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Encyclopedia > Inuktitut
Inuktitut
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ, Inuktitut, Inuttitut, Inuktitun, Inuinnaqtun, Inuttut, and other local names
Spoken in: Canada (Nunavut, Nunavik, Northwest Territories, Nunatsiavut)
Total speakers: approximately 30,000
Language family: Eskimo-Aleut
 Inuit
  Inuktitut 
Official status
Official language in: Nunavut, Nunavik, Northwest Territories, Nunatsiavut (Canada)
Regulated by: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and various other local institutions.
Language codes
ISO 639-1: iu
ISO 639-2: iku
ISO 639-3: variously:
iku — Inuktitut (generic)
ike — Eastern Canadian Inuktitut
ikt — Western Canadian Inuktitut

Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ (fonts required), literally "like the Inuit") is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba as well as the territories of Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and traditionally on the Arctic Ocean coast of Yukon. Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... The language of the Inuit people is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... The Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ) is an organization in Canada that represents over 40,000 Inuit. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ... The language of the Inuit people is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ...


It is recognised as an official language in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. It also has legal recognition in Nunavik — a part of Quebec — thanks in part to the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and is recognised in the Charter of the French Language as the official language of instruction for Inuit school districts there. It also has some recognition in Nunatsiavut — the Inuit area in Labrador — following the ratification of its agreement with the Government of Canada and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Canadian census estimates that there are roughly 30,000 Inuktitut speakers in Canada, including roughly 200 who live regularly outside of traditionally Inuit lands. The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... The James Bay And Northern Quebec Agreement was Canadas first modern Aboriginal land claim settlement, approved in 1975 by the Cree and Inuit of northern Quebec, and later slightly modified in 1978 by the Northeastern Quebec Agreement, through which Quebecs Naskapi Indians joined the treaty. ... The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101 and Loi 101) is a law in the province of Quebec, Canada defining French as the only official language of Quebec. ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Queen Elizabeth the second was the first person who created the law and the taxes and judging to count the votes from the voters from all around Canada. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


For more information on the relationship between Inuktitut and the Inuit languages spoken in Greenland and Alaska, see Inuit language. Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... The language of the Inuit people is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ...

Contents

Dialects and variants

Distribution of Inuit language variants across the Arctic.
Distribution of Inuit language variants across the Arctic.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Northwest Territories and Yukon

Inuit in Canada's Northwest Territories call themselves Inuvialuit and live primarily in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, consisting of the northern part of the Mackenzie River delta, the arctic coast of the Northwest Territories and Yukon, Banks Island, a part of Victoria Island and some more remote and irregularly inhabited Arctic Ocean islands. The Inuit language variants of the NWT are often treated together as Inuvialuktun, but this categorisation is misleading as it is a politically motivated grouping of three quite distinct and separate dialects: The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ... For other uses, see Mackenzie River (disambiguation). ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... Banks Island, Northwest Territories. ... Victoria Island, NWT and Nunavut. ... Inuvialuktun is a word routinely used to describe the variety of the language of the Inuit spoken in the northern Northwest Territories by a band of Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuit. ...

  • Kangiryuarmiutun: spoken mainly in the community of Ulukhaktok. This dialect is essentially identical to the Inuinnaqtun spoken in western Nunavut.
  • Siglitun: spoken mainly in the communities of Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour and Tuktoyaktuk. Siglitun was once the principal dialect of the Mackenzie River delta and nearby parts of the coast and Arctic islands, but the number of speakers fell dramatically following outbreaks of new diseases in the 19th century and for many years Siglitun was believed to be completely extinct. It was only in the 1980s that outsiders realised that it was still spoken. (Dorais, Arctic languages: an awakeningPDF (2.68 MiB), pg. 194)
  • Uummarmiutun: spoken mainly in the communities of Inuvik and Aklavik. This dialect is essentially the same as Alaskan Inupiatun, and is present in Canada because of migration from Alaska in the 1910s, reoccupying traditionally Siglit lands abandoned during the devastating disease outbreaks of the previous century. [1]

The Inuvialuktun dialects are seriously endangered, as English has in recent years become the common language of the community. Surveys of Inuktitut usage in the NWT vary, but all agree that usage is not vigorous. According to the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre, only some 10% of the roughly 4,000 Inuvialuit speak any form of Inuktitut, and only some 4% use it at home. [2] Statistics Canada's 2001 Census report is only slightly better, reporting 765 self-identified Inuktitut speakers out of a self-reported Inuvialuit population of 3,905. Considering the large number of non-Inuit living in Inuvialuit areas and the lack of a single common dialect among the already reduced number of speakers, the future of the Inuit language in the NWT appears bleak. Kangiryuarmiutun (sometimes Kangirjuarmiutun) is the name of the dialect of Inuit language spoken in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. ... , Looking at Ulukhaktok from the bluffs that give the community its name. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... Siglitun is the dialect of Inuit language spoken by the Siglit Inuit. ... Paulatuk is a town in the Northwest Territories of Canada. ... Sachs Harbour is a small community on the southwestern coast of Banks Island, in Canadas Northwest Territories. ... City nickname: Tuk Government Territory Northwest Territories Land Claim Area Inuvialuit Electoral District Nunakput Member of Parliament Dennis Bevington Senator Nick G. Sibbeston Mayor Jackie Jacobson Physical characteristics Land Area      11. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... Uummarmiutun is the variant of Inuit language spoken by the Uummarmiut Inuit, who live mainly in the communities of Inuvik and Aklavik in the Northwest Territories of Canada. ... Inuvik, formerly Inuvvik (place of man), is a town in the Northwest Territories of Canada and is the administrative centre for the Inuvik Region. ... Aklavik (Barren-ground grizzly place) is a community located 68°13 North latitude and 135°00 West longitude in the territory of Northwest Territories, Canada, with a population of 748 as of the 2000 census. ... Inupiaq, Iñupiaq, Inupiak or Inupiatun is a group of dialects of the Inuit language spoken in northern and northwestern Alaska. ... // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ...


Nunavut

Nunavut encompasses the geographically largest part of the Inuit world (not counting the uninhabitable Greenland ice shield), and includes large mainland areas and numerous islands divided by rivers, straits, Hudson Bay, and areas of ocean that freeze only for a part of the year. Consequently, it is unsurprising that it has a great deal of internal dialect diversity. Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


Nunavut's basic law lists four official languages: English, French, Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun, but to what degree Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun can be thought of as separate languages is ambiguous in state policy. The word Inuktitut is often used to describe both. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ...


The demographic situation of Inuktitut is quite strong in Nunavut. Nunavut is the home of some 24,000 Inuit, most of whom - over 80% according to the 2001 census - speak Inuktitut, including some 3,500 people reported as monolinguals. 2001 census data shows that the use of Inuktitut, while lower among the young than the elderly, has stopped declining in Canada as a whole and may even be increasing in Nunavut.

  • Inuinnaqtun is an Inuit language variant spoken in the western part of the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut, and at Ulukhaktok in the Northwest Territories. Although it has a number of features distinguishing it as a specific variant of Inuktitut, the most immediately noticeable is the lack of a local tradition of Inuktitut syllabics use. The government of Nunavut considers Inuinnaqtun an official language of the territory, but many consider it simply a Roman alphabet writing scheme for standard Inuktitut. However, the Roman alphabet writing scheme used in Inuinnaqtun uses letters in a manner distinctive to western Nunavut dialects.
  • Natsilingmiutut designates variants spoken in the part of eastern Kitikmeot called Natsilik. In the Natsilik dialect, it is called Nattilingmiutut. Some people view the Utkuhiksalingmiutut dialect, spoken today primarily by the Netsilik Inuit in Kugaaruk but traditionally spoken in the Franklin Lake and Chantrey Inlet area, as a separate dialect.
  • Kivallirmiutut dialect is spoken in the Kivalliq Region down to the Manitoba border.
  • Aivilimmiutut is spoken in the area traditionally known as Aivilik: Southampton Island and Repulse Bay in Kivalliq, and part of the Melville Peninsula in the Qikiqtaaluk Region. This area was settled by Inuit after the disappearance of the Sadlermiut in the late 19th and early 20th century. Some linguists consider it too close to North Baffin to merit separate treatment. (Dorais, Arctic languages: an awakeningPDF (2.68 MiB), pg. 194)
  • North Baffin (Qikiqtaaluk uannangani) is spoken on the northern part of Baffin Island, at Iglulik and the adjacent part of the Melville Peninsula, and in Inuit communities in the far north of Nunavut, like Resolute and Grise Fiord. This dialect is the one heard in the film Atanarjuat: the Fast Runner.
  • South Baffin (Qikiqtaaluk nigiani) is the dialect of the southern part of Baffin Island, including the territorial capital Iqaluit. This has in recent years made it a much more widely heard dialect, since a great deal of Inuktitut media originates in Iqaluit. Some linguists also distinguish an East Baffin dialect from either North or South Baffin.

Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut, the present day region Kitikmeot Region, Northwest Territories, the pre-division region Category: ... , Looking at Ulukhaktok from the bluffs that give the community its name. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ... The Netsilik Inuit (Netsilingmiut) live predominately in the communities of Kugaaruk and Gjoa Haven of the Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut and to a smaller extent in Taloyoak and the north Qikiqtaaluk Region. ... The community of Kugaaruk (formerly known as Pelly Bay until 3 December 1999) is located on the shore of Gulf of Boothia in Canadas Nunavut Territory. ... Kivalliq Region of Nunavut Kivalliq Region (Inuktitut: ᑭᕙᓪᓕᖅ) is an administrative region of Nunavut. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Categories: Islands of Canada | Canada geography stubs ... For the city in Northern Canada, see Repulse Bay, Nunavut. ... Kivalliq Region of Nunavut Kivalliq Region (Inuktitut: ᑭᕙᓪᓕᖅ) is an administrative region of Nunavut. ... Boothia and Melville peninsulas, Nunavut, Canada. ... Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut Qikiqtaaluk Region or Qikiqtani Region (Inuktitut: á•¿á‘­á–…á‘–á“—á’ƒ) is an administrative region of Nunavut. ... The Dorset culture preceded the Inuit culture in Arctic North America. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Igloolik, sometimes spelled Iglulik, is a community in Nunavut, northern Canada. ... Boothia and Melville peninsulas, Nunavut, Canada. ... Resolute (Qausuittuq) is a small town on Cornwallis Island in Nunavut, Canada, along the shore of Resolute Bay and the Northwest Passage. ... The Inuit settlement of Grise Fiord (pop. ... Atanarjuat (or The Fast Runner) is a Canadian film, released in 2001. ... South Baffin is a territorial electoral district (riding) for the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut, Canada. ... Coordinates: , Settled 1942 City status April 19, 2001 Government  - Type Iqaluit Municipal Council  - Mayor Elisapee Sheutiapik Area [1]  - City 52. ... Coordinates: , Settled 1942 City status April 19, 2001 Government  - Type Iqaluit Municipal Council  - Mayor Elisapee Sheutiapik Area [1]  - City 52. ...

Nunavik

Quebec is home to roughly 12,000 Inuit, nearly all of whom live in Nunavik. According to the 2001 census, 90% of Quebec Inuit speak Inuktitut. , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ...


The Nunavik dialect (Nunavimmiutitut) is relatively close to the South Baffin dialect, but not identical. Because of the political and physical boundary between Nunavik and Nunavut, Nunavik has separate government and educational institutions from those in the rest of the Inuktitut-speaking world, resulting in a growing standardisation of the local dialect as something separate from other forms of Inuktitut. In the Nunavik dialect, Inuktitut is called Inuttitut. This dialect is also sometimes called Tarramiutut or Taqramiutut.


Nunatsiavut

The Nunatsiavut dialect (Nunatsiavummiutut, or often in government documents Labradorimiutut) was once spoken across northern Labrador. It has a distinct writing system, created by German missionaries from the Moravian Church in Greenland in the 1760s. This separate writing tradition, and the remoteness of Nunatsiavut from other Inuit communities, has made it into a distinct dialect with a separate literary tradition. The Nunatsiavummiut call their language Inuttut. Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... Nunatsiavummiutut, also known as Labradorimiutut, and called Inuttut by its speakers, is a dialect of the Inuit language. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic. ... Events and Trends King George III ascends the British throne in 1760. ...


Although Nunatsiavut claims over 4,000 inhabitants of Inuit descent, only 550 reported Inuktitut to be their mother tongue in the 2001 census, mostly in the town of Nain. Inuktitut is seriously endangered in Labrador. Nain is the northernmost town of any size in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, located about 230 miles by air from Happy Valley-Goose Bay. ...


Nunatsiavut also had a separate dialect reputedly much closer to western Inuktitut dialects, spoken in the area around Rigolet. According to news reports, in 1999 it had only three very elderly speakers. [3] Rigolet is a remote, northern Labrador community located on the coast of Lake Melville, a large saltwater lake connected with the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Phonology and phonetics

Eastern Canadian dialects of Inuktitut have fifteen consonants and three vowels (which can be long or short). Consonants are arranged with five places of articulation: bilabial, alveolar, palatal, velar and uvular; and three manners of articulation: voiceless stops, voiced continuants and nasals, as well as two additional sounds — voiceless fricatives. Natsalingmiutut has an additional consonant /ɟ/, a vestige of the Retroflex consonants that were present in proto-Inuit. Inuinnaqtun has one fewer consonant, as /s/ and /ɬ/ have merged into /h/. All dialects of Inuktitut have only three basic vowels and make a phonological distinction between short and long forms of all vowels. In Inuujingajut - Nunavut standard Roman orthography - long vowels are written as a double vowel. This article makes reference primarily to the Inuktitut dialects of Canada, although it provides some discussion of other dialects. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A continuant is a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ...

Inuktitut vowels
IPA Inuujingajut Notes
Short open front unrounded /a/ a
Long open front unrounded /aː/ aa
Short closed front unrounded /i/ i Short i is sometimes realised as [e] or [ɛ]
Long closed front unrounded /iː/ ii
Short closed back rounded /u/ u Short u is sometimes realised as [o] or [ɔ]
Long closed back rounded /uː/ uu
Inuktitut consonants in Inuujingajut and IPA notation
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Notes
Voiceless stop p /p/ t /t/ k /k/ q /q/
  • All plosives are unaspirated
  • /q/ is sometimes represented with an r
Voiceless fricative s /s/
ł /ɬ/
(h /h/)
  • h replaces s in Kivallirmiutut and Natsilingmiutut and replaces both s and ɬ in Inuinnaqtun
  • ɬ is often written as &, or simply as l
Voiced v /v/ l /l/ j /j/
(j /ɟ/)
g /g/ r /ɢ/
  • /ɟ/, being absent from most dialects, is not written with a separate letter
  • /g/ is replaced by [ɣ] in Siglitun, and may be realised as [ɣ] between vowels or vowels and approximants in other dialects
  • /ɢ/ assimilated to [ɴ] before nasals
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ... In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ...

Morphology and syntax

Main article: Inuit grammar

Inuktitut, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require several words to express. (See also: Agglutinative language and Polysynthetic language) All words begin with a root morpheme to which other morphemes are suffixed. Inuktitut has hundreds of distinct suffixes, in some dialects as many as 700. Fortunately for the learners, the language has a highly regular morphology. Although the rules are sometimes very complicated, they do not have exceptions in the sense that English and other Indo-European languages do. The Inuit language, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require several words to express. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


Writing

Inuktitut is written in several different ways, depending on the dialect and region, but also on historical and political factors.


Moravian missionaries, with the purpose of introducing the Inuit peoples to Christianity and the Bible, contributed to the development of an Inuktitut writing system in Greenland during the 1760s that was based on Roman orthography. They later travelled to Labrador in the 1800s, bringing the written Inuktitut with them. This roman alphabet writing scheme is distinguished by its inclusion of the letter kra. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Kra (ĸ) is a character used when writing the Kalaallisut language spoken in Greenland. ...


The Alaskan Yupik and Inupiat (who, in addition, developed their own system of hieroglyphics) and the Siberian Yupik also adopted the system of Roman orthography. This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ... “Hieroglyphics” redirects here. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ...


Eastern Canadian Inuit were the last to adopt the written word when, in the 1860s, missionaries imported the written system Qaniujaaqpait they had developed in their efforts to convert the Cree to Christianity. The very last Inuit peoples introduced to missionaries and writing were the Netsilik Inuit in Kugaaruk and north Baffin Island. The Netsilik adopted Qaniujaaqpait by the 1920s. For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... The Netsilik Inuit (Netsilingmiut) live predominately in the communities of Kugaaruk and Gjoa Haven of the Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut and to a smaller extent in Taloyoak and the north Qikiqtaaluk Region. ... The community of Kugaaruk (formerly known as Pelly Bay until 3 December 1999) is located on the shore of Gulf of Boothia in Canadas Nunavut Territory. ... Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ...


The "Greenlandic" system has been substantially reformed in recent years, making Labrador writing unique to Nunatsiavummiutut at this time. Most Inuktitut in Nunavut and Nunavik is written using a scheme called Qaniujaaqpait or Inuktitut syllabics, based on Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. The western part of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories use a Roman orthography (alphabet scheme) usually identified as Inuinnaqtun or Qaliujaaqpait, reflecting the predispositions of the missionaries who reached this area in the late 19th century and early 20th. Nunatsiavummiutut, also known as Labradorimiutut, and called Inuttut by its speakers, is a dialect of the Inuit language. ... The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


The Canadian syllabary

Main article: Inuktitut syllabics
The syllabary used to write Inuktitut (titirausiq nutaaq). The extra characters with the dots represent long vowels; in the Latin transcription, the vowel would be doubled.
The syllabary used to write Inuktitut (titirausiq nutaaq). The extra characters with the dots represent long vowels; in the Latin transcription, the vowel would be doubled.

The Inuktitut syllabary used in Canada is based on the Cree syllabary devised by the missionary James Evans. The present form of the syllabary for Canadian Inuktitut was adopted by the Inuit Cultural Institute in Canada in the 1970s. The Inuit in Alaska, the Inuvialuit, Inuinnaqtun speakers, and Inuit in Greenland and Labrador use the Roman alphabet, although it has been adapted for their use in different ways. The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Cree syllabics are the variations on Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics that are used to write Cree language dialects. ... James Evans (January 18, 1801 – November 23, 1846) was a Canadian Methodist missionary and amateur linguist. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...


Though conventionally called a syllabary, the writing system has been classified by some observers as an abugida, since syllables starting with the same consonant have related glyphs rather than unrelated ones. A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ...


All of the characters needed for the Inuktitut syllabary are available in the Unicode character repertoire. (See Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics character table.) The territorial government of Nunavut, Canada has developed a TrueType font called Pigiarniq for computer displays. It was designed by Vancouver-based Tiro Typeworks. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics covers the block U+1400 to U+167F in the Unicode standard. ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... “Font” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ...


See also

The Inuktitut language is written in different ways in different places. ...

References

  • Mallon, Mick, Inuktitut Linguistics for Technocrats.
  • Mallon, Mick (1991). Introductory Inuktitut and Introductory Inuktitut Reference Grammar. ISBN 0-7717-0230-2 and ISBN 0-7717-0235-3
  • Spalding, Alex (1998). Inuktitut: A multi-dialectal outline dictionary (with an Aivilingmiutaq base), ISBN 1-896204-29-5
  • Spalding, Alex (1992). Inuktitut: a Grammar of North Baffin Dialects, ISBN 0-920063-43-8
  • "The Inuktitut Language" in Project Naming, the identification of Inuit portrayed in photographic collections at Library and Archives Canada
  • Arctic Languages: An AwakeningPDF (2.68 MiB), ed: Dirmid R. F. Collis. ISBN 92-3-102661-5.

Although as many of the examples as possible are novel or extracted from Inuktitut texts, some of the examples in this article are drawn from Introductory Inuktitut and Inuktitut Linguistics for Technocrats. “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ...

Further reading

  • Allen, Shanley. Aspects of Argument Structure Acquisition in Inuktitut. Language acquisition & language disorders, v. 13. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub, 1996. ISBN 1556197764
  • Balt, Peter. Inuktitut Affixes. Rankin Inlet? N.W.T.: s.n, 1978.
  • Kalmar, Ivan Davidson. Case and Context in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Mercury series. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1979.
  • Nowak, Elke. Transforming the Images Ergativity and Transitivity in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Empirical approaches to language typology, 15. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1996. ISBN 311014980X
  • Schneider, Lucien. Ulirnaisigutiit An Inuktitut-English Dictionary of Northern Quebec, Labrador, and Eastern Arctic Dialects (with an English-Inuktitut Index). Québec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1985.
  • Swift, Mary D. Time in Child Inuktitut A Developmental Study of an Eskimo-Aleut Language. Studies on language acquisition, 24. Berlin: M. de Gruyter, 2004. ISBN 3110181207
  • Thibert, Arthur. Eskimo-English, English-Eskimo Dictionary = Inuktitut-English, English-Inuktitut Dictionary. Ottawa: Laurier Books, 1997. ISBN 1895959128

External links

Wikipedia
Inuktitut edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...

Dictionaries and lexica

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Webpages

Utilities

  • Microsoft Transliteration Utility - Powerful, free tool for transliterating text between different scripts. Includes a module for transliterating back and forth between Inuktitut syllabary and Inuktitut romanization.
  • NANIVARA - Inuktitut Search Engine. - NANIVARA means "I've found it!" in Inuktitut.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Inuktitut - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1978 words)
Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ, literally "like the Inuit") is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada.
Inuktitut, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require serveral words to express.
The Inuktitut syllabary used in Canada is based on the Cree syllabary devised by the missionary James Evans.
Encyclopedia: Inuktitut (723 words)
Specifically, Inuktitut is the dialect of the Inuit of the Canadian Eastern Arctic.
Inuktitut, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, represents a particular type of agglutinative language called a polysynthetic language: it "synthesizes" a root and various grammatical morphemes to create long words with sentence-like meanings.
The Inuktitut syllabary used in Canada is based on the Cree syllabary, which is in turn based on that of Ojibwe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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