ^ a b c d Magnuson, Ed (November 21), "Getting Back to Normal", Time, <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,926318-1,00.html>
  7. ^ Cole, op. cit., p. 50
  8. ^ Reagan, Ronald (1990). An American Life page 454.
  9. ^ Thatcher, Margaret (1993) The Downing Street Years page 331.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Operation Urgent Fury

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