FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Inuit language

The Inuit language is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. It is also to spoken in far eastern Russia, particularly the Diomede Islands, but is severely endangered in Russia today and is spoken only in a few villages on the Chukotka peninsula. The Inuit live primarily in three countries: Greenland (an autonomous province of Denmark), Canada, and the U.S. state of Alaska. North American redirects here. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... The term Chukchi may refer to Chukchi people Chukchi language This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


The total population of Inuit speaking their traditional language is difficult to assess with precision, since most counts rely on self-reported census data that may not accurately reflect usage or competence. Greenland census estimates place the number of speakers of Inuit dialects there at roughly 50,000, while Canadian estimates are at roughly 30,000. These two countries count the bulk of speakers of Inuit language variants, as usage in Alaska is increasingly moribund - roughly 3,000 Alaskans speak Inuit dialects out of a population of over 13,000 Inuit. The eskimo languages have a few hundred speakers in Russia. In addition, an estimated 7,000 Greenlandic Inuit live in European Denmark, but this is the largest group outside of Canada and Greenland. So, the global population of speakers of Inuit language variants is on the order of 90,000 people.

Contents

Nomenclature

The traditional language of the Inuit is a system of closely interrelated dialects that are not readily comprehensible from one end of the Inuit world to the other, and some people do not think of it as a single language but rather as a group of languages. However, there are no clear criteria for breaking the Inuit language into specific member tongues, since it forms a continuum of close dialects. Each band of Inuit understands its neighbours, and most likely their neighbours' neighbours; but at some remove, comprehensibility drops to a very low level.


As a result, Inuit in different places use different words for their own variants and for the entire group of languages, and this ambiguity has been carried into other languages, creating a great deal of confusion over what labels should be applied to it.


In Greenland the official form of Inuit language, and one of the official languages of the state, is called Kalaallisut. In other languages, it is often called Greenlandic or some cognate term. The eskimo languages of Alaska are called Inupiatun, but the variants of the Seward Peninsula are distinguished from the other Alaskan variants by calling them Qawiaraq, or for some dialects, Bering Straits Inupiatun. The Kalaallisut language (also called Greenlandic, Greenlandic Eskimo, or Greenlandic Inuktitut) is an Eskimo-Aleut language spoken in Greenland and closely related to Canadian languages like Inuktitut. ... Inupiaq, Iñupiaq, Inupiak or Inupiatun is a group of dialects of the Inuit language spoken in northern and northwestern Alaska. ... The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula in western Alaska. ... Qawiaraq is the name usually given to the variants of Inuit language spoken in western Alaska, particularly to those spoken on the Seward Peninsula. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Bering Strait is also a country music band The Bering Strait is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, the eastmost point of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, about 85 km in width, with a...


In Canada, the word Inuktitut is routinely used to refer to all Canadian variants of the Inuit traditional language, and it is under that name that it is recognised as one of the official languages of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. However, one of the variants of western Nunavut is called Inuinnaqtun to distinguish itself from the dialects of eastern Canada, while the variants of the Northwest Territories are sometimes called Inuvialuktun and have in the past sometimes been called Inuktun. In those dialects, the name is sometimes rendered as Inuktitun to reflect dialectical differences in pronunciation. The Inuit language of Quebec is called Inuttitut by its speakers, and often by other people, but this is a minor variation in pronunciation. In Labrador, the language is called Inuttut or, often in official documents, by the more descriptive name Labradorimiutut. Furthermore, Canadians - both Inuit and non-Inuit - sometimes use the word Inuktitut to refer to all of the Inuit language variants, including those of Alaska and Greenland. Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: (fonts required), literally like the Inuit) is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... Inuvialuktun is a word routinely used to describe the variety of the language of the Inuit spoken in the northern Northwest Territories by a band of Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuit. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Nunatsiavummiutut, also known as Labradorimiutut, and called Inuttut by its speakers, ia a variant of the Inuit language. ...


The Eskimo varieties of Russia were traditionally named after the settlements where they are spoken and are called Sirenikski, Naukanska and Chaplinski eskimo after the villages of Sireniki, Naukan and Novoe Chaplino.



The phrase "Inuit language" is largely limited to professional discourse, since in each area, there is one or more conventional terms that cover all the local variants; or it is used as a descriptive term in publications where readers can't necessarily be expected to know the locally used words. But, this means that while you can call the French language French, you cannot call the Inuit language Inuit. Saying "Peter speaks Inuit" is a very strange usage that most people who are familiar with the Inuit language would recognise as suspect, comparable to asserting that Hispanics must speak "Hispanic". The word Inuit is generally reserved for the ethnic group, both from its Inuit language meaning - it refers specifically to a group of people - and in the way the word has been adopted in English. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Although many people refer to the Inuit language as Eskimo language, this is an ambiguous term that can also include Yupik (see Eskimo-Aleut languages), and is in addition strongly discouraged in Canada and diminishing in usage elsewhere. See the article on Eskimo for more information on this word. The Yupik (Yupik/Юпик) people speak several distinct languages, depending on their location. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ...


Classification and history

The language of the Inuit is an Eskimo-Aleut language. It is fairly closely related to the Yupik languages, and more remotely to the Aleut language. These cousin languages are all spoken in Western Alaska and Eastern Chukotka, Russia. It is not discernibly related to other North American or northwest Asian indigenous languages, although some have proposed that it is related to Indo-European languages as part of the hypothetical Nostratic superphylum, and there are those who consider it a Paleo-Siberian language, although that is more a geographic than a linguistic grouping. Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... The Yupik (Yupik/Юпик) people speak several distinct languages, depending on their location. ... Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut language family. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russian: , transliteration: Chukotsky avtonomny okrug; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ), or Chukotka (), is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug) located in the Far Eastern Federal District. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... There are a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising a number of families and unrelated isolate languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Nostratic is a highly controversial language super-family that putatively links many Eurasian language families. ... Paleosiberian (Palaeosiberian, Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian languages (from Greek palaios, ancient) is a term of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of languages spoken in remote regions of Siberia. ...


Early forms of the Inuit language were spoken by the Thule people, who overran the Dorset civilisation, which had previously occupied Arctic America, at the beginning of the second millennium. By 1300, the Inuit and their language had reached western Greenland, and finally east Greenland roughly at the same time the Viking colony in southern Greenland disappeared. It is generally believed that it was during this centuries-long eastwards migration that the Inuit language became distinct from the Yupik languages spoken in Western Alaska and Chukotka. The Thule were the ancestors of all modern Canadian Inuit. ... The Dorset culture preceded the Inuit culture in Arctic North America. ... (1st millennium – 2nd millennium – 3rd millennium – other millennia) Events The Black Death Mongol Empires in Asia The Renaissance in Europe The Protestant Reformation The agricultural and industrial revolutions The rise of nationalism and the nation state European discovery of the Americas and Australia and their colonization European colonization and decolonization... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Yupik (Yupik/Юпик) people speak several distinct languages, depending on their location. ...


Until 1902, an enclave of Dorset people or Sadlermiut (in modern Inuktitut spelling Sallirmiut) existed on Southampton Island. Almost nothing is known about their language, but the few eyewitness accounts tell of them speaking a "strange dialect". This suggests that they also spoke an Eskimo-Aleut language, but one quite distinct from the forms spoken in Canada today. Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Dorset culture preceded the Inuit culture in Arctic North America. ... Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: (fonts required), literally like the Inuit) is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. ... Categories: Islands of Canada | Canada geography stubs ... Eskimo-Aleut (also called Inuit-Aleut, but both names are considered offensive by some) is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ...


The Yupik and Inuit languages are very similar syntactically and morphologically. Their common origin can be seen in a number of cognates:

English Central Yupik Iñupiatun North Baffin Inuktitut Kalaallisut
person yuk iñuk [iɲuk] inuk inuk
frost kaneq kaniq kaniq kaneq
river kuik kuuk kuuk kuuk
outside ellami siḷami [siʎami] silami silami

The western Alaskan variants retain a large number of features present in proto-Inuit language and in Yup'ik, enough so that they might be classed as Yup'ik languages if they were viewed in isolation from the larger Inuit world.


Geographic distribution and variants

Distribution of Inuit language variants across the Arctic.
Distribution of Inuit language variants across the Arctic.

The Inuit language is a fairly closely linked set of dialects which can be broken up using a number of different criteria. Traditionally, Inuit describe dialect differences by means of place names to describe local idiosyncrasies in language: The dialect of Iglulik versus the dialect of Iqaluit, for example. However, political and sociological divisions are increasingly the principal criteria for describing different variants of the Inuit language because of their links to different writing systems, literary traditions, schools, media sources and borrowed vocabulary. This makes any partition of the Inuit language somewhat problematic. This article will use labels that try to synthesise linguistic, sociolinguistic and political considerations in splitting up the Inuit dialect spectrum. This scheme is not the only one used or necessarily one used by Inuit themselves, but its labels do try to reflect the usages most seen in popular and technical literature. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Igloolik, sometimes spelled Iglulik, is a community in Nunavut, northern Canada. ... Coordinates: , Settled 1942 City status April 19, 2001 Government  - Type Iqaluit Municipal Council  - Mayor Elisapee Sheutiapik Area [1]  - City 52. ...


In addition to the territories listed below, some 7,000 Greenlandic speakers are reported to live in mainland Denmark [1], and according to the 2001 census roughly 200 self-reported Inuktitut native speakers regularly live in parts of Canada which are outside of traditional Inuit lands.


Alaska

For more details on this topic, see Inupiatun and Qawiaraq.

Of the roughly 13,000 Alaskan Inupiat, as few as 3,000 may still be able to speak Inuit language variants, with most of them over the age of 40. [2] Alaskan Inuit speak at least two fairly distinct dialects: Inupiaq, Iñupiaq, Inupiak or Inupiatun is a group of dialects of the Inuit language spoken in northern and northwestern Alaska. ... Qawiaraq is the name usually given to the variants of Inuit language spoken in western Alaska, particularly to those spoken on the Seward Peninsula. ... The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ...

  • Qawiaraq is spoken on the southern side of the Seward Peninsula and the Norton Sound area. It was also in the past spoken in Chukotka, particularly Big Diomede island, but appears to have vanished in Russian areas through assimilation into Yupik, Chukchi and Russian speaking communities. It is radically different in phonology from other Inuit language variants. Some people consider the Bering Strait dialect to be separate from Qawariaq.
  • Inupiatun is spoken on the North Slope and in the Kotzebue Sound area. The variants of the Kotzebue Sound area and the northwest of Alaska are sometimes called Malimiutun or Malimiut Inupiatun. However, despite significant differences in phonology, Malimiutun is readily comprehensible to other Alaskan Inupiat. [3]

Qawiaraq is the name usually given to the variants of Inuit language spoken in western Alaska, particularly to those spoken on the Seward Peninsula. ... The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula in western Alaska. ... The Norton Sound is an inlet of the Bering Sea in western Alaska, south of the Seward Peninsula. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... The Yupik (Yupik/Юпик) people speak several distinct languages, depending on their location. ... Chukchi, or Chukchee (Russian: чукчи (plural), chukcha, чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the Russian Far East on the shores of the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... Inupiaq, Iñupiaq, Inupiak or Inupiatun is a group of dialects of the Inuit language spoken in northern and northwestern Alaska. ... ... Kotzebue Sound is an arm of the Chukchi Sea in western Alaska, 66°40 North 163° West. ... The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ...

Canada

For more details on this topic, see Inuktitut.

The Inuit language is an official language in the Northwest Territories, the official and dominant language of Nunavut, enjoys a high level of official support in Nunavik, a semi-autonomous portion of Quebec, and is still spoken in some parts of Labrador. Generally, Canadians refer to all dialects spoken in Canada as Inuktitut, but the terms Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, Nunatsiavummiutut, (sometimes called Inuttut or Labradorimiutut) have some currency in referring to the variants of specific areas. Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: (fonts required), literally like the Inuit) is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: (fonts required), literally like the Inuit) is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. ... Inuvialuktun is a word routinely used to describe the variety of the language of the Inuit spoken in the northern Northwest Territories by a band of Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuit. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... Nunatsiavummiutut, also known as Labradorimiutut, and called Inuttut by its speakers, is a dialect of the Inuit language. ...


Greenland

For more details on this topic, see Kalaallisut.

Greenland counts approximately 50,000 speakers of Inuit language variants, of whom over 90% speak west Greenlandic dialects at home. The Kalaallisut language (also called Greenlandic, Greenlandic Eskimo, or Greenlandic Inuktitut) is an Eskimo-Aleut language spoken in Greenland and closely related to Canadian languages like Inuktitut. ...

  • Kalaallisut, or in English Greenlandic, is the name given to the standard dialect and official language of Greenland. This standard national language is now taught to all Greenlanders in school, regardless of their native dialect. It reflects almost exclusively the language of western Greenland and has borrowed a great deal of vocabulary from Danish, while Canadian and Alaskan Inuit language variants have tended to take vocabulary from English or sometimes French and Russian. It is written using the Roman alphabet. The dialect of the Upernavik area in northwest Greenland is somewhat different in phonology from the standard dialect.
  • Tunumiit oraasiat, (or Tunumiusut in Kalaallisut, often East Greenlandic in other languages), is the dialect of eastern Greenland. It differs sharply from other Inuit language variants and has roughly 3,000 speakers according to Ethnologue.
  • Inuktun (Or Avanersuarmiutut in Kalaallisut) is the dialect of the area around Qaanaaq in northern Greenland. It is sometimes called the Thule dialect or North Greenlandic. This area is the northernmost settlement area of the Inuit and has a relatively small number of speakers. It is reputed to be fairly close to the North Baffin dialect, since a group of migratory Inuit from Baffin Island settled in the area during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It counts under 1,000 speakers according to Ethnologue.

The Kalaallisut language (also called Greenlandic, Greenlandic Eskimo, or Greenlandic Inuktitut) is an Eskimo-Aleut language spoken in Greenland and closely related to Canadian languages like Inuktitut. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Location of the Upernavik municipality in Greenland Upernavik , meaning Springtime Place, is a small town on the west coast of Greenland. ... Inuktun (English: Polar Eskimo, Danish: Thulesproget, Greenlandic: Avanersuarmiutut) is the language of approximately 1000 indigenous Inughuit, inhabiting the worlds most northerly settlements in Qaanaaq and the surrounding villages in northern Greenland. ... Map of Greenland Qaanaaq (roughly pronounced KAH-nahk), formerly Thule, is a town and municipality in northwestern Greenland. ... Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...

Russia

For more details on this topic, see Siberian Yupik language.

The most well known variety of Russian Yupik was the Sireniki Eskimo language spoken in the settlement of Sireniki until 1997. The varieties of the Siberian Yupik languages that are still spoken in Naukan and Novoe Chaplino and are called Naukanski Yupik (ca. 70 speakers [4]) and Chaplinski Yupik (ca. 200 speakers [5]). The languages are severely endangered and are spoken mostly by elderly people, although some children speakers have been reported in 2003[6][7]. The two surviving languages are members of the Yupik branch of the eskimo languages whereas the extinct Sireniki language is thought to have represented a now lost third branch[8]. For the people, see Siberian Yupik. ... For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ...


Phonology and Phonetics

Eastern Canadian Inuit language variants have fifteen consonants and three vowels (which can be long or short). This article makes reference primarily to the Inuktitut dialects of Canada, although it provides some discussion of other dialects. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Consonants are arranged with five places of articulation: bilabial, alveolar, palatal, velar and uvular; and three manners of articulation: voiceless stops, voiced continuants and nasals, as well as two additional sounds — voiceless fricatives. The Alaskan dialects have an additional manner of articulation, the retroflex, which was present in proto-Inuit language. Retroflexes have disappeared in all the Canadian and Greenlandic dialects. In Natsilingmiutut, the voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/ derives from a former retroflex. Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A continuant is a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract. ... The nasals are a pair of bones in the skull of many animals. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... The voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Almost all Inuit language variants have only three basic vowels and make a phonological distinction between short and long forms of all vowels. The only exceptions are at the extreme edges of the Inuit world - parts of Greenland, and in western Alaska.


Morphology and syntax

The Inuit language, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words (like verb endings in foreign European languages) to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require several words to express. (See also: Agglutinative language and Polysynthetic language) All Inuit language words begin with a root morpheme to which other morphemes are suffixed. The language has hundreds of distinct suffixes, in some dialects as many as 700. Fortunately for learners, the language has a highly regular morphology. Although the rules are sometimes very complicated, they do not have exceptions in the sense that English and other Indo-European languages do. The Inuit language, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require serveral words to express. ... Eskimo-Aleut (also called Inuit-Aleut, but both names are considered offensive by some) is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


This system makes words very long, and potentially unique. For example in central Nunavut Inuktitut: For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: (fonts required), literally like the Inuit) is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. ...

tusaatsiarunnanngittualuujunga
I can't hear very well.

This long word is composed of a root word tusaa- - to hear - followed by five suffixes:

-tsiaq- well
-junnaq- be able to
-nngit- not
-tualuu- very much
-junga 1st pers. singular present indicative non-specific

This sort of word construction is pervasive in Inuit language and makes it very unlike English. In one large Canadian corpus - the Nunavut Hansard - 92% of all words appear only once, in contrast to a small percentage in most English corpora of similar size. This makes the application of Zipf's law quite difficult in the Inuit language. Furthermore, the notion of a part of speech can be somewhat complicated in the Inuit language. Fully inflected verbs can be interpreted as nouns. The word ilisaijuq can be interpreted as a fully inflected verb - "he studies" - but can also be interpreted as a noun: "student". That said, the meaning is probably obvious to a fluent speaker, when put in context. For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. ... Originally, Zipfs law stated that, in a corpus of natural language utterances, the frequency of any word is roughly inversely proportional to its rank in the frequency table. ... In grammar, a part of speech or word class is defined as the role that a word (or sometimes a phrase) plays in a sentence. ...


The morphology and syntax of the Inuit language vary to some degree between dialects, and the article Inuit language morphology and syntax describes primarily central Nunavut dialects, but the basic principles will generally apply to all of them and to some degree to Yupik as well. The Inuit language, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require serveral words to express. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ...


Vocabulary

Toponymy and Names

Exotic as traditional Inuit names sound, both the names of places and people tend to be highly prosaic when translated. Iqaluit, for example, is simply the plural of the noun iqaluk - "trout". Iglulik simply means place with houses, a word that could be interpreted as simply town; Inuvik is place of people; Baffin Island - Qikiqtaaluk in Inuit language - approximately translates to "big island". Coordinates: , Settled 1942 City status April 19, 2001 Government  - Type Iqaluit Municipal Council  - Mayor Elisapee Sheutiapik Area [1]  - City 52. ... Igloolik, sometimes spelled Iglulik, is a community in Nunavut, northern Canada. ... Inuvik is a small town in the Northwest Territories of Canada. ... Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ...


Although practically all Inuit have legal names based on southern naming traditions, at home and among themselves they still use native naming traditions. There too, names tend to consist of highly prosaic words. The Inuit traditionally believed that by adopting the name of a dead person or a class of things, they could take some of their characteristics or powers, and enjoy a part of their identity. (This is why they were always very willing to accept European names - they believed that this made them equal to the Europeans.)


Common native names in Canada include "Ujarak" (rock), "Nuvuk" (headland), "Nasak" (hat, or hood), "Tupiq" or "Tupeq" in Kalaallisut (tent), and "Qajaq" (kayak). Inuit also use animal names, traditionally believing that by using those names, they took on some of the characteristics of that animal: "Nanuq" or "Nanoq" in Kalaallisut (polar-bear), "Uqalik" or "Ukaleq" in Kalaallisut (Arctic hare), and "Tiriaq" or "Teriaq" in Kalaallisut (ermine) are favourites. In other cases, Inuit are named after dead people or people in traditional tales, by naming them after anatomical traits those people are believed to have had. Examples include "Itigaituk" (has no feet), "Usuiituk" (has no penis), and "Tulimak" (rib). Inuit may have any number of names, given by parents and other community members. Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Disc numbers and Project Surname

In the 1920s, changes in lifestyle and serious epidemics like tuberculosis made the Canadian government interested in tracking the Inuit of Canada's arctic. Traditionally Inuit names reflect what is important in Inuit culture: environment, landscape, seascape, family, animals, birds, spirits. But the names were complicated for southerners to understand: when is it a name, when is it kinship term or a diagnosis? Also, the agglutinative nature of Inuit language meant that names seemed long and were difficult for southern bureaucrats and missionaries to pronounce. An epidemic is generally a widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ...


Thus, in the 1940s, the Inuit were given disc numbers, recorded on a special leather ID tag, like a dog tag. They were required to keep the tag with them always (Some tags are now so old and worn that the number is polished out). The numbers were assigned with a letter prefix that indicated location (E = east), community, and then the order in which the census taker saw the individual. In some ways this state re-naming was abetted by the churches and missionaries, who viewed the traditional names and their calls to power as related to shamanism and paganism. Disc numbers or ujamiit[1] in the Inuit language were used by the Government of Canada in lieu of surnames for the Inuit and were similar to dog-tags. ... For the tag worn by dogs, see dog tag. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


They encouraged people to take Christian names. So a young woman who was known to her relatives as "Lutaaq, Pilitaq, Palluq, or Inusiq" and had been baptised as "Annie" was under this system to become Annie E7-121.[1] People adopted the number-names, their family members' numbers, etc., and learned all the region codes (like knowing a telephone area code). The Honourable Ann Meekitjuk Hanson (Born: May 22, 1946 - ) is the Commissioner of Nunavut. ...


Until Inuit began studying in the south, many didn't know that numbers were not normal parts of Christian and English naming systems. Then in 1969, the Government started Project Surname, headed by Abe Okpik, to replace number-names with patrilineal "family surnames". But contemporary Inuit carvers and graphic artists still use their disk number [9] as their signature on their works of art. Abe (Abraham) Ookpik [1] CM,[2] (12 January 1929 - 10 July 1997) was instrumental in helping Inuit obtain surnames rather than disc numbers. ... Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ...


Words for snow

For more details on this topic, see Eskimo words for snow.

A popular belief exists that the Inuit have an unusually large number of words for snow. This is not accurate, and results from a misunderstanding of the nature of polysynthetic languages. In fact, The Inuit have only a few base roots for snow: 'qanniq-' ('qanik-' in some dialects), which is used most often like the verb to snow, and 'aput', which means snow as a substance. Parts of speech work very differently in the Inuit language than in English, so these definitions are somewhat misleading. It is a popular urban legend that the Inuit or Eskimo have an unusually high number of words for snow. ... Urban Legend is also the name of a 1998 movie. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ...


The Inuit language can form very long words by adding more and more descriptive affixes to words. Those affixes may modify the syntactic and semantic properties of the base word, or may add qualifiers to it in much the same way that English uses adjectives or prepositional phrases to qualify nouns (eg. "falling snow", "blowing snow", "snow on the ground", "snow drift", etc.) The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The "fact" that there are many Inuit words for snow has been put forward so often it is somewhat of a journalistic cliché (as evidenced by a collection of quotes from linguist Mark Liberman). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Writing

Because the Inuit language is spread over such a large area, divided between different nations and political units and originally reached by Europeans of different origins at different times, there is no uniform way of writing the Inuit language. Most Inuktitut in Nunavut and Nunavik is written using a scheme called Inuktitut syllabics, based on Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. The western part of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories use a Roman alphabet scheme usually identified as Inuinnaqtun. In Alaska, another Roman scheme is used. Nunatsiavut uses another variant devised by German-speaking Moravian missionaries, which included the letter kra. Greenland's Roman scheme was originally much like the one used in Nunatsiavut, but has undergone a spelling reform in 1973 to bring the orthography in line with changes in pronunciation and better reflect the phonemic inventory of the language. The Siberian Yupik languages of Russia are written in the Cyrillic Alphabet. The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ... Kra (ĸ) is a character used when writing the Kalaallisut language spoken in Greenland. ... For the people, see Siberian Yupik. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union...


The Canadian syllabary

For more details on this topic, see Inuktitut syllabics.
The syllabary used to write Inuktitut (titirausiq nutaaq). The extra characters with the dots represent long vowels; in the Latin transcription, the vowel would be doubled.
The syllabary used to write Inuktitut (titirausiq nutaaq). The extra characters with the dots represent long vowels; in the Latin transcription, the vowel would be doubled.

The Inuktitut syllabary used in Canada is based on the Cree syllabary devised by the missionary James Evans. The present form of the syllabary for Canadian Inuktitut was adopted by the Inuit Cultural Institute in Canada in the 1970s. The Inuit in Alaska, the Inuvialuit, Inuinnaqtun speakers, and Inuit in Greenland and Labrador use the Roman alphabet, although it has been adapted for their use in different ways. The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... James Evans (January 18, 1801 – November 23, 1846) was a Canadian Methodist missionary and amateur linguist. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...


Though conventionally called a syllabary, the writing system has been classified by some observers as an abugida, since syllables starting with the same consonant have related glyphs rather than unrelated ones. A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida (from Ge‘ez አቡጊዳ ’äbugida) is a segmental writing system in which each letter (basic character) represents a consonant accompanied by a specific vowel; other vowels are indicated by modification... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ...


All of the characters needed for the Inuktitut syllabary are available in the Unicode character repertoire. (See Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics character table.) The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics covers the block U+1400 to U+167F in the Unicode standard. ...


See also

Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Yupik (Yupik/Юпик) people speak several distinct languages, depending on their location. ...

References

  1. ^ What's In A Name? by Ann Meekitjuk Hanson
  • Alia, Valerie (1994) Names, numbers and northern policy: Inuit, Project Surname and the politics of identity. Halifax NS: Fernwood Publishing.
  • Greenhorn, Beth Project Naming: Always On Our Minds, Library and Archives Canada, Canada.
  • Collis, Dirmid R. F., ed. Arctic Languages: An Awakening ISBN 92-3-102661-5 Available in PDF via the UNESCO websitePDF (2.68 MiB).
  • Mallon, Mick Inuktitut Linguistics for Technocrats.
  • Mallon, Mick (1991) Introductory Inukitut and Introductory Inuktitut Reference Grammar. ISBN 0-7717-0230-2 and ISBN 0-7717-0235-3
  • Spalding, Alex (1998) Inuktitut: A multi-dialectal outline dictionary (with an Aivilingmiutaq base) ISBN 1-896204-29-5
  • Spalding, Alex (1992)Inuktitut: a Grammar of North Baffin Dialects ISBN 0-920063-43-8
  • Project Naming Project Naming Website
  • Okpik, Abe. Disk Numbers. (Okpik received the Order of Canada for his work on Project Surname) [10]

“PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ...

External links

Dictionaries and lexica

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Webpages

  • A Brief History of Inuktitut Writing Culture
  • Inuktitut Syllabarium
  • Our Language, Our Selves
  • Alt.folkore.urban on Eskimo words for snow.
  • Report of the third Danish Chukotka expedition with information on the Chukotka Yupik

Unicode Support

  • Code Charts

  Results from FactBites:
 
Inuit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4889 words)
The Inuit looked into the aurora borealis, or northern lights, to find images of their family and friends dancing in the next life, and they relied upon the shaman, while the nearest thing to a central deity was the Old Woman (Sedna), who lived beneath the sea.
The Inuit were a nomadic culture that circulated almost exclusively north of the timberline, the de facto southern border of Inuit society.
Inuit culture is alive and vibrant today in spite of the negative impact of the Arctic exiles, residential schools, the TB epidemic and exiles, the paternalistic meddling in all their affairs including the current serious concerns regarding the removal of Inuit children from their homes by the CAS.
Inuit language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2965 words)
The language of the Inuit people is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador.
The traditional language of the Inuit is a system of closely interrelated dialects that are not readily comprehensible from one end of the Inuit world to the other, and some people do not think of it as a single language but rather as a group of languages.
The Inuit language is an official language in the Northwest Territories, the official and dominant language of Nunavut, enjoys a high level of official support in Nunavik, a semi-autonomus portion of Quebec, and is still spoken in some parts of Labrador.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m