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Encyclopedia > Invasion

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
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Trench · Unconventional Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the European Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Air power redirects here, for electrical and mechanical energy supplied by air movement, see Wind power Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. ... Urban warfare is modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components: Electronic Attack (EA) This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the cold war. ... It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ... Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. ... Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal power or capacity of action, interact and take advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of themselves and their enemies. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with war horse. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 4-1, Vital Targets. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... Maneuver warfare (American English) or manoeuvre warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Total war is an unqualified, all-out war conducted without scruple or limitation. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

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Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... This article deals with the military concept. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

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Tribunal · War crime Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

Government and politics

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Militarism · Military rule A coup d’état (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military...

Military studies

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Peace and conflict studies A military academy is a military educational institution. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ...

Lists
Authors · Battles · Civil wars
Commanders · Invasions · Operations
Sieges · Raids · Tactics · Theorists
Wars · War crimes · War criminals
Weapons · Writers

An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. An invasion can be the cause of a war, it can be used as a part of a larger strategy to end a war, or it can constitute an entire war in itself. Many of the authors that served in various real-life wars (and survived) wrote stories that are at least somewhat based on their own experiences. ... This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... . ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This page contains a list of military raids, not including air raids, sorted by the date at which they started: 1259 Mongol raid into Lithuania 1565, August 26th Chaseabout Raid 1575, July 7th Raid of the Redeswire 1582, August 27th Raid of Ruthven 1667, June 6th Raid on the Medway... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Principles Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of a reserve Economy of Force Force protection Dispersal or spacing Camouflage Deception Electronic Counter Measures Electronic Counter Counter Measures Radio silence Use of fortifications Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... . ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... Types of political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The term usually connotes a strategic endeavor of substantial magnitude; because the goals of an invasion are usually large-scale and long-term, a sizeable force is needed to hold territory, and protect the interests of the invading entity. Smaller-scale, tactical cross-border actions, such as skirmishes, sorties, raids, infiltrations or guerrilla warfare, are not generally considered invasions. Because an invasion is, by definition, an attack from outside forces, rebellions, civil wars, coups d'état, and internal acts of democide or other acts of oppression, are not considered invasions. Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Border stone at Passo San Giacomo between Val Formazza in Italy and Val Bedretto in Switzerland Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, states or subnational administrative divisions. ... Skirmishers are infantry soldiers who are stationed ahead or to the sides of a larger body of friendly troops. ... Sortie is a term for deployment of one military aircraft or a ship for the purposes of a specific mission, whether alone, or with other aircraft or vessels. ... A raid is a brief attack, normally performed by a small military force of commandos, or by irregulars. ... See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... A coup d’état (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Democide is a term created by political scientist R.J. Rummel in order to create a broader concept than the legal definition of genocide. ... Oppression is the negative outcome experienced by people targeted by the arbitrary and cruel exercise of power in a society or social group. ...

Contents

History

Archaeological evidence indicates that invasions have been frequent since prehistory. In antiquity, before radio communications and fast transportation, the only way to ensure adequate reinforcements was to move armies as one massive force. This, by its very nature, led to the strategy of invasion. With invasion came the cultural exchanges in government, religion, philosophy, and technology that shaped the development of much of the ancient world.[1] Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistoric man. ... Look up Communication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cultural diffusion refers to the spread of ideas and material culture, especially if this diffusion occurs independently of population movement. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ...


Defenses

States with potentially hostile neighbors typically adopt defensive measures to delay or forestall an invasion. In addition to utilizing geographical barriers such as rivers, marshes, or rugged terrain, these measures have historically included fortifications. Such a defense can be intended to actively prevent invading forces from entering the country by means of an extended and well-defended barrier; Hadrian's Wall,[2] the Great Wall of China[3] and the Danewerk are famous examples. Such barriers have also included trench lines and, in more modern times, minefields, cameras, and motion-sensitive sensors.[4] However, these barriers can require a large military force to provide the defense, as well as maintain the equipment and positions, which can impose a great economic burden on the country. Some of those same techniques can also be turned against defenders, used to keep them from escape or resupply. During Operation Starvation, Allied forces used airdropped mines to severely disrupt Japanese logistical operations within their own borders.[5] Download high resolution version (2048x1299, 2189 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1299, 2189 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A section of the Great Wall near Beijing during winter The course of the Great Wall is shown in this map dated from 1805 The Great Wall (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally long city wall) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built between 5th century... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: Běijīng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, cat tails, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A section of the Great Wall near Beijing during winter The course of the Great Wall is shown in this map dated from 1805 The Great Wall (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally long city wall) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built between 5th century... Danevirke, also known as Dannevirke or Danewerk, means Danes work. It is the name for the Danish earthen defense structure, which stretches from the swampy moors of west Jutland to the town of Schleswig, situated at Slien at the Baltic Sea, near the Viking trade centre of Hedeby. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... A landmine is a type of mine which is placed onto or into the ground and explodes when triggered by a vehicle or person. ... The usage of surveillance cameras is increasing rapidly. ... Motion detection includes methods by which motion has be identified. ... // Distinguish from censure and censer and censor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...


Alternately, the fortifications can be built up at a series of sites, such as castles or forts placed near a border. These structures are designed to delay an invasion long enough for the defending nation to mobilize an army of size sufficient for defense or, in some cases, counter-invasion – such as, for example, the Maginot Line. Forts can be positioned so that the garrisons can interdict the supply lines of the invaders. The theory behind these spaced forts is that the invader cannot afford to bypass these defenses, and so must lay siege to the structures.[6] Pierrefonds Castle, France Castle has a history of scholarly debate surrounding its exact meaning. ... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maÊ’ino], named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ... A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ...

The view from a battery at Ouvrage Schoenenbourg in Alsace; notice the retractable turret in the left foreground.
The view from a battery at Ouvrage Schoenenbourg in Alsace; notice the retractable turret in the left foreground.

In modern times, the notion of constructing large-scale static defenses to combat land-based threats has largely become obsolete. The use of precision air campaigns and large-scale mechanization have made lighter, more mobile defenses desirable to military planners. Nations defending against modern invasions normally use large population centers such as cities or towns as defensive points. The invader must capture these points to destroy the defender's ability to wage war. The defender uses mobile armored and infantry divisions to protect these points, but the defenders are still very mobile and can normally retreat. A prominent example of the use of cities as fortifications can be seen in the Iraqi Army's stands in the 2003 invasion of Iraq at Baghdad, Tikrit and Basra in the major combat in the Second Gulf War. A defender can also use these mobile assets to precipitate a counteroffensive like the Soviet Red Army at the Battle of Kursk or the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x538, 838 KB) Summary The view from a battery at Ouvrage Schoenenbourg in Alsace. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x538, 838 KB) Summary The view from a battery at Ouvrage Schoenenbourg in Alsace. ... Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The city of Chicago, as seen from the sky The main square of the Catalan city of Sabadell during a popular celebration. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Iraqi soldiers from the 2nd Iraqi Army Brigade, train on cordon and search procedures at Diyala Regional Training Facility in August 2005. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, TikrÄ«t also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Al BaÅŸrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of 2,600,000 (2003). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian (the de facto official language), 14 other official languages Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1922-1924 Vladimir Lenin  - 1924-1953 Joseph Stalin... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Hans von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry, 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry, 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk : 50,000 dead, wounded... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ...


However, static emplacements remain useful in both defense against naval attacks and defense against air attacks. Naval mines are still an inexpensive but effective way to defend ports and choke off supply lines. Large static air defense systems that combine antiaircraft guns with missile launchers are still the best way to defend against air attacks. Such systems were used effectively by the North Vietnamese around Hanoi. Also, the United States has invested considerable time and money into the construction of a National Missile Defense system, a static defense grid intended to intercept nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles. American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ... Polish wz. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... Rocket launcher or missile launcher can mean: Multiple rocket launcher Shoulder-launched missile weapon Transporter erector launcher (TEL) for large missiles Rocket propelled grenade launcher This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i)  , estimated population 3,058,000(2004), is the capital of Vietnam. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ...


Island nations, such as the United Kingdom or Japan, and continental states with extensive coasts, such as the United States, have utilized a significant naval presence to forestall an invasion of their country, rather than fortifying their border areas. A successful naval defense, however, usually requires a preponderance of naval power and the ability to sustain and service that defense force. An island nation is a country that is wholly confined to an island or islands. ... Rugged coast of the West Coast of New Zealand The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the ocean. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ...


In particularly large nations, the defending force may also retreat in order to facilitate a counterattack by drawing the invaders deeper into hostile territory. One effect of this tactic is that the invading force becomes too spread out, making supply difficult and making the lines more susceptible to attack. This tactic, although costly, helped the Soviets stop the German advance at Stalingrad.[7] It can also cause the invading force to extend too far, allowing a pincer movement to cut them off from reinforcements. This was the cause of the British defeat at the Battle of Cowpens during the American Revolutionary War.[8] Finally, sending too many reinforcements can leave too few defenders in the attackers' territory, allowing a counter-invasion from other areas, as happened in the Second Punic War. Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ... A counterattack is a military tactic used by defending forces when under attack by an enemy force. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders Daniel Morgan Banastre Tarleton Strength 1,000 1,100 Casualties 12 killed 61 wounded 110 killed 229 wounded 525 captured The Battle of Cowpens was fought on January 17, 1781, during the American Revolutionary War and was an overwhelming victory by American revolutionary forces... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Dutch Republic, Spain, American Indians Kingdom of Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, American Indians Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene, Bernardo de Gálvez Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the... Combatants Image:SPQR-Stone. ...


Methods

There are many different methods by which an invasion can take place, each method having arguments both in their favor and against. These include invasion by land, sea, or air, or any combination of these methods.


Invasion by land

Invasion over land is the straightforward entry of armed forces into an area using existing land connections, usually crossing borders or otherwise defined zones, such as a demilitarized zone, overwhelming defensive emplacements and structures. Although this tactic often results in a quick victory, troop movements are relatively slow and subject to disruption by terrain and weather. Furthermore, it is hard to conceal plans for this method of invasion, as most geopolitical entities take defensive positions in areas that are most vulnerable to the methods mentioned above. Image File history File linksMetadata WW2_MoscowBattle_russian_soldiers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata WW2_MoscowBattle_russian_soldiers. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Benito Mussolini Miklós Horthy Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... Border stone at Passo San Giacomo between Val Formazza in Italy and Val Bedretto in Switzerland Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, states or subnational administrative divisions. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more military powers (or alliances), where military activity is not permitted, usually by peace treaty, armistice or other bilateral or multilateral agreement. ...


In modern warfare, invasion by land often takes place after, or sometimes during, attacks on the target by other means. Air strikes and cruise missiles launched from ships at sea are a common method of "softening" the target. Other, more subtle, preparations may involve secretly garnering popular support, assassinating potentially threatening political or military figures, and closing off supply lines where they cross into neighboring countries. In some cases, those other means of attack eliminate the need for ground assault; the 1945 bombing of Japan ultimately made it unnecessary for the Allies to invade the main islands with infantry troops. In cases such as this, while some ground troops are still needed to occupy the conquered territory, they are allowed to enter under the terms of a treaty and as such are no longer invaders. As unmanned, long-range combat evolves, the instances of basic overland invasion become fewer; often the conventional fighting is effectively over before the infantry arrives in the role of peacekeepers (see "Applications in fourth generation warfare" in this article). A Tomahawk cruise missile Taurus KEPD 350 A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Assassin and Targeted killing redirect here. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ...


Invasion by sea

An LCAC carrying armored vehicles ashore during the 2003 invasion of Iraq
An LCAC carrying armored vehicles ashore during the 2003 invasion of Iraq

Invasion by sea is the use of a body of water to facilitate the entry of armed forces into an area, often a landmass adjoining the body of water or an island. This is generally used either in conjunction with another method of invasion, and especially before the invention of flight, for cases in which there is no other method to enter the territory in question. Arguments in favor of this method usually consist of the ability to perform a surprise attack from sea, or that naval defenses of the area in question are inadequate to repel such an attack. However, the large amount of specialized equipment, such as amphibious vehicles and the difficulty of establishing defenses—usually with a resulting high casualty count—in exchange for a relatively small gain, are often used as arguments against such an invasion method. Underwater hazards and a lack of good cover are very common problems during invasions from the sea. At the Battle of Tarawa, Marine landing craft became hung up on a coral reef and were shelled from the beach. Other landers were sunk before they could reach the shore, and the tanks they were carrying were stranded in the water. Most of the few survivors of the first wave ended up pinned down on the beach.[9] The island was conquered but at a heavy cost, and the loss of life sparked mass protests from civilians in the United States. Image File history File links LCAC.jpg‎ http://www. ... Image File history File links LCAC.jpg‎ http://www. ... Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Icarus and Daedalus Humanitys desire to fly likely dates to the first time prehistoric man observed birds, an observation illustrated in the legendary story of Daedalus and Icarus. ... A DUKW (commonly DUCK), during World War II Propeller on a French VAB An amphibian or amphibious vehicle, is a vehicle that, like an amphibian, can move on land as well as on water. ... A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Julian Smith Shibasaki Keiji † Strength 35,000 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese workers and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed, 2,296 wounded 4,713 Japanese & Korean killed 17 POWs and 129 Koreans freed The Battle of Tarawa was a battle in... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ...


Invasion by air

Thousands of paratroopers descend during Operation Market Garden
Thousands of paratroopers descend during Operation Market Garden

Invasion by air is an invention of the 20th century and modern warfare. The idea involves sending military units into a territory by aircraft. The aircraft either land, allowing the military units to debark and attempt their objective, or the troops exit the aircraft while still in the air, using parachutes or similar devices to land in the territory being invaded. Many times air assaults have been used to pave the way for a ground- or sea-based invasion, by taking key positions deep behind enemy lines such as bridges and crossroads, but an entirely air-based invasion has never succeeded. Two immediate problems are resupply and reinforcement. A large airborne force cannot be adequately supplied without meeting up with ground forces; an airborne force too small simply places themselves into an immediate envelopment situation. Arguments in favor of this method generally relate to the ability to target specific areas that may not necessarily be easily accessible by land or sea, a greater chance of surprising the enemy and overwhelming defensive structures, and, in many cases, the need for a reduced number of forces due to the element of surprise. Arguments against this method typically involve capacity to perform such an invasion—such as the sheer number of planes that would be needed to carry a sufficient number of troops—and the need for a high level of intelligence in order for the invasion to be successful. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... An American Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Walter Model Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... An Airbus A380, currently the worlds largest passenger airliner An aircraft is any vehicle or craft capable of atmospheric flight. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... Espionage (spying) is a practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. ...


The closest examples to a true air invasion are the Battle of Crete, Operation Thursday (the Chindits second operation during the Burma Campaign) and Operation Market Garden. The latter was an assault on the German-occupied Netherlands conducted in September of 1944. Nearly 35,000 men were dropped by parachute and glider into enemy territory in an attempt to capture bridges from the Germans and make way for the Allies' advance. However, even with such a massive force taking the Germans completely by surprise, the assault was a tactical failure and after 9 days of fighting the Allies managed only to escape back to their own lines, having sustained over 18,000 casualties.[10] In the 21st century, as vast improvements are made in anti-aircraft defenses, it seems that the air invasion is a strategy whose time may never come. Combatants Greece United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength United Kingdom: 15,000 Greece: 11,000 Australia: 7,100 New Zealand: 6,700 Total: 40,000 (10,000 without fighting capability. ... The Chindits (Officially in 1942 77th Indian Infantry Brigade and in 1943 Indian 3rd Infantry Division) were a British Indian Army Special Force that served in Burma and India from 1942 until 1945 during the Burma Campaign in World War II. They were formed into long range penetration groups trained... The Chindits (Officially in 1942 77th Indian Infantry Brigade and in 1943 Indian 3rd Infantry Division) were a British Indian Army Special Force that served in Burma and India from 1942 until 1945 during the Burma Campaign in World War II. They were formed into long range penetration groups trained... The Burma Campaign was a campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II. It was fought primarily between Commonwealth, Chinese and American forces against the Empire of Japan. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Walter Model Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical... Gliders or Sailplanes are heavier-than-air aircraft primarily intended for unpowered flight. ...


Pacification

U.S. forces distribute information on the streets of Kut, Iraq
U.S. forces distribute information on the streets of Kut, Iraq

Once political boundaries and military lines have been breached, pacification of the region is the final, and arguably the most important, goal of the invading force. After the defeat of the regular military, or when one is lacking, continued opposition to an invasion often comes from civilian or paramilitary resistance movements. Complete pacification of an occupied country can be difficult, and usually impossible, but popular support is vital to the success of any invasion. Download high resolution version (2200x1650, 247 KB) PhotoID: 20035664838 Submitted by: I Marine Expeditionary Force Operation/Exercise/Event: Operation Iraqi Freedom Caption: 350th PSYOPS Company passes out leaflets and broadcasts important messages to the marketplaces and poor neighborhoods in Al Kut, Iraq. ... Download high resolution version (2200x1650, 247 KB) PhotoID: 20035664838 Submitted by: I Marine Expeditionary Force Operation/Exercise/Event: Operation Iraqi Freedom Caption: 350th PSYOPS Company passes out leaflets and broadcasts important messages to the marketplaces and poor neighborhoods in Al Kut, Iraq. ... Kūt (كوت; also known as Kut-Al-Imara and Kut El Amara) is a city in eastern Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris River, about 100 miles south east of Baghdad, at 32. ... The symbol of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, which has become a widely recognized peace symbol. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ...


Media propaganda such as leaflets, books, and radio broadcasts can be used to encourage resistance fighters to surrender and to dissuade others from joining their cause. Pacification, often referred to as "the winning of hearts and minds", reduces the desire for civilians to take up resistance. This may be accomplished through reeducation, allowing conquered citizens to participate in their government, or, especially in impoverished or besieged areas, simply by providing food, water, and shelter. Sometimes displays of military might are used; invading forces may assemble and parade through the streets of conquered towns, attempting to demonstrate the futility of any further fighting. These displays may also include public executions of enemy soldiers, resistance fighters, and other conspirators. Particularly in antiquity, the death or imprisonment of a popular leader was sometimes enough to bring about a quick surrender. However, this has often had the unintended effect of creating martyrs around which popular resistance can rally. An example of which was Sir William Wallace, who, centuries after his execution by the English, is still a symbol of Scottish nationalism. An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Brochure of the Peoples Temple, portraying cult leader Jim Jones as the loving father of the... Brainwashing, also known as thought reform or re-education, is defined by Dorlands Medical Dictionary as any systematic effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person against his will, usually beliefs in conflict with his prior beliefs and knowledge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km...


Many factors need to be taken into account when deciding which tactics to use during occupation; when the wrong decisions are made, it can lead to years (or even centuries) of continued resistance. The problems caused by continued resistance may be minimal if the conquered territory is only needed for a short-term tactical purpose, but can become extremely difficult if the intent is to colonize the area or hold the land indefinitely. For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see main article colonialism (and also decolonisation). ...


Support

Logistics

Without a steady flow of supplies, an invading force will soon find itself retreating. Before his invasion of Greece, Xerxes I spent three years amassing supplies from all over Asia; Herodotus wrote that the Persian army was so large it "drank the rivers dry".[11] Xerxes I, the Great of Persia 485-465 BCE. Recreation of Xerxes face. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ...


In most invasions, even in modern times, many fresh supplies are gathered from the invaded territories themselves. Before the laws of war, invaders often relied heavily on the supplies they would win by conquering towns along the way. During the Second Punic War, for example, Hannibal diverted his army to conquer cities simply to gather supplies; his strategy in crossing the Alps necessitated traveling with as few provisions as possible, expecting the Roman stores to sustain them when they had breached the border.[12] The scorched earth tactics used in Russia forced Napoleon to withdraw his forces due to lack of food and shelter. Today, the Law of land warfare forbids looting and the confiscation of private property, but local supplies, particularly perishables, are still purchased when possible for use by occupying forces, and airplanes often use parachutes to drop supplies to besieged forces. Even as rules become stricter, the necessities of war become more numerous; in addition to food, shelter, and ammunition, today's militaries require fuel, batteries, spare mechanical parts, electronic equipment, and many other things. In the United States, the Defense Logistics Agency employs over 22,000 civilians with the sole task of logistics support, and 30,000 soldiers graduate from the U.S. Army Logistics Management College each year.[13] The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Combatants Image:SPQR-Stone. ... Hannibal Barca (247 BC – c. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Law of Land Warfare is that part of the Laws of War applicable to the conduct of warfare on land and to relationships between belligerents and neutral States. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob), sacking, or plundering is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack... The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is the largest agency in the United States Department of Defense, with about 22,000 civilian and military personnel throughout the world. ... U.S. Army Logistics Management College crest The United States Army Logistics Management College (ALMC), a subordinate school of the United States Army Combined Arms Support Command, is located at Fort Lee, Virginia. ...


Communication

A mobile satellite communications center
A mobile satellite communications center

Another consideration is the importance of leadership being able to communicate with the invasion force. In ancient times, this often meant that a king needed to lead his armies in person to be certain his commands were followed, as in the case of Alexander the Great. At that time, the skills needed to lead troops in battle were as important as the skills needed to run a country during peacetime. When it was necessary for the king to be elsewhere, messengers would relay updates back to the rear, often on horseback or, in cases such as the Battle of Marathon, with swift runners. Image File history File links SOTM.jpg‎ US Army photos from http://peoc3t. ... Image File history File links SOTM.jpg‎ US Army photos from http://peoc3t. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Combatants Athens and Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades Callimachus† Darius I of Persia Datis†? Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians 1,000 Plataeans 20,000-60,000 by modern estimates 1 Casualties 192 Athenians dead 11 Plateans dead 6,400 dead 7 ships captured 1 Ancient sources give numbers ranging from 200...


When possible, sloops and cutters were used to relay information by sea. The HMS Pickle brought Britain the first news that Nelson had defeated the French forces at the Battle of Trafalgar. A sloop-rigged J-24 sailboat A sloop (From Dutch sloep) in sailing, is a vessel with a fore-and-aft rig. ... An American-looking gaff cutter with a genoa jib set This French yawl has a gaff topsail set. ... The Royal Navy schooner HMS Pickle, of 4 guns, was the smallest ship present at the Battle of Trafalgar, commanded by Lt. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was an English admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, where he lost his life. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire, Spain Commanders The 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line 33 ships of the line Casualties 449 dead, 1,214 wounded 4,480 dead, 2,250 wounded, 7,000 captured, 21 ships captured, 1 ship blown up...


The development of Morse Code, and later voice communications by radio and satellite, have allowed even small units of skirmishers to remain in contact with the larger invasion force, to verify orders or call for artillery support and air strikes. These communications were critical to the German blitzkrieg strategy, as infantry commanders relayed defensive positions to tanks and bombers. 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting information by using standardized sequences of variously spaced short and long elements for the characters and words in a message. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ...


Applications regarding non-state combatants

In the 20th and 21st centuries, questions arose regarding the effectiveness of the invasion strategy in neutralizing non-state combatants, a type of warfare sometimes referred to — especially in the US — as 'fourth generation warfare'. In this case, one or more combatant groups are controlled not by a centralized state government but by independent leadership, and these groups may be made up of civilians, foreign agents, mercenaries, politicians, religious leaders, and members of the regular military. These groups act in smaller numbers, are not confined by borders, and do not necessarily depend on the direct support of the state. Groups such as these are not easily defeated by straightforward invasion, or even constant occupation; the country's regular army may be defeated, the government may be replaced, but asymmetric warfare on the part of these groups can be continued indefinitely.[14] Because regular armed forces units do not have the flexibility and independence of small covert cells, many believe that the concept of a powerful occupying force actually creates a disadvantage.[15] Fourth generation warfare (4GW) is a concept defined in 1989 by a team of American analysts, including William S. Lind, used to describe warfares return to a decentralized form. ... A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal power or capacity of action, interact and take advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of themselves and their enemies. ... A covert cell structure is a method for organizing undercover or unconventional fighters against a large and well-established organization. ...


An opposing theory holds that, in response to extremist ideology and unjust governments, an invasion can change the government and reeducate the people, making prolonged resistance unlikely and averting future violence. This theory acknowledges that these changes may take time—generations, in some cases—but holds that immediate benefits may still be won by reducing membership in, and choking the supply lines of, these covert cells. Proponents of the invasion strategy in such conflicts maintain the belief that a strong occupying force can still succeed in its goals on a tactical level, building upon numerous small victories, similar to a war of attrition.[16]


Contemporary debate on this issue is still fresh; neither side can claim to know for certain which strategies will ultimately be effective in defeating non-state combatants. Opponents of the invasion strategy point to a lack of examples in which occupying or peacekeeping forces have met with conclusive success.[17] They also cite continuing conflicts such as Northern Ireland, Israel, Chechnya, and Iraq, as well as examples which they claim ultimately proved to be failures, such as Lebanon, and Afghanistan. Supporters of the invasion strategy hold that it is too soon to call those situations failures, and that patience is needed to see the plan through. Some say that the invasions themselves have, in fact, been successful, but that political opponents[18] and the international media[19] skew the facts for sensationalism or political gain. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For the UK post-rock band, see Troubles (band). ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Strength At least 93,000 in 1999 10,000 to 20,000 in 1999 (mostly militias) Casualties Unknown, at least 4,600 killed by October 2002[1] Hundreds of civilians. ...


Outcomes

The outcomes of an invasion may vary according to the objectives of both invaders and defenders, the success of the invasion and the defense, and the presence or absence of an agreed settlement between the warring parties. The most common outcome is the loss of territory, generally accompanied by a change in government and often the loss of direct control of that government by the losing faction. This sometimes results in the transformation of that country into a client state, often accompanied by requirements to pay reparations or tribute to the victor. In other cases the results of a successful invasion may simply be a return to the status quo; this can be seen in wars of attrition, when the destruction of personnel and supplies is the main strategic objective,[20] or where a nation previously subdued and currently occupied by an aggressive third party is restored to control of its own affairs (i.e. Western Europe following the Normandy landings in 1944, or Kuwait following the defeat of Iraq in 1991). In some cases, the invasion may be strategically limited to a geographical area, which is carved into a separate state as with the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ... Status Quo are an English rock band whose music is characterised by a strong boogie line. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By  Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States People’s Republic of China Commanders • General M A G Osmani • General Jagjit Singh Aurora • General Sam Manekshaw • General A. A. K. Niazi • General Tikka Khan Strength India: 500,000+ Mukti Bahini: 100,000[1][2] Pakistan...


Record-setting invasions

Many records for invasions were set during World War II, at the peak of second and third generation warfare. The vast numbers of the armies involved combined with innovative tactics and technology lent themselves to invasions on a scale that had not been seen before. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Second generation warfare is a term created by the U.S. military in 1989, referring to the tactics of warfare used after the invention of the rifled musket and breech-loading weapons and continuing through the development of the machine gun and indirect fire. ... Third generation warfare is a term created by the U.S. military in 1989, referring to the tactics of warfare used after the Wehrmachts development of the blitzkrieg. ...


The largest land invasion in history was 1941's Operation Barbarossa, in which 4,000,000 German troops blitzkrieged into the Soviet Union. Initially the Germans advanced with great ease and nearly captured Moscow, also laying siege to Leningrad, but soon found themselves fighting the harsh Russian winter as well as stiffer Soviet resistance, and their advance ground to a halt at Stalingrad in early 1943. Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Benito Mussolini Miklós Horthy Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Siege of Leningrad Conflict World War II Date September 8, 1941 - January 18, 1944 Place Leningrad, USSR Result Soviet victory The Siege of Leningrad (today Saint Petersburg), during World War II, lasted from September 8, 1941, to January 18, 1944. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army...


In the largest amphibious invasion in history, 156,215 Allied troops landed at Normandy to retake France from the occupying German forces. Though it was costly in terms of men and materials, the invasion advanced the Western Front and forced Germany to redirect its forces from the Russian and Italian fronts. In hindsight, the operation is also credited with defining the Western boundary of Soviet communism; had the Allies not advanced, it is conceivable that the Soviet Union would have controlled more of Europe than it eventually did. Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free French Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Denmark. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Other examples of historically significant invasions

Assyrian invasion of the Kingdom of Israel

Sargon II, during the course of conquering much of what is now known as the Middle East, defeated the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC and sent its inhabitants into exile. This presaged future Greek and Roman conquest and, later, the Crusades. To this day, the region remains contested.[21] For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (ܣܪܓܘܢ in Syriac) (r. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ...


Persian invasion of Greece

In 480 BC, Xerxes I of Persia moved his armies against the loose confederation of city-states in what is modern-day Greece. One of the most famous battles of the war, fought at Thermopylae, is an early example of using a chokepoint to tactical advantage. Although Xerxes' army was vast—modern estimates put it at 250,000—the defending Greeks were able to hold their ground for days by using a narrow mountain pass to slow the Persian advance. The invasion also demonstrates the importance of communication and supply routes; although Xerxes' land battles were almost all Persian victories, the Greeks managed to cut off his naval support and the Persians were forced to withdraw. The invasion served to unify the various city-states, bringing about the formation of the Greek nation.[22] Combatants Greek-city states Persian Empire Commanders Leonidas I † Xerxes I the Great of Persia Strength 300 Spartans 700 Thespians 6,000 other Greek allies2 200,000-2,000,000 (estimates vary)1 Casualties 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians; 1,400 Greek allies in total. ... Xerxes I, the Great of Persia 485-465 BCE. Recreation of Xerxes face. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Combatants Greek-city states Persian Empire Commanders Leonidas I † Xerxes I the Great of Persia Strength 300 Spartans 700 Thespians 6,000 other Greek allies2 200,000-2,000,000 (estimates vary)1 Casualties 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians; 1,400 Greek allies in total. ... A bottleneck is literally the neck of a glass or pottery bottle. ...


Macedonian conquest of the Persian Empire

In 323 BC, Alexander the Great led his army into Persia, defeating Darius III, conquering Babylon, and taking control of the Persian Empire. Alexander's influence in mixing cultures led to the Hellenistic Age of Mesopotamia and North Africa.[23] The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek peoples that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ...


The Arab conquests

Following Muhammad's unification of the Arabian peninsula in 632, his successors in the Caliphate began a series of invasions of the Middle East, North Africa, Southern Europe, and South Asia. Lasting slighly more than a century, these conquests brought much of the ancient world under Arab rule. Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632-732) began after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and were marked by a century of rapid Arab expansion beyond the Arabian peninsula under the Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs, ending with the Battle of Tours— resulting in a vast Muslim... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة) is the theoretical federal government that would govern the Islamic world under Islamic law, ruled by a Caliph as head of state. ...


The Norman invasion of England

The 1066 invasion of England by William the Conqueror, and the decisive battle which won the war, the Battle of Hastings, were to have profound effects on the historical and societal development of Britain, and the English language. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman conquest of England was the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... William I of England (c. ... // Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons, Aquitanians, Flemings Anglo-Saxons Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, but significantly more than the Normans The Battle of Hastings was... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The Crusades

In a series of nine different major invasions from 1095 to 1291, the Catholic Church and various European states attempted to conquer the Holy Land for Christendom from its Muslim rulers, with varied success until 1291, when the fall of Acre saw the expulsion of the last Christians from the region. As Jerusalem changed hands and European forces moved back and forth, in-roads to the Levant were reestablished and the cultures mixed on a large scale for the first time in centuries.[24] The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The expression The Holy Land (Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeÅ¡, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreá¹£ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta; Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah) generally refers to the Land of Israel. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The city of Acre [1] is in the Western Galilee district in northern Israel. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Levant The Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Genghis Khan's invasions of China

From 1206 until his death in 1227, Genghis Khan orchestrated a series of invasions that united much of Asia. Relying heavily on cavalry, the Mongol hordes were able to travel quickly yet were well-supplied. By 1368, the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in history, comprised of 35 million km² (13.8 million miles²) of territory stretched across the continent. His eastward invasion of China created the Yuan Dynasty, and his westward invasion of Kievan Rus' further linked Europe and Asia by reestablishing the Silk Road. For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1279 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming Dynasty in the historiography of China. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...


Conquest of the Aztec Empire

The last of the Aztec empire was destroyed at Tenochtitlan in 1521, by a combination of Spanish and native forces. Aided by 2,000 local Tlaxcalan warriors, Hernán Cortés marched into the city. Although he and his men were expelled, they returned with ships and laid siege to the capital. Though an epidemic of smallpox took its toll on the Aztecs, Cortes' conquest was the culmination of Spanish strategy in the Americas: He used promises to gain native allies, he burned and killed thousands of people to strike fear into his enemies, and he combined superior technology with patience while he struck at Tenochtitlan from the sea. This opened the door to Spanish colonization of mainland Mesoamerican cultures. Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 300,000 warriors [1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in Spanish conquistador... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Picture from the History of Tlaxcala showing Cortés meeting with the Tlaxcallan messengers. ... Hernán(do) Cortés, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... The cultural areas of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Spanish: Mesoamérica) was a geographical culture area extending from central Honduras and northwestern Costa Rica on the south, and, in Mexico, from the Soto la Marina River in Tamaulipas and the Rio Fuerte in Sinaloa on the north. ...


French invasion of Russia

In 1812, Napoleon led his Grande Armée into Russia. At that point, his invasion force of 691,500 men was the largest ever assembled, and for several weeks the Russian Army could do nothing but retreat and try to buy time. The first major battle between the two armies, at the Russian defenses of Borodino, was one of the bloodiest single days in human history, with estimates of at least 65,000 dead. But although the Russian retreat allowed the French to capture Moscow, they were left depleted and without shelter or supplies. Napoleon was forced to withdraw. Although this invasion was not the end of Napoleon, it is credited with fostering a powerful patriotism in Russia that would lead to the strengthening of the nation in the 19th and 20th centuries. Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jaques MacDonald Karl Philipp Alexander I of Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Pyotr Bagration Strength 771,500 troops 900,000 troops Casualties 300,000 French 70,000 Poles 50,000 Italians 80,000... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... The Military history of Imperial Russia is that of the Russian Empire from its creation in 1721 by Peter the Great, until the Russian Revolution of 1917, which led to the establishment of the Soviet Union // Peter the Great and the Russian Empire Peter the Great Peter I, a child... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mikhail Kutuzov Strength 130,000 600 cannon[1] 154,000 624 cannon[1] Casualties 35,000[1] 44,000[1] The Battle of Borodino (Russian: , French: ) (September 7, 1812, or August 26 in the Julian calendar then used in Russia), was... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ...


European colonialism and imperialism

In the 15th century, the Christian nations of Europe began the modern age of colonialism with the "Age of Discovery", led by the Spanish colonization of the Americas and Portuguese Empire in the Americas and along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India, and East Asia. The Roman Catholic Church played a role in their overseas activities, and the enormous trade profits and riches from gold and silver mines allowed them to finance costly religious wars in Europe. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Britain, France and Holland established their own overseas empires in direct competition with each other as well as the earlier Iberian ones, while the land-based Russian Empire expanded across northern and Central Asia. These activities resulted in the invasions of the Indian subcontinent to set up the extensive European colonies in India, as well as the invasion of Africa called the Scramble for Africa and the colonization of the East Indies. In the 19th century, the Germans and Italians also joined in, beginning the third wave of invasions that would subdue native peoples and economies, and expand European-controlled territory over the majority of the globe. // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Pith helmet of the Second French Empire. ... The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ... Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... A religious war is a war justified by religious differences. ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of South west Europe; That part of it once inhabited by the Iberians, who spoke the Iberian language. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... European settlements in India (1501-1739). ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and...


Decolonization began in the 19th century and picked up pace only after World War II left the European empires weakened and struggling to subdue the native resistance across the vast expanses of their empires. Debates upon the negative vs. positive impact and evaluation of colonialism and colonization- such as those of colonial Christianization, genocide, third world debt and slavery- upon the colonizer and the colonized continue to shape global and national politics to this day. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Given that colonialism involves the rule or taking of territory of one people by another and without their consent, it is a highly emotive subject. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen Ansgar, the 9th century apostle of the North in an 1830 drawing. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Third World debt is external debt incurred by Third World countries (the term Third World is still in use, although many prefer less pejorative terms, such as developing countries or global South), Unpayable debt is a term used to describe external debt where the interest on the debt exceeds the... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...


References

  1. ^ Bagnall, Nigel (1990). The Punic Wars : Rome, Carthage, and the Struggle for the Mediterranean. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 0-312-34214-4. 
  2. ^ Ibeji, Mike (2001). Norman Conquest: Key Events of the Conquest. Retrieved on February 11, 2006.
  3. ^ Shea, Marilyn (1996). The Great Wall of China. Retrieved on February 11, 2006.
  4. ^ Defense Update (2006). Accelerating the Kill Chain: Closing the Sensor-to-shooter Cycle. Retrieved on February 11, 2006.
  5. ^ Mason, Gerald A. (2002). Operation Starvation. Retrieved on February 11, 2006.
  6. ^ Kaufmann, J.E. and Kaufmann, H.W. (2005). Fortress France: The Maginot Line and French Defenses in World War II. Prager Security International. ISBN 0-275-98345-5. 
  7. ^ Matters, James T. (2003). Stalingrad - The Nazis Reach Beyond Their Grasp. Retrieved on February 16, 2006.
  8. ^ Withrow, Scott (2005). The Battle of Cowpens. Retrieved on February 16, 2006.
  9. ^ Ashton, Douglas F. (1989). Tarawa: Testing Ground For The Amphibious Assault. Retrieved on February 11, 2006.
  10. ^ Koskimaki, George E. (1989). Hell's Highway: Chronicle of the 101st Airborne Division in the Holland Campaign, September-November 1944. 101st Airborne Division Association. ISBN 1-877702-03-X. 
  11. ^ Rowland, Stephen (2005). Persian society in the time of Darius and Xerxes. Retrieved on February 24, 2006.
  12. ^ Polybius (1922). The Histories, Book III. Retrieved on February 24, 2006.
  13. ^ U.S. Army (2005). Background of ALMC. Retrieved on February 24, 2006.
  14. ^ Hackworth, David H. (2004). Fallujah: Saved for Democracy?. Retrieved on February 19, 2006.
  15. ^ Lind, William S. (2003). Understanding Fourth Generation War. Retrieved on February 19, 2006.
  16. ^ North, Oliver L. (2005). Winning in Iraq, One Step at a Time. Retrieved on February 19, 2006.
  17. ^ Lind, William S., op. cit.
  18. ^ North, Oliver L. (2004). Operation Pessimism and Perplexity. Retrieved on February 19, 2006.
  19. ^ Moore, Steven (2004). The Truth About Iraq: Media Bias. Retrieved on February 19, 2006.
  20. ^ Brush, Peter (1994). Civic Action: The Marine Corps Experience in Vietnam. Retrieved on February 11, 2006.
  21. ^ Van De Mieroop, Marc (2005). A History of the Ancient Near East. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22552-8. 
  22. ^ Van De Mieroop, op. cit.
  23. ^ Van De Mieroop, op. cit.
  24. ^ Riley-Smith, John (1995). The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-285428-3. 

February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also

Look up Invasion in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Invasion - Uncyclopedia (1076 words)
Invasion is the codename for the awesome parties that the military put on...
Invasion parties keep out the uninvited by fabricating large amounts of propaganda portraying places like Iraq and Afghanistan as dangerous hellholes, instead of the fun and exotic party venues that they really are.
The number of deaths incurred in any given invasion provides a useful metric to measure how fun the various parties have been, as the more fun the party, the higher the number of people prepared to fake their own deaths to remain there.
Invasion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4715 words)
Invasion over land is the straightforward entry of armed forces into an area using existing land connections, usually crossing borders or otherwise defined zones, such as a demilitarized zone, overwhelming defensive emplacements and structures.
Invasion by sea is the use of a body of water to facilitate the entry of armed forces into an area, often a landmass adjoining the body of water or an island.
The 1066 invasion of England by William the Conqueror, and the decisive battle which won the war, the Battle of Hastings, were to have profound effects on the historical and societal development of Britain, and the English language itself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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