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Encyclopedia > Inulin
Inulin
Molecular formula (C6H12O6)n
Molar mass Polymer; depends on n
CAS number [9005-80-5]
PubChem 24763
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references
Note: This article title may be easily confused with insulin.

Inulins are a group of naturally occurring oligosaccharides (several simple sugars linked together) produced by many types of plants. They belong to a class of carbohydrates known as fructans. Inulin is used by some plants as a means of storing energy and is typically found in roots or rhizomes. Most plants which synthesize and store inulin do not store other materials such as starch. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2226x1850, 28 KB) The previously incorrect formula was changed. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Fructans are a monosaccharide or single-sugar composed of chains of fructose molecules. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Ginger rhizome A rhizome is, in botany, a usually underground, horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ...


Inulin is used increasingly in foods, because it has unusual nutritional characteristics. It ranges from completely bland to subtly sweet and can be used to replace sugar, fat, and flour. This is particularly advantageous because inulin contains one-third to one-fourth the food energy of sugar or other carbohydrates and one-sixth to one-ninth the food energy of fat. It also increases calcium absorption[1] and possibly magnesium absorption[2], while promoting intestinal bacteria. Nutritionally, it is considered a form of soluble fiber, and it is important to note that consuming large quantities (particularly for sensitive and/or unaccustomed individuals) can lead to gas and bloating. Inulin has a minimal impact on blood sugar, making it generally considered suitable for diabetics and potentially helpful in managing blood sugar-related illnesses. Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...

Contents

Biochemistry

Inulins are polymers mainly comprised of fructose units and typically have a terminal glucose. The fructose units in inulins are joined by a beta-(2-1) glycosidic link. Plant inulins generally contain between 2 to 140 fructose units. The simplest type of inulin is 1-kestose, which has 2 fructose units and 1 glucose unit. Polymer is the term used to describe large molecules consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... A glycosidic bond is the linkage between two monosaccharides, that forms disaccharides and/or polysaccharides. ...


Inulins with a terminal glucose are known as alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-[beta-D-fructofuranosyl](n-1)-D-fructofuranosides, abbreviated as GpyFn. Inulins without glucose are beta-D-fructopyranosyl-[D-fructofuranosyl](n-1)-D-fructofuranosides, abbreviated as FpyFn where n is the number of fructose residues and py is the abbreviation for pyranosyl.


Hydrolysis of inulins may yield oligofructose, which are polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) of <= 10. Oligofructose is a subgroup of inulin, specifically those fructose polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) <= 10. ... The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of repeat units in an average polymer chain at time t in a polymerization reaction. ...


Uses and health benefits

Inulin is indigestible by the human enzymes ptyalin and amylase, which are adapted to digest starch. As a result, inulin passes through much of the digestive system intact. It is only in the colon that bacteria metabolise inulin, with the release of significant quantities of carbon dioxide and/or methane. Inulin-containing foods can be rather gassy, particularly for those unaccustomed to inulin, and these foods should be consumed in moderation at first. Most individuals can adapt to increased dietary fiber and most Americans consume only half the daily recommended value of dietary fiber. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... &#945;-Amylase Amylase (EC 3. ... α-Amylase Amylase (EC 3. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... For the article about the punctuation symbol, see Colon (punctuation). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, one of the central metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Methane is a significant and plentiful fuel which is the principal component of natural gas. ... Flatulence (expelled from humans through a processes commonly known as farting or emitting gas) is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals. ...


There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Insoluble fiber increases the movement of materials through the digestive system and increases stool bulk; it is especially helpful for those suffering from constipation or stool irregularity. Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gelatinous material. It can help lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Inulin is considered a soluble fiber.


Because normal digestion does not break inulin down into monosaccharides, it does not elevate blood sugar levels and may therefore be helpful in the management of diabetes. Inulin is also an effective prebiotic, stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Inulin passes through the stomach and duodenum undigested and is highly available to the gut bacterial flora. This contrasts with proprietary probiotic formulations based on Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in which the bacteria have to survive very challenging conditions through the gastrointestinal tract before they are able to colonize the gut. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Prebiotics are a category of functional food, defined as: Non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improve host health. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Human stomach. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ...


Some traditional diets contain up to 20g per day of inulin or oligofructose. Many foods naturally high in inulin or oligofructose, such as chicory, garlic, and leek, have been seen as "stimulants of good health" for centuries.[3] Species C. endivia - cultivated endive - wild endive - common chicory Chicory is the common name given to the flowering plants in genus Cichorium of the family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a perennial plant in the family Alliaceae and genus Allium, closely related to the onion, shallot, and leek. ... Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. ...


Inulin can be found in commercially available products such as Fibersure from the Makers of Metamucil and FiberChoice from GlaxoSmithKline. Fibersure is a fiber supplement powder that can be added to foods or beverages and FiberChoice offers inulin in chewable tablet form, as well as in hard candy form. A FiberChoice tablet has a sweet taste, usually orange flavored, and has 2 grams of inulin. The product's suggested dosage is two tablets. Metamucil is a bulk-producing laxative and fiber supplement manufactured by Procter & Gamble. ...


The (American) National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine's daily dietary fiber recommendations for adults range from 21 grams for women over 51 years of age to 38 grams for men under 51 years of age. In order to reach the recommended daily amount for that latter category, a man would have to consume 19 FiberChoice tablets.


Inulin is also used in medical tests to measure the total amount of extracellular volume and determine the function of the kidneys.[4]


Health risks

Allergic reactions to inulin in foods were reported in the New England Journal of Medicine.[5] This article documents the case of one adult male with a severe allergy to inulin.[6] The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society with the highest impact factor for a general medical journal. ...


Natural sources of inulin

Plants that contain high concentrations of inulin include:

Species See text A dandelion is a short plant, usually with a yellow flower head and notched leaves. ... For the Levantine god of the untamed sea, see Yaw. ... Binomial name Helianthus tuberosus L. The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also called the sunroot or sunchoke or topinambur, is a flowering plant native to North America grown throughout the temperate world for its tuber, which is used as a root vegetable. ... Species C. endivia - cultivated endive - wild endive - common chicory Chicory is the common name given to the flowering plants in genus Cichorium of the family Asteraceae. ... Species Pachyrhizus ahipa Pachyrhizus erosus Pachyrhizus ferrugineus Pachyrhizus panamensis Pachyrhizus tuberosus Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ... Species A. lappa Burdock refers to any of a group of biennial thistles in the genus Arctium, family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion in the general sense can be used for any plant in the genus Allium but used without qualifiers usually means Allium cepa, also called the garden onion. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a perennial plant in the family Alliaceae and genus Allium, closely related to the onion, shallot, and leek. ... Species see text. ...

Other useful information

Inulin, as it is completely filtered at the glomerulus and is neither secreted nor reabsorbed in the tubules, has been used as an important medical test of renal function, specifically a measure of glomerular filtration rate. The measurement of GFR by inulin is still considered the gold-standard, although it has been now largely replaced by other, simpler measures that are actually estimations of GFR, which have been confirmed in large cohorts of patients with chronic kidney disease (e.g. Iothalomate, EDTA, creatinine clearance). Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ... A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal glomerular capillaries into Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... Chronic renal failure (CRF, or chronic kidney failure, CKF, or chronic kidney disease, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years and defined as an abnormally low glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum. ... EDTA is a popular acronym for the chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. ... Chemical structure of creatinine. ...


References

  1. ^ Abrams S, Griffin I, Hawthorne K, Liang L, Gunn S, Darlington G, Ellis K (2005). "A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents.". Am J Clin Nutr 82 (2): 471-6. PMID 16087995. 
  2. ^ Coudray C, Demigné C, Rayssiguier Y (2003). "Effects of dietary fibers on magnesium absorption in animals and humans.". J Nutr 133 (1): 1-4. PMID 12514257. 
  3. ^ Coussement P (1999). "Inulin and oligofructose: safe intakes and legal status.". J Nutr 129 (7 Suppl): 1412S-7S. PMID 10395609.  Text)
  4. ^ MedlinePlus DrugInfo uspdi-202300
  5. ^ Fabienne Gay-Crosier, M.D. et al., Anaphylaxis from Inulin in Vegetables and Processed Food (Correspondence), New England Journal of Medicine, 342(18), 1372. May 4, 2000.
  6. ^ http://allergies.about.com/cs/inulin/a/aa051500a.htm

MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society with the highest impact factor for a general medical journal. ...

External links

  • Roberfroid M. "Introducing inulin-type fructans.". Br J Nutr 93 Suppl 1: S13-25. PMID 15877886. 
  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alpine Ice -  Inulin, a dietary fibre (437 words)
The inulin we use is a natural food ingredients extracted from the chicory root.
Inulin is major constituent of some of the most famous of the "old-standby" herbs, such as burdock root, dandelion root, elecampane root, chicory root, and the Chinese herb codonopsis.
Botanically, inulin is a storage food in the plants of the Composite family.
Inulin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (760 words)
Inulins are polymers mainly comprised of fructose units and typically have a terminal glucose.
Inulin is also a highly effective prebiotic, stimulating the growth of beneficial probiotic bacteria in the gut.
Inulin, as it is neither secreted nor reabsorbed in the kidney, was historically used in an important medical test of renal function, specifically a measure of glomerular filtration rate, now largely measured by the creatinine clearance test.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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