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Encyclopedia > Inuit
Inuit

Inuit grandmother and grandchild, 1995
Total population

150,000[citation needed] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Inuit are a group of indigenous peoples living in the most northern parts of North America. ...

Regions with significant populations
Greenland, Canada, United States, Russia
Language(s)
Inuit language,
Eskimo-Aleut languages
Religion(s)
Christianity, Shamanism
Related ethnic groups
Aleuts, Yupiks

Inuit (plural: the singular, Inuk, means "man" or "person") is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Alaska, Greenland, and Canada. Until fairly recent times, there has been a remarkable homogeneity in the culture throughout these areas, which have traditionally relied on fish, marine mammals, and land animals for food, pets, transport, heat, light, clothing, tools, and shelter. The Inuit language is grouped under Eskimo-Aleut languages.[1] The language of the Inuit people is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... The language of the Inuit people is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ...


The Inuit people live throughout most of the Canadian Arctic and subartic: in the territory of Nunavut ("our land"); the northern third of Quebec, in an area called Nunavik ("place to live"); the coastal region of Labrador, in an area called Nunatsiavut ("Our Beautiful Land"); in various parts of the Northwest Territories, mainly on the coast of the Arctic Ocean and the Yukon territory. Alaskan Inupiat live on the North Slope of Alaska and the Seward Peninsula. Greenland's Kalaallit are citizens of Denmark. Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ... ... The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula in western Alaska. ... Kalaallit is the Greenlandic term for the population living in Greenland. ...

Contents

Nomenclature

In Canada and Greenland the term Eskimo has fallen out of favor, is considered pejorative,[2][3] and has been replaced by the term Inuit. However, while Inuit describes all of the Eskimo peoples in Canada and Greenland, that is not true in Alaska and Siberia. In Alaska the term Eskimo is commonly used, because it includes both Yupik and Inupiat, while Inuit is not accepted as a collective term or even specifically used for Inupiat (which technically is Inuit). No universal replacement term for Eskimo, inclusive of all Inuit and Yupik people, is accepted across the geographical area inhabited by the Inuit and Yupik peoples.[4] For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ...


Inuit, Yupik, and First Nations People

Distribution of Inuit language variants.
Distribution of Inuit language variants.

The Inuit Circumpolar Conference, a United Nations-recognised non-governmental organization (NGO), defines its constituency to include Canada's Inuit and Inuvialuit, Greenland's Kalaallit Inuit, Alaska's Inupiat and Yup'ik people, and the Siberian Yupik people of Russia.[5] However, the Yupik of Alaska and Siberia are not Inuit, and the Yupik languages are linguistically distinct from the Inuit languages.[4] Yupik people are not considered to be Inuit either by themselves or by ethnographers, and prefer to be called Yupik or Eskimo. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Inuit Circumpolar Conference or ICC, is an multinational nongovernmental organization representing 150,000 Inuit, living in Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and the Yukon Territory), the United States (Alaska), Greenland, and on the Russian peninsula of Chukotka. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... NGO redirects here. ... The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ... The Yupik or, in the Central Alaskan language, Yupik, are aboriginal people who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan Yupik), in southern Alaska (the Alutiiq) and in the Russian Far East and St. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... The Yupik people speak five distinct languages, depending on their location. ...


Canadian Inuit do not consider themselves, and are not usually considered by others, to be one of the First Nations, a term which normally applies to other indigenous peoples in Canada.[6] However, Inuit (and the Métis) are collectively recognised by the Constitution Act, 1982 as Aboriginal peoples in Canada. First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, mixed-bloods, Countryborn (or Anglo-Métis), are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.)) is a part of the Constitution of Canada. ... Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ...


The Inuit should not be confused with the Innu, a distinct First Nations people who live in northeastern Quebec and Labrador. Innu flag Innu communities of Québec and Labrador The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of what Canadians refer to as eastern Québec and Labrador, Canada. ...


Some of the Inuit dialects were recorded in the eighteenth century, but until the latter half of the twentieth century, most were not able to read and write in their own language. In the 1760s, Moravian missionaries arrived in Greenland, where they contributed to the development of a written system of language called Qaliujaaqpait, based on the Latin alphabet. The missionaries later brought this system to Labrador, from which it eventually spread as far as Alaska.[7] The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ...


Early history

The Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule culture, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 AD and spread eastwards across the Arctic, displacing the related Dorset culture (in Inuktitut, the Tuniit). Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as "giants", people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit. Researchers believe that the Dorset culture lacked dogs, larger weapons and other technologies that gave the expanding Inuit society an advantage over them. By 1300, the Inuit had settled west Greenland, and finally moved into east Greenland over the following century. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (259x989, 205 KB) Grønlands forhistorie, editor. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (259x989, 205 KB) Grønlands forhistorie, editor. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... The Thule were the ancestors of all modern Canadian Inuit. ... The Dorset culture preceded the Eskimo culture in Arctic North America. ...


The Tuniit survived in Aivilik, Southampton and Coats Islands, until the beginning of the 20th century. They were known as Sadlermiut (Sallirmiut in the modern spelling). Their population had been ravaged by diseases brought by contact with Europeans, and the last of them fell in a flu epidemic caught from a passing whaler in 1902. The area has since been resettled by Inuit. Categories: Islands of Canada | Canada geography stubs ... Coats Island, Nunavut Closeup of Coats Island Coats Island lies at the northern end of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut. ...


In Canada and Greenland the Inuit circulated almost exclusively north of the timberline, the de facto southern border of Inuit society. To the south, Native American Indian cultures were well established, and the culture and technology of Inuit society that served them so well in the Arctic was not suited to the subarctic, so they did not displace their southern neighbours. They had trade relations with more southern cultures, but as is the usual case boundary disputes were common and often a cause of aggressive actions. In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Native Americans redirects here. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ...


Warfare, in general, was not uncommon among Inuit groups with sufficient population density. Inuit who inhabited the Mackenzie Delta area experienced common warfare whereas the Central Arctic Inuit lacked the population density to engage in warfare.


The first contact with Europeans came from the Vikings, who settled Greenland and explored the eastern Canadian coast. Norse literature speaks of skrælingar, most likely an undifferentiated label for all the native peoples of the Americas the Norse contacted, Tuniit, Inuit and Beothuks alike. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Maps showing the different cultures in Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland and the Canadian arctic islands in the years 900, 1100, 1300 and 1500. ... Newfoundland, home of the Beothuk The Beothuk (IPA: ) were the native inhabitants of the island of Newfoundland at the time of European contact in the 15th and 16th centuries. ...


Sometime in the 13th century the Thule culture began arriving from what is now Canada. Norse accounts are scant. However, Norse made items have been found at Inuit campsites in Greenland. It is unclear whether they are the result of trade or plunder. One old account speaks of "small people" with whom the Norsemen fought. Ívar Bárðarson's[8] 14th century account mentions that one of the two Norse settlement areas, the western settlement, had been taken over by the skrælings. The reason why the Norse settlements failed is unclear, but the last record of them is from 1408, roughly the same period as the earliest Inuit settlements in east Greenland.


After roughly 1350, the climate grew colder during the Little Ice Age and the Inuit were forced to abandon hunting and whaling sites in the high Arctic. Bowhead whaling disappeared in Canada and Greenland (but continued in Alaska) and the Inuit had to subsist on a much poorer diet. Without whales, they lost access to essential raw materials for tools and architecture that were derived from whaling. The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bowhead whale range The Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus), also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a baleen whale of the right whale family Balaenidae. ...


The changing climate forced the Inuit to also look south, pressuring them into the marginal niches along the edges of the tree line that Indians had not occupied, or where they were weak enough to coexist with. It is hard to say with any precision when the Inuit stopped their territorial expansion. There is evidence that they were still moving into new territory in southern Labrador in the 17th century, when they first began to interact with colonial North American civilisation.


Cultural History

Inuit basket made by Kinguktuk (1871-1941) of Barrow, Alaska. Ivory handle. Displayed at Museum of Man, San Diego, California.
Inuit basket made by Kinguktuk (1871-1941) of Barrow, Alaska. Ivory handle. Displayed at Museum of Man, San Diego, California.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 649 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,693 × 1,563 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 649 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,693 × 1,563 pixels, file size: 1. ... Barrow is a city in North Slope Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. ... San Diego redirects here. ...

Diet

The Inuit have traditionally been hunters and fishers. They hunted, and still hunt, whales, walruses, caribou, seals, polar bears, muskoxen, birds, and at times other less commonly eaten animals such as foxes. The typical Inuit diet is high in meat, but there is abundant edible vegetation in most areas of the Arctic, and while it is not possible to cultivate plants for food, gathering those that are naturally available has always been typical. Grasses, tubers, roots, stems, berries, and seaweed were collected and preserved depending on the season and the location.[9][10][11] (kuanniq or edible seaweed[12])[13] Caribou redirects here. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ...


Lieb et al. (1926) published a case study of anthropologist Vilhjalmur Stefansson who lived with a group of Inuit.[14] The study focused on the fact that the Inuit's extremely low-carbohydrate diet had not had adverse effects on Stefansson's health, nor that of the Inuit. This study and the Inuit in general have been cited as support for low-carbohydrate diets, but often without taking into account the climatic and metabolistic circumstances in which those results were observed. Stefansson (1946) also observed that the Inuit were able to get the necessary vitamins they needed from their traditional winter diet, which did not contain plant matter. In particular, he found that adequate Vitamin C could be obtained from items in the Inuit's traditional diet of raw meat such as ringed seal liver and whale skin. While there was considerable skepticism when he reported these findings, they have been borne out in recent studies.[15] Vilhjalmur Stefansson (Icelandic: Vilhjálmur Stefánsson / Vilhjálms Stefánssonar) (November 3, 1879 – August 26, 1962) was a Canadian Arctic explorer and ethnologist. ... Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are nutritional programs that advocate restricted carbohydrate consumption, based on research that ties consumption of certain carbohydrates with increased blood insulin levels, and overexposure to insulin with metabolic syndrome (the most recognized symptom of which is obesity). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Binomial name Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775) The Ringed Seal or Jar Seal (Pusa hispida formerly Phoca hispida) is an earless seal inhabiting the northern coasts. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Transport, navigation, and dogs

Inuit man in a kayak, c. 1929 (photo by Edward S. Curtis)
Inuit man in a kayak, c. 1929 (photo by Edward S. Curtis)

Sea animals were hunted from single-passenger, covered seal-skin boats called qajaq[16] which were extraordinarily buoyant, and could easily be righted by a seated person, even if completely overturned. Because of this property, the Inuit design was copied, along with the Inuit word, by Europeans who still make and use them under the name kayak. They were originally the Inuit's design, but has been copied by people around the world. Kayaks have a special tube like design. Inuit also made umiak, larger, open boats made of wood frames covered with animal skins for transporting people, goods and dogs. They were 6m-12m long. They also had a flat bottom so that it could come close to shore. In the winter, Inuit would also hunt sea mammals by patiently watching an aglu (breathing hole) in the ice and waiting for the air-breathing seals to use them, a technique also used by the polar bear, who hunts by seeking out holes in the ice and waiting nearby. For other persons named Edward Curtis, see Edward Curtis (disambiguation). ... The population growth/decline of European countries The Demography of Europe refers to the changing number and composition of the population of Europe. ... Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The umiak, umiaq, umiac, oomiac or oomiak is a type of boat used by the Inuit for transportation. ...


On land, the Inuit used dog sleds (qamutik) for transportation. The husky dog breed comes from Inuit breeding of dogs for transportation. A team of dogs in either a tandem/side-by-side or fan formation would pull a sled made of wood, animal bones, or the baleen from a whale's mouth, over the snow and ice. They used stars to navigate at sea and landmarks to navigate on land and possessed a comprehensive native system of toponymy. Where natural landmarks were insufficient, the Inuit would erect an inukshuk to compensate. Dog sled A dog sled (or dogsled) is a sled pulled by one or more dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. ... Sled dogs, known also as sleigh dogs, sledge dogs or sleddogs are a group of dogs that are used to pull a wheel-less vehicle on runners (a sled or sleigh) over snow or ice, by means of harnesses and lines. ... Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ... An inukshuk on the flag of Nunavut An inukshuk (Inuktitut: inuksuk / ᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ, plural inuksuit / ᐃᓄᒃᓱᐃᑦ) is a stone landmark used as a milestone or directional marker by the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic. ...


Dogs played an integral role in the annual routine of the Inuit. During the summer they became pack animals, sometimes dragging up to 20 kilos of baggage. In the winter they pulled the sled and yearlong they assisted with hunting by sniffing out seal's holes and pestering polar bears. They loyally protected the Inuit villages by barking at bears and strangers. The Inuit generally favoured and tried to breed the most striking and handsome of dogs, especially ones with bright eyes and a healthy coat. Common husky dog breeds used by the Inuit were the Canadian Eskimo Dog (Qimmiq; Inuktitut for dog), the Greenland Dog, the Siberian Husky and the Alaskan Malamute. When the dog was newborn, the Inuit would perform rituals on the dog to give the pup favourable qualities. Its legs were pulled to make it grow strong and its nose was poked with a pin to enhance its sense of smell. The Canadian Eskimo Dog, otherwise known as the Qimmiq, is a larger breed of Arctic dog commonly found pulling sleds fortheir Inuit counterparts. ... The Greenland Dog is a large breed of dog bred as a sled dog. ... The Siberian Husky is a medium-size, dense-coat working dog breed that originated in eastern Siberia, belonging to the Spitz genetic family. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Industry, art, and clothing

Igloo
Igloo

Inuit industry relied almost exclusively on animal hides, driftwood, and bones, although some tools were also made out of worked stones, particularly the readily-worked soapstone. Walrus ivory was a particularly essential material, used to make knives. Art is a big part of Inuit history. Small sculptures of animals and human figures were made out of ivory and bone usually depicting everyday activities such as hunting and whaling. From [1], PD image from NOAA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From [1], PD image from NOAA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ... Walrus tusk ivory comes from two modified upper canines. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ...


Inuit made clothes and footwear from animal skins, sewn together using needles made from animal bones and threads made from other animal products. The anorak (parka) is in essence made in a similar fashion by Arctic peoples from Europe through Asia and the Americas, including by the Inuit. In some groups of Inuit the hoods of women's parkas (amauti, plural amautiit) were traditionally made extra large, to protect the baby from the harsh wind when snuggled against the mother's back. Styles vary from region to region, from shape of the hood to length of the tails. Boots (kamik or mukluk) could be made of caribou or sealskin, and designs varied for men and women. Inuit parka. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Two young Inuit mothers wearing amautit The amauti (also amaut or amautik, plural amautiit) is the tradtional Inuit parka designed to carry a child in the same garment as the parent so that the child is warm and safe from frostbite, wind and cold. ... Mukluks or Kamik (singular: kamak) are a soft boot traditionally made of reindeer skin or sealskin and were originally worn by Arctic natives, including the Inuit and Yupik. ...


Certain Inuit also lived in temporary shelters made from snow in winter (the famous igloo), and during the few months of the year when temperatures were above freezing, they lived in tents made of animal skins and bones. Igloo An igloo (Inuit language: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᒡᓗ, house, plural: iglooit or igluit, but in English commonly igloos), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. ...


Gender roles, marriage, and community

Inuit woman, circa 1907
Inuit woman, circa 1907

The division of labour in traditional society had a strong gender component, but it was not absolute. The men were traditionally hunters and fishermen. The women took care of the children, cleaned huts, sewed, processed food, and cooked. However, there are numerous examples of women who hunted out of necessity or as a personal choice. At the same time men, who could be away from camp for several days, would be expected to know how to sew and cook. Download high resolution version (531x640, 50 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Inuit Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (531x640, 50 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Inuit Categories: U.S. history images ... Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. ...


The marital customs among the Inuit were not strictly monogamous: many Inuit relationships were implicitly or explicitly sexually open marriages; polygamy, divorce and remarriage were fairly common. Among some Inuit groups divorce required the approval of the community, if there were children, and particularly the agreement of the elders. Marriages were often arranged, sometimes in infancy, and occasionally forced on the couple by the community. Marriage was common for men when they became productive hunters, and for women at puberty. Family structure was flexible: a household might consist of a man and his wife or wives and children; it might include his parents or his wife's parents as well as adopted children; or it might be a larger formation of several siblings with their parents, wives and children; or even more than one family sharing dwellings and resources. Every household had its head, an elder or a particularly respected man. Faithfulness redirects here. ... Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as infidelity. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Forced marriage is a term used in the Occident to describe traditional arranged marriages in which one or more of the parties (usually the woman) is married without his/her consent or against his/her will. ...


There was also a larger notion of community, generally several families who shared a place where they wintered. Goods were shared within a household, and also to a significant extent within a whole community.


It is commonly mistakenly believed that the Inuit were nomadic, had no government, and had no conception of either private property or ownership of land. In fact they had very sophisticated concepts of private property and of land ownership that, as with their form of governance, was so drastically different than the Western concepts understood by European observers that the existence of such went entirely undocumented until well into the 20th century. [17] For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ...


Raiding

Nearly all Inuit cultures have oral traditions of raids by other indigenous peoples, including fellow Inuit, such as the Bloody Falls Massacre, and of taking vengeance on them in return. Typically Western observers regarded these tales as generally not entirely accurate historical accounts, but more as self-serving myths. But evidence shows that Inuit cultures had very accurate methods of teaching historical accounts to each new generation.[18] Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The Massacre at Bloody Falls was an incident that took place during Samuel Hearnes exploration of the Coppermine River in 1771. ...


The historic account of violence against outsiders does make clear that there was a history of hostile contact within the Inuit cultures and with other cultures. It also makes it very clear that Inuit nations existed, and at times confederations of those nations too. The known confederations were usually formed for defensive purposes, generally to defend against a very prosperous, and thus very strong, nation. Alternately, people who lived in less productive geographical areas tended to be less warlike, having to spend more time producing food.


Justice with Inuit cultures was moderated by the form of governance that gave significant power to the elders in such decisions. But even then, as in most cultures around the world, it could be harsh and often included capital punishment for serious crimes against the community or even against an individual. It is also noted that during raids the inuit tended to be merciless. [19]


Suicide, murder, and death

There is a pervasive belief that the Inuit left their elderly on the ice to die. This is not generally true. In a culture with an oral history, elders are the keepers of communal knowledge. They are the community library, and would no more likely be sacrificed than a modern town today would be likely to burn their books. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


However, when food is not sufficient, there is little doubt that the elderly are the least likely to survive. It is also true that in an extreme case of famine, when people are in fact dying from lack of food, the Inuit fully understood that a hunter was necessarily the one to feed on whatever food was left if there was to be any hope of obtaining more food.


However, a common response to desperate conditions and the threat of starvation was infanticide, which did sometimes entail abandoning an infant in hopes that someone less desperate might find and adopt him or her before the cold or the wildlife finished him or her off. All Inuit tribes practiced some form of infanticide. In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Child abandonment is the practice of abandoning offspring outside of legal adoption. ...


It was long presumed by anthropologists that Inuit cultures routinely killed children born with physical defects. The type of presumption has been based mostly on theorizing by people educated in Western cultures about how an Inuit culture could survive and function, and had very little to do with science or archaeology. However, in the 1980s an unusual discovery was made in Barrow, Alaska.


A storm with high winds caused ocean waves to erode part of the bluffs at the edge of town, and a body was discovered to have been washed out of the mud. Unfortunately the storm claimed the body, which was not recovered. But examination of the eroded bank indicated that an ancient house, perhaps with other remains, was likely to be claimed by the next storm. The site was excavated. Several frozen bodies were recovered, autopsies were performed, and they were interred as the first burials in the then new cemetery south of Barrow.


While the entire story is of great value, the significant part to recount here is that one body was that of a female child, age approximately 9 years, who clearly had been born with a congenital birth defect. This child had never been able to walk, and had been cared for by family for her entire life. That body dated at about 1200 AD, and indicates that, just as Inuit culture treasured their elders, they also treasure even crippled female children.


During the 19th century, the Western Arctic suffered a population decline of close to 90% of their population resulting from foreign diseases including tuberculosis, measles, influenza, and smallpox. Autopsies near Greenland reveal that, more commonly pneumonia, kidney diseases, trichinosis, malnutrition, and degenerative disorders may have contributed to mass deaths among different Inuit tribes. The Inuit believed that the cause of the disease came from a spiritual origin, and cures were said to be possible through confession. (Information from "Inuit: Glimpses of an Arctic Past" by Morrison and Germain) This article is about human pneumonia. ... Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ...


Traditional law

Inuit traditional laws are anthropologically different to Western law concepts. 'Customary law' was thought nonexistent in Inuit society before the introduction of the Canadian legal system. Hoebel, in 1954, concluded that only 'rudimentary law' existed amongst the Inuit.


Indeed, prior to about 1970 it is impossible to find even one reference to a Western observer who was aware that any form of governance existed among any Inuit people. [17]

  • maligait refers to what has to be followed
  • piqujait refers to what has to be done
  • tirigusuusiit refers to what has to be not done

If someone's action went against the tirigusuusiit, maligait or piqujait, the angakkuq might have to intervene, lest the consequences be dire to the individual or the community.[20] The intellectual and spiritual figure among Inuk peoples (formally known as Eskimoes) was termed Angakkuq, and corresponds to a shaman mediator among some family lineages. ...

We are told today that Inuit never had laws or “maligait”. Why? They say because they are not written on paper. When I think of paper, I think you can tear it up, and the laws are gone. The laws of the Inuit are not on paper.
--Mariano Aupilaarjuk, Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, "Perspectives on Traditional Law"
[21]

Traditional beliefs

See also: Inuit mythology and Shamanism among Eskimo peoples
Some Inuit believed that the spirits of their ancestors could be seen in the northern lights
Some Inuit believed that the spirits of their ancestors could be seen in the northern lights

The Inuit people inhabit the land stretching from southeast Alaska to Greenland, an environment that heavily influenced a mythology filled with adventure tales of whale and walrus hunts. Long winter months of waiting for caribou herds or sitting near breathing holes hunting seals gave birth to stories of mysterious and sudden appearance of ghosts and fantastic creatures. Some Inuit looked into the aurora borealis, or northern lights, to find images of their family and friends dancing in the next life, and they relied upon the angakkuq (shaman), while the nearest thing to a central deity was the Old Woman (Sedna), who lived beneath the sea. The waters, a central food source, were believed to contain great gods. Inuit mythology has many similarities to the religions of other polar regions. ... Yupik shaman exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy. ... This photograph of the Aurora Borealis or the Northern lights came from the GIMP photo library This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This photograph of the Aurora Borealis or the Northern lights came from the GIMP photo library This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Aurora Borealis as seen over Canada at 11,000m (36,000 feet) Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks, Alaska Aurora Borealis redirects here. ... The intellectual and spiritual figure among Inuk peoples (formally known as Eskimoes) was termed Angakkuq, and corresponds to a shaman mediator among some family lineages. ... In Inuit mythology, Sedna (Inuktitut Sanna, ᓴᓐᓇ) is a sea goddess and mistress of the animals, especially mammals such as seals, of the ocean. ...


The Inuit practiced a form of shamanism based on animist principles. They believed that all things had a form of spirit, just like humans, and that to some extent these spirits could be influenced by a pantheon of supernatural entities that could be appeased when one required some animal or inanimate thing to act in a certain way. The angakkuq of a community of Inuit was not the leader, but rather a sort of healer and psychotherapist, who tended wounds and offered advice, as well as invoking the spirits to assist people in their lives. His or her role was to see, interpret and exhort the subtle and unseen. Angakkuqs were not trained, they were held to be born with the ability. This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... The intellectual and spiritual figure among Inuk peoples (formally known as Eskimoes) was termed Angakkuq, and corresponds to a shaman mediator among some family lineages. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ...


Inuit religion was closely tied to a system of rituals that were integrated into the daily life of the people. These rituals were simple but held to be necessary. According to a customary Inuit saying, "The great peril of our existence lies in the fact that our diet consists entirely of souls." By believing that all things, including animals, have souls like those of humans, any hunt that failed to show appropriate respect and customary supplication would only give the liberated spirits cause to avenge themselves.


The harshness and randomness of life in the Arctic ensured that Inuit lived with concern for the uncontrollable, where a streak of bad luck could destroy an entire community. To offend a spirit was to risk its interference with an already marginal existence. The Inuit understand that they work in harmony with supernatural powers to provide the necessities of day-to-day survival.


Since the arrival of Europeans

Canada

The lives of Paleo-Eskimos of the far north were largely unaffected by the arrival of visiting Norsemen except for mutual trade (McGhee 1992:194). Labrador Eskimo have had the longest continuous contact with Europeans (Kleivan 1966:9). After the disappearance of the Norse colonies in Greenland, the Inuit had no contact with Europeans for at least a century. By the mid 16th century, Basque fishermen were already working the Labrador coast and had established whaling stations on land, such as been excavated at Red Bay. The Inuit appear not to have interfered with their operations, but they raided the stations in winter for tools, and particularly worked iron, which they adapted to native needs. Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... Red Bay (, NST) is a fishing village and former site of a Basque whaling station on the southern coast of Labrador in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ...


Martin Frobisher's 1576 search for the Northwest Passage was the first well-documented post-Columbian contact between Europeans and Inuit. Frobisher's expedition landed on Baffin Island, not far from the town now called Iqaluit, but long known as Frobisher Bay. This first contact went poorly. Martin Frobisher, attempting to find the Northwest Passage, encountered Inuit on Resolution Island. Five sailors jumped ship and became part of Inuit mythology. The homesick sailors, tired of their adventure, attempted to leave in a small vessel and vanished. Frobisher brought an unwilling Inuk to England, doubtless the first Inuk ever to visit Europe. The Inuit oral tradition, in contrast, recounts the natives helping Frobisher's crewmen, whom they believed had been abandoned. Martin Frobisher by Cornelis Ketel. ... For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Coordinates: , Settled 1942 City status April 19, 2001 Government  - Type Iqaluit Municipal Council  - Mayor Elisapee Sheutiapik Area [1]  - City 52. ... Resolution Island, Nunavut (red circle at edge of map). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The semi-nomadic eco-centred Inuit were fishers and hunters harvesting lakes, seas, ice platforms and tundra. While there are some allegations that Inuit were hostile to early French and English explorers, fishers and whalers, more recent research suggests that the early relations with whaling stations along the Labrador coast and later James Bay were based on a mutual interest in trade (Mitchell 1996:49-62). In the final years of the 18th century, the Moravian Church began missionary activities in Labrador, supported by the British who were tired of the raids on their whaling stations. The Moravian missionaries could easily provide the Inuit with the iron and basic materials they had been stealing from whaling outposts, materials whose real cost to Europeans was almost nothing, but whose value to the Inuit was enormous and from then on contacts in Labrador were far more peaceful. James Bay in summer 2000 James Bay (French, Baie James) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ...

Hudson's Bay Company Ships bartering with Inuit off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait, 1819
Hudson's Bay Company Ships bartering with Inuit off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait, 1819

The European arrival tremendously damaged the Inuit way of life, causing mass death through new diseases introduced by whalers and explorers, and enormous social disruptions caused by the distorting effect of Europeans' material wealth. Nonetheless, Inuit society in the higher latitudes had largely persisted in isolation in the 19th century. The Hudson's Bay Company opened trading posts such as Great Whale River (1820), today the site of the twin villages of Whapmagoostui and Kuujjuarapik, where whale products of the commercial whale hunt were processed and furs traded. The British Naval Expedition (1821-3) led by Admiral William Edward Parry, which twice over wintered in Foxe Basin, provided the first informed, sympathetic and well-documented account of the economic, social and religious life of the Inuit. Parry stayed in what is now Igloolik over the second winter. Parry's writings with pen and ink illustrations of Inuit everyday life (1824) and those of Lyon (1824) were widely read (D'Anglure 2002:205). Captain Comer's Inuit wife Shoofly known for her sewing skills and elegant attire (Driscoll 1980:6) was influential in convincing him to acquire more sewing accessories and beads for trade with Inuit. A few traders and missionaries circulated among the more accessible bands, and after 1904 they were accompanied by a handful of policemen. Unlike most Aboriginal peoples in Canada, however, the lands occupied by the Inuit were of little interest to European settlers-- to the southerners, the homeland of the Inuit was a hostile hinterland. Southerners enjoyed lucrative careers as bureaucrats and service providers in the north, but very few southerners chose to retire there. In the early years of the 20th century, Canada, with its more hospitable lands largely settled, began to take a greater interest in its more peripheral territories, especially the fur and mineral rich hinterlands. By the late 1920s, there were no longer any Inuit who had not been contacted by traders, missionaries or government agents. In 1939, the Supreme Court of Canada found in Re Eskimos that the Inuit should be considered Indians and were thus under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... Whapmagoostui (place of the beluga in Cree) is a Cree village of about 700 people at the mouth of the Grande-Baleine River, on the coast of Hudson Bay in Nunavik, Quebec. ... Kuujjuarapik (small great river in Inuktitut) is the southern most Inuit village at the mouth of the Grande Rivière de la Baleine (Great Whale River) on the coast of Hudson Bay in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada (55°16′N 77°45′W). ... William Edward Parry Sir William Edward Parry (December 19, 1790 – 8 or 9 July 1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer. ... Foxe Basin, Nunavut, Canada. ... Igloolik, sometimes spelled Iglulik, is a community in Nunavut, northern Canada. ... Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... The meaning of hinterland and its history. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Holding For the purposes of section 91(24) of the British North America Act, 1867, the Inuit are Indians. ...


Native customs were worn down by the actions of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, who enforced Canadian criminal law on Inuit who often could not understand what they had done wrong, and by missionaries who preached a moral code very different from the one they were used to. Many of the Inuit were systematically converted to Christianity in the 19th and 20th centuries, through rituals like the Siqqitiq. RCMP redirects here. ... Criminal law in Canada is under the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal government. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Siqqitiq (meaning transforming ones life, more specifically adopting Christianity) is the ritual of converting Inuits with shamanist beliefs to Christianity. ...


World War II and the Cold War made Arctic Canada strategically important for the first time and, thanks to the development of modern aircraft, accessible year-round. The construction of air bases and radar stations in the 1940s and 50s brought more intensive contacts with European society, particularly in the form of public education, which instilled and enforced foreign values disdainful of the traditional structure of Inuit society. By 1953, Canada's prime minister Louis St. Laurent publicly admitted, "Apparently we have administered the vast territories of the north in an almost continuing absence of mind." (Parker 1996:32) The government began to establish about forty permanent administrative centres to provide education, health and economic development services for Inuit (Parker 1996:32). Inuit from hundreds of smaller camps scattered across the north, began to congregate in these hamlets (Mitchell 1996:118). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Louis Stephen St. ...


Furthermore, regular visits from doctors and access to modern medical care raised the birth rate enormously. Before long, the Inuit population was beyond what traditional hunting and fishing could support. By the mid-1960s, encouraged first by missionaries, then by the prospect of paid jobs and government services, and finally forced by hunger and required by police, all Canadian Inuit lived year-round in permanent settlements. The nomadic migrations that were the central feature of Arctic life had for the most part disappeared. The Inuit, a once self-sufficient people in an extremely harsh environment, were in the span of perhaps two generations transformed into a small, impoverished minority lacking skills or resources to sell to the larger economy, but increasingly dependent on it for survival.


Although anthropologists like Diamond Jenness (1964) were quick to predict that Inuit culture was facing extinction, Inuit political activism was already emerging. Diamond Jenness (February 10, 1886 - November 29, 1969) was a Canadian anthropologist. ...


In the 1960s, the Canadian government funded the establishment of secular, government-operated high schools in the Northwest Territories (including what is now Nunavut) and Inuit areas in Quebec and Labrador along with the residential school system. The Inuit population was not large enough to support a full high school in every community, so this meant only a few schools were built, and students from across the territories were boarded there. These schools, in Aklavik, Iqaluit, Yellowknife, Inuvik and Kuujjuaq, brought together young Inuit from across the Arctic in one place for the first time, and exposed them to the rhetoric of civil and human rights that prevailed in Canada in the 1960s. This was a real wake-up call for Inuit, and it stimulated the emergence of a new generation of young Inuit activists in the late 1960s who came forward and pushed for respect for the Inuit and their territories. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... St. ... Aklavik (Barren-ground grizzly place) is a community located 68°13 North latitude and 135°00 West longitude in the territory of Northwest Territories, Canada, with a population of 748 as of the 2000 census. ... Coordinates: , Settled 1942 City status April 19, 2001 Government  - Type Iqaluit Municipal Council  - Mayor Elisapee Sheutiapik Area [1]  - City 52. ... Motto: Multum In Parvo (Much In Little) Coordinates: Country Canada Territory Northwest Territories Region North Slave Region Established 1936/1937 Government  - City Mayor Gordon Van Tighem  - Governing Body Consensus government  - Legislature List of Yellowknife MPs and MLAs Area  - City 105. ... Inuvik, formerly Inuvvik (place of man), is a town in the Northwest Territories of Canada and is the administrative centre for the Inuvik Region. ... Kuujjuaq (Inuktitut: Great River) is the largest Inuit village in Nunavik, Québec, Canada with a population of 2,132 as of the 2006 census. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The Inuit began to emerge as a political force in the late 1960s and early 1970s, shortly after the first graduates returned home. They formed new politically active associations in the early 1970s, starting with the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami in 1971, and more region specific organisations shortly afterwards, including the Northern Quebec Inuit Association (Makivik Corporation) and the Labrador Inuit Association. These activist movements began to change the direction of Inuit society in 1975 with the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. This comprehensive land claims settlement for Quebec Inuit, along with a large cash settlement and substantial administrative autonomy in the new region of Nunavik, set the precedent for the settlements to follow. The Labrador Inuit submitted their land claim in 1977, although they had to wait until 2005 to have a signed land settlement establishing Nunatsiavut. The Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ) is an organization in Canada that represents over 40,000 Inuit. ... The Makivik Corporation (Inuktitut: Makivik Kuapuriisat - ᒪᑭᕕᒃ ᑯᐊᐳᕇᓴᑦ) is the legal representative of Quebecs Inuit people, established in 1978 under the terms of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, the agreement that established the institutions of Nunavik. ... The James Bay And Northern Quebec Agreement was Canadas first modern Aboriginal land claim settlement, approved in 1975 by the Cree and Inuit of northern Quebec, and later slightly modified in 1978 by the Northeastern Quebec Agreement, through which Quebecs Naskapi Indians joined the treaty. ... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ...


In 1982, the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut (TFN) was incorporated, in order to take over negotiations for land claims on behalf of the Northwest Territories Inuit from the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, which became a joint association of the Inuit of Quebec, Labrador and the Northwest Territories. The Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut (TFN, Inuktitut: Nunavut Tunngavik; Syllabics: ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᑐᙵᕕᒃ) was the organization officially recognized from 1982 to 1993 as representing the Inuit of what is now Nunavut, but was then part of the Northwest Territories, for the purpose of negotiating treaties and land claims settlements. ... Aboriginal land claims are claims of Native or Aboriginal peoples (also referred to as Indigenous peoples) about their ownership of land before the arrival of settlers, primarily Europeans. ... The Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ) is an organization in Canada that represents over 40,000 Inuit. ...


The TFN worked for ten years and, in September 1992, came to a final agreement with the government of Canada. This agreement called for the separation of the Northwest Territories into an eastern territory whose aboriginal population would be predominately Inuit,[22] the future Nunavut, and a rump Northwest Territories in the west. It was the largest land claims agreement in Canadian history. In November 1992, the Nunavut Final Agreement was approved by nearly 85 percent of the Inuit of what would become Nunavut. As the final step in this long process, the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement was signed on May 25, 1993 in Iqaluit by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and by Paul Quassa, the president of Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, which replaced the TFN with the ratification of the Nunavut Final Agreement. The Canadian Parliament passed the supporting legislation in June of the same year, enabling the 1999 establishment of Nunavut as a territorial entity. For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Land claims are a legal declaration of desired control over areas of property including bodies of water. ... The Nunavut Land Claim Agreement is a 1993 land claims agreement between the Inuit of the Nunavut Settlement Area (then part of the Northwest Territories) and the Government of Canada subject to the Constitution Act of 1982. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Coordinates: , Settled 1942 City status April 19, 2001 Government  - Type Iqaluit Municipal Council  - Mayor Elisapee Sheutiapik Area [1]  - City 52. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated (NTI; Inuktitut: Nunavut Tunngavik; Syllabics: ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᑐᙵᕕᒃ) is the legal representative of the Inuit of Nunavut for the purposes of native treaty rights and treaty negotiation. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ...


The Inuvialuit are western Canadian Inuit who remained in the Northwest Territories when Nunavut split off. They live primarily in the Mackenzie River delta, on Banks Island, and in parts of Victoria Island in the Northwest Territories. They are officially represented by the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation and received a comprehensive land claims settlement in 1984, with the signing of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement. The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ... For other uses, see Mackenzie River (disambiguation). ... Banks Island, Northwest Territories. ...


With the establishment of Nunatsiavut in 2005, all the traditional Inuit lands in Canada are now covered by some sort of land claims agreement providing for regional autonomy. Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ...


Inuit communities in Canada continue to suffer under crushing unemployment, overcrowded housing, substance abuse, crime, violence and suicide. The problems Inuit face in the 21st century should not be underestimated. However, many Inuit are upbeat about the future. Arguably, their situation is better than it has been since the 14th century. Inuit arts, carving, print making, textiles and throat singing, are very popular, not only in Canada but globally, and Inuit artists are widely known. Indeed, Canada has, metaphorically, adopted some of the Inuit culture as a sort of national identity, using Inuit symbols like the inukshuk in unlikely places, such as its use as a symbol in the upcoming 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Respected art galleries display Inuit art, the largest collection of which is at the Winnipeg Art Gallery. Some Inuit languages such as Inuktitut, appears to have a more secure future in Quebec and Nunavut. There are a surprising number of Inuit, even those who now live in urban centres such as Ottawa, Montreal and Winnipeg, who have experienced living on the land in the traditional life style. People such as Legislative Assembly of Nunavut member, Levinia Brown (b. 1947) and former Commissioner of Nunavut and the NWT, Helen Maksagak (b. 1931) were born and lived the early part of their life "on the land". Inuit culture is alive and vibrant today in spite of the negative impacts of recent history. // Around 4000 BC nomads crossed over the Bering Strait from Siberia into the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and Newfoundland. ... Inuit throat singing or katajjaq, also known (and commonly confused) under the generic term overtone singing, is a form of musical performance among the Inuit. ... An inukshuk on the flag of Nunavut An inukshuk (Inuktitut: inuksuk / ᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ, plural inuksuit / ᐃᓄᒃᓱᐃᑦ) is a stone landmark used as a milestone or directional marker by the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic. ... Wikinews has related news: Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, are the next winter Olympics and will take place in 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... The Winnipeg Art Gallery (WAG) is a public art gallery that been Involving People in the Visual Arts since 1912. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... For other uses, see Winnipeg (disambiguation). ... The Legislative Assembly of Nunavut is located in Iqaluit. ... Levinia Brown was born in 1947 at Dawson Inlet, south of Whale Cove, Nunavut, Canada. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Commissioners of the Northwest Territories since 1905. ... Helen Maksagak was Commissioner of the Northwest Territories (Canada) from January 16, 1995 to March 26, 1999. ...


Greenland

See also: History of Greenland

The Thule people arrived in Greenland in the 13th century. There they encountered the Norsemen, who had established colonies there since the late 10th century, as well as a later wave of the Dorset people. Hunting and whaling have always been important ways to make a living on Greenland. ... The Thule were the ancestors of all modern Canadian Inuit. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ...


Alaska

See also: List of Alaska Native Tribal Entities

The Inuit people of Alaska are known as the Inupiat. This is a list of Alaska Native Tribal Entities which are recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. ... The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ...


International issues

In recent years, circumpolar cultural and political groups like the Inuit Circumpolar Conference have come together to promote the Inuit and other northern people and to fight against ecological problems, such as global warming, which disproportionately affects the Inuit population. Global warming may cause Arctic mammal populations to decline. However, a recent study by Mitch Taylor shows that, contrary to the dire predictions, eleven of thirteen polar bear populations have remained stable or increased. The study also shows that the number of polar bears in western Hudson Bay is decreasing due to the effect of global warming, while the decrease of the population in Baffin Bay is directly associated with the over hunting of the bears by Greenland hunters.[23][24] Inuit Circumpolar Conference or ICC, is an multinational nongovernmental organization representing 150,000 Inuit, living in Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and the Yukon Territory), the United States (Alaska), Greenland, and on the Russian peninsula of Chukotka. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Baffin Bay, lying between Nunavut, Canada and Greenland. ...


Modern culture

Well-known Inuit politicians include Premier of Nunavut, Paul Okalik, and Nancy Karetak-Lindell, MP for the riding of Nunavut. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Nain is the northernmost town of any size in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, located about 230 miles by air from Happy Valley-Goose Bay. ... ΘιɵΝΝΝ Paul Okalik, current premier of Nunavut The Premier of Nunavut is the first minister for the Canadian territory of Nunavut. ... Paul Okalik Hon. ... Nancy Karetak-Lindell (born December 10, 1957 in Arviat, Nunavut [then Northwest Territories ]) is a Canadian politician. ... Nunavut is a federal electoral district in Nunavut, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1997. ...


An important biennial event, the Arctic Winter Games, is held in communities across the northern regions of the world, featuring traditional Inuit and northern sports as part of the events. A cultural event is also held. The games were first held in 1970, and while rotated usually among Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories, they have also been held in Schefferville, Quebec in 1976, in Slave Lake, Alberta, and a joint Iqaluit, Nunavut-Nuuk, Greenland staging in 2002. In other sporting events, Jordin Tootoo became the first Inuk to play in the National Hockey League in the 2003-04 season, playing for the Nashville Predators. The Arctic Winter Games is an international biennial celebration of circumpolar sports and culture. ... Schefferville is a town in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Slave Lake is a town in northern Alberta located at the South-east end of Lesser Slave Lake at the junction of Highway 2 and Highway 88. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... A panoramic photo of Nuuk taken in October 2006 Location of the Nuuk municipality in Greenland Nuuk (The Cape in Greenlandic) (Danish: Godthåb, which translates to Good Hope in English, and was the name of the ship which brought the settlers) is the capital and largest city of the... Jordin Kudluk Tootoo (Inuktitut syllabics: ᔪᐊᑕᓐ ᑐᑐ; born February 2, 1983 in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada) is a professional ice hockey player. ... NHL redirects here. ... The Nashville Predators are a professional ice hockey team based in Nashville, Tennessee. ...


Although Inuit life has changed significantly over the past century, many traditions continue. Traditional storytelling, mythology, and dancing remain important parts of the culture. Family and community are very important. The Inuktitut language is still spoken in many areas of the Arctic and is common on radio and in television programming.


Visual and performing arts are strong. In 2002 the first feature film in Inuktitut, Atanarjuat, was released worldwide to great critical and popular acclaim. It was directed by Zacharias Kunuk, and written, filmed, produced, directed, and acted almost entirely by Inuit of Igloolik. One of the most famous Inuit artists is Pitseolak Ashoona. Susan Aglukark is a popular singer. Mitiarjuk Attasie Nappaaluk works at preserving Inuktitut and has written the first novel published in that language.[25] In 2006, Cape Dorset was hailed as Canada's most artistic city, with 23% of the labour force employed in the arts.[26] Inuit art such as soapstone carvings is one of Nunavut's most important industries. A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... Atanarjuat (or The Fast Runner) is a Canadian film, released in 2001. ... Zacharias Kunuk (born 1957) is a Canadian Inuit producer and director most notable for his film Atanarjuat, the first Canadian dramatic feature film produced completely in Inuktitut. ... Pitseolak Ashoona, CM (1904 or 1907 - 1983;Inuktitut syllabics:ᐱᑦᓯᐅᓛᖅ ᐊᓲᓇ) was an Inuit Canadian artist admired for the unpretentious authenticity in her works. ... Susan Aglukark (Inuktitut syllabics: ᓲᓴᓐ ᐊᒡᓘᒃᑲᖅ), born January 27, 1967, is a Canadian singer-songwriter whose blend of Inuit folk music traditions with pop songwriting has made her a major recording star in Canada. ... Part of the town, taken in September 2005 Cape Dorset (Inuktitut: Kinngait; Syllabics: ᑭᙵᐃᑦ) is located on Baffin Island in Nunavut, Canada, and is served by Cape Dorset Airport. ... The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ...


Recently, there has been an identity struggle among the younger generations of Inuit tribes between their traditional heritage and the modern society which their cultures have been forced to assimilate into in order to maintain a livelihood. With current dependence on modern society for necessities, (including governmental jobs, food, aid, medicine, etc), the Inuit people have had much interaction with and exposure to the societal norms outside their previous cultural boundaries. The stressors regarding the identity crisis among teenagers have led to disturbingly high numbers of suicide. The cases are so frequent that unfortunately suicide has become a sort of cultural norm.[citation needed] Erik Erikson, the psychologist who coined the term identity crisis, believes that the identity crisis is the most important conflict human beings encounter when they go through eight developmental stages in life. ... See also norm (sociology). ...


A series of authors has focused upon increasing myopia in the youngest generations of Inuit. Myopia was almost unknown prior to the Inuit adoption of western culture. This phenomenon is also seen in other cultures (for example, Vanuatu). Principal theories are the change to a less nutritious western style diet, and exposure to over-illumination in intense early grade education.[27] Normal vision. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ...


Economy today

Today, Inuit work in all sectors of the economy, including mining, oil and gas, construction, government and administrative services. Many Inuit still supplement their income through hunting. Tourism is a growing industry in the Inuit economy. Inuit guides take tourists on dogsled and hunting expeditions, and work with outfitting organizations. About 30 percent of Inuit derive part-time income from their sculpture, carving and print making.


The settlement of land claims in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Northern Quebec has given the Inuit money and a framework to develop and expand economic development activities. New emerging businesses include real estate, tourism, airlines and offshore fisheries.


See also

  • Caribou Inuit
  • Netsilik Inuit
  • Nalukataq -- traditional blanket toss celebrations

The Netsilik Inuit (Netsilingmiut) live predominately in the communities of Kugaaruk and Gjoa Haven of the Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut and to a smaller extent in Taloyoak and the north Qikiqtaaluk Region. ... Nalukataq is the spring whaling festival of the Inupiaq Eskimos of Northern Alaska, and is characterized most famously by the Eskimo blanket toss. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Hunters of the Arctic. bambusspiele.de. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
  2. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition
  3. ^ Setting the Record Straight About Native Languages: What Does "Eskimo" Mean In Cree?
  4. ^ a b Kaplan, Lawrence. (2002). "Inuit or Eskimo: Which names to use?". Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  5. ^ Inuit Circumpolar Conference. (2006). "Charter." Inuit Circumpolar Conference (Canada). Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  6. ^ Native Groups. civilization.ca. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
  7. ^ Project Naming, the identification of Inuit portrayed on photographic collections at Library and Archives Canada
  8. ^ Ívar Bárðarson
  9. ^ Kuhnlein, Harriet [1991]. "Chapter 4. Descriptions and Uses of Plant Foods by Indigenous Peoples", Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use (Food and Nutrition in History and Anthropology), 1st edition, Taylor and Francis, pp. 26-29. ISBN 978-2881244650. Retrieved on 2007-11-19. 
  10. ^ Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. Arctic Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-11-20. “Not included are the myriad of other species of plants and animals that Inuit use, such as geese, ducks, rabbits, ptarmigan, swans, halibut, clams, mussels, cod, berries and seaweed.”
  11. ^ Bennett, John; Rowley, Susan (2004). "Chapter 5. Gathering", Uqalurait: An Oral History of Nunavut. McGill-Queen's University Press, pp. 84-85. ISBN 978-0773523401. “...shorelines, Inuit gathered seaweed and shellfish. For some, these foods were a treat;...” 
  12. ^ kuanniq. Asuilaak Living Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  13. ^ Bennett, John; Rowley, Susan (2004). "Chapter 5. Gathering", Uqalurait: An Oral History of Nunavut. McGill-Queen's University Press, pp. 78-85. ISBN 978-0773523401. 
  14. ^ Lieb et al. (1926). "The Effects of an Exclusive Long-Continued Meat Diet." JAMA, July 3, 1926
  15. ^ Fediuk, Karen. 2000 Vitamin C in the Inuit diet: past and present. MA Thesis, School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University 5-7; 95. Retrieved on: December 8, 2007.
  16. ^ qajaq. Asuilaak Living Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  17. ^ a b Tirigusuusiit, Piqujait and Maligait: Inuit Perspectives on Traditional Law. Nunavut Arctic College. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  18. ^ Ernest S. Burch, Jr., PhD. From Skeptic to Believer.
  19. ^ War by Rachel Attituq Qitsualik
  20. ^ Tirigusuusiit and Maligait. Listening to our past. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  21. ^ Eileen, Travers (2003-01-01). When Survival Means Preserving Oral Traditions. voices-unabridged.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  22. ^ Aboriginal identity population in 2001
  23. ^ Articnet, (May 1, 2006) Toronto Star (Dr. Mitchell Taylor)
  24. ^ CBC News, Nunavut rethinks polar bear quotas as numbers drop, Last Updated: June 9, 2005
  25. ^ Northern resident helps bridge the gap between cultures
  26. ^ Cape Dorset named most 'artistic' municipality
  27. ^ Short-sightedness may be tied to refined diet

2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Native languages of Alaska, copyright © 1982 Alaska Native Language Center The Alaska Native Language Center was established by State of Alaska legislation in 1972 as a center for research and documentation of the twenty Native languages of Alaska. ... The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ) is an organization in Canada that represents over 40,000 Inuit. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The McGill-Queens University Press is a joint venture between McGill University in Montreal, Quebec and Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, two of the oldest and most prestigious universities in Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The McGill-Queens University Press is a joint venture between McGill University in Montreal, Quebec and Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, two of the oldest and most prestigious universities in Canada. ... JAMA is the acronym for the Journal of the American Medical Association, a leading medical journal. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Jean Briggs. Never in Anger. ISBN 0-674-60828-3
  • Ernest S. Burch Jr. The Eskimos
  • Gontran De Poncins (1941). Kabloona. ISBN 1-55597-249-7
  • Hans Ruesch. Top Of The World. ISBN 950-637-164-4 (Hebrew version)

Inside cover art of 1941 English edition. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Inuit
  • Aboriginal Perspectives View National Film Board of Canada films on Canada's Aboriginal Peoples.
  • Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Canada's National Inuit Organization
  • The Inuvialuit
  • CBC Digital Archives - An Inuit Education: Honouring a past, creating a future
  • A History of Aboriginal Treaties and Relations in Canada This site includes contextual materials, links to digitized primary sources and summaries of primary source documents.
  • Interviewing Inuit Elders / Perspectives on Traditional Law, an online glossary of terms related to Inuit culture.
  • Alaskool: Alaska Native Curriculum and Teacher Development Project
  • Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Environment Bulletin
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

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