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Encyclopedia > Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. It can be intermittent or continuous; continuous administration is called an intravenous drip. The word intravenous simply means "within a vein", but is most commonly used to refer to IV therapy. Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ...


Compared with other routes of administration, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body. Some medications, as well as blood transfusions and lethal injections, can only be given intravenously. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...

Contents

Intravenous access devices

Needle and syringe

The simplest form of intravenous access is a syringe with an attached hollow needle. The needle is inserted through the skin into a vein, and the contents of the syringe are injected through the needle into the bloodstream. This is most easily done with an arm vein, especially one of the metacarpal veins. Usually it is necessary to use a constricting band first to make the vein bulge; once the needle is in place, it is common to draw back slightly on the syringe to aspirate blood, thus verifying that the needle is really in a vein; then the constricting band is removed before injecting. A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ...


This is the most common method of intravenous drug use for euphoriants such as heroin, or in any case where a person must self-administer intravenous medication at home. It is also a convenient way to deliver life-saving medications in an emergency. However, in a controlled health-care setting, direct injection is rarely used since it only allows delivery of a single dose of medication. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


Peripheral IV lines

Peripheral IV in hand


This is the most common intravenous access method in both hospitals and pre-hospital services. A peripheral IV line consists of a short catheter (a few centimeters long) inserted through the skin into a peripheral vein, any vein that is not in the chest or abdomen. Arm and hand veins are typically used although leg and foot veins are occasionally used. Veins in the hands are the common site in emergency settings, commonly performed by paramedics and emergency physicians. On infants the scalp veins are sometimes used. Part of the catheter remains outside the skin is called the connecting hub, that can be connected to a syringe or an intravenous infusion line, or capped with a bung between treatments. Ported cannula have an injection port on the top that is often used to administer medicine. The caliber of cannulae is commonly indicated in gauge, with 14 being a very large cannula (used in resuscitation settings) and 24-26 the smallest. The most common sizes are 16-gauge (midsize line used for blood donation and transfusion), 18- and 20-gauge (all-purpose line for infusions and blood draws), and 22-gauge (all-purpose pediatric line). 12- and 14-gauge peripheral lines actually deliver equivalent volumes of fluid faster than central lines, accounting for their popularity in emergency medicine; these lines are frequently called "large bores" or "trauma lines". For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Emergency medical service (known by the acronym of EMS in the USA) is a branch of medicine that is performed in the field, pre-hospital, (i. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. ... Peripheral Veins are the veins that are the veins leading back towards the heart from the organs below the stomach and also from the muscles in the arms, hands, legs and feet. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... Diagram of an insect leg A leg is the part of an animals body that supports the rest of the animal above the ground and is used for locomotion. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... A jug with a cork bung. ... A cannula (pl. ... American wire gauge (AWG), also known as the Brown and Sharpe wire gauge, is used in the United States and other countries as a standard method of denoting wire diameter, especially for nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. ...


Blood can be drawn from a peripheral IV if necessary, but only if it is in a relatively large vein and only if the IV is newly inserted. Blood draws are typically taken with specialized IV access sets known as phlebotomy kits, and once the draw is complete, the needle is removed and the site is not used again. If a patient needs frequent venous access, the veins may scar and narrow, making any future access extremely difficult or impossible; this situation is known as a "blown vein," and the person attempting to obtain the access must find a new access site proximal to the "blown" area.


Originally, a peripheral IV was simply a needle that was taped in place and connected to tubing rather than to a syringe; this system is still used for blood donation sets, as the IV access will only be needed for a few minutes and the donor may not move while the needle is in place. Today, hospitals use a safer system in which the catheter is a flexible plastic tube that originally contains a needle to allow it to pierce the skin; the needle is then removed and discarded, while the soft catheter stays in the vein. This method is a variation of the Seldinger technique. The external portion of the catheter, which is usually taped in place or secured with a self-adhesive dressing, consists of an inch or so of flexible tubing and a locking hub. For centrally placed IV lines, sets and flushes contain a small amount of the anticoagulant heparin to keep the line from clotting off, and frequently are called "heparin locks" or "hep-locks". However, heparin is no longer recommended as a locking solution for peripheral IVs; saline is now the solution of choice for a "vac lock". The Seldinger technique is a medical procedure to obtain safe access to blood vessels and other hollow organs. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... In medicine, saline is a solution of sodium chloride (a substance also commonly known as table salt) in sterile water, used frequently for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, and nasal irrigation (or the yogic practice called jala neti). ...


A peripheral IV cannot be left in the vein indefinitely, because of the risk of insertion-site infection leading to phlebitis, cellulites and bacterias. The CDC updated their guidelines and now advise the cannula need to be replaced every 96 hours.CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Aug 2002. Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Retrieved on 2008-03-13. This was based on studies organised to identify causes of Methicilline Resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA infection in hospitals. In the United Kingdom, the UK Department of health published their finding about risk factors associated with increased MRSA infection, now include intravenous cannula, central venous catheters and urinary catheters as the main factors increasing the risk of spreading antibiotic resistant starin bacteria in hospitals. Phlebitis is an inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs. ... CDC is an abbreviation which can mean any of the following: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Communicable Disease Control Community of Democratic Choice, a group of nine Eastern-European states Change data capture, in data warehousing Clock Domain Crossing, or simply clock-crossing in computing Cedar City Regional Airport... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ... In medicine, a central venous catheter (CVC or central (venous) line) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck, chest, or groin. ...


Central IV lines

Central IV lines flow through a catheter with its tip within a large vein, usually the superior vena cava or inferior vena cava, or within the right atrium of the heart. This has several advantages over a peripheral IV: In medicine, a central venous catheter (CVC or central venous line) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck, chest or groin, this is inserted by a physician when the patient needs more intensive cardiovascular monitoring, for assessment of fluid status, and for increased viability of intravenous... In medicine, a central venous catheter (CVC or central venous line) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck, chest or groin, this is inserted by a physician when the patient needs more intensive cardiovascular monitoring, for assessment of fluid status, and for increased viability of intravenous... Superior vena cava - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ...

  • It can deliver fluids and medications that would be overly irritating to peripheral veins because of their concentration or chemical composition. These include some chemotherapy drugs and total parenteral nutrition.
  • Medications reach the heart immediately, and are quickly distributed to the rest of the body.
  • There is room for multiple parallel compartments (lumen) within the catheter, so that multiple medications can be delivered at once even if they would not be chemically compatible within a single tube.
  • Caregivers can measure central venous pressure and other physiological variables through the line.

Central IV lines carry risks of bleeding, bacterias, and gas embolism (see Risks below). Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the practice of feeding a person intravenously, circumventing the gut. ... Central venous pressure (CVP) describes the pressure of blood in the thoracic vena cava, near the right atrium of the heart. ... Description An air embolism, or more generally gas embolism, is a medical condition caused by gas bubbles in the bloodstream. ...


There are several types of central IVs, depending on the route that the catheter takes from the outside of the body to the vein.


Peripherally inserted central catheter

PICC lines are used when intravenous access is required over a prolonged period of time, as in the case of long chemotherapy regimens, extended antibiotic therapy, or total parenteral nutrition. A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC or PICC line) is a form of intravenous access that can be used for a prolonged period of time, e. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the practice of feeding a person intravenously, circumventing the gut. ...


The PICC line is inserted into a peripheral vein using the Seldinger technique under ultrasound guidance, usually in the arm, and then carefully advanced upward until the catheter is in the superior vena cava or the right atrium. This is usually done by feel and estimation; an X-ray then verifies that the tip is in the right place. The Seldinger technique is a medical procedure to obtain safe access to blood vessels and other hollow organs. ...


A PICC may have two parallel compartments, each with its own external connector (double-lumen), or a single tube and connector (single-lumen). From the outside, a single-lumen PICC resembles a peripheral IV, except that the tubing is slightly wider.


The insertion site must be covered by a larger sterile dressing than would be required for a peripheral IV, due to the higher risk of infection if bacteria travel up the catheter. However, a PICC poses less of a systemic infection risk than other central IVs, because bacteria would have to travel up the entire length of the narrow catheter before spreading through the bloodstream.


The chief advantage of a PICC over other types of central lines is that it is easy to insert, poses a relatively low risk of bleeding, is externally unobtrusive, and can be left in place for months to years for patients who require extended treatment. The chief disadvantage is that it must travel through a relatively small peripheral vein and is therefore limited in diameter, and also somewhat vulnerable to occlusion or damage from movement or squeezing of the arm.


Central venous lines

There are several types of catheters that take a more direct route into central veins. These are collectively called central venous lines. In medicine, a central venous catheter (CVC or central venous line) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck, chest or groin, this is inserted by a physician when the patient needs more intensive cardiovascular monitoring, for assessment of fluid status, and for increased viability of intravenous...


In the simplest type of central venous access, a catheter is inserted into a subclavian, internal jugular, or (less commonly) a femoral vein and advanced toward the heart until it reaches the superior vena cava or right atrium. Because all of these veins are larger than peripheral veins, central lines can deliver a higher volume of fluid and can have multiple lumens. The subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. ... The internal jugular vein collects the blood from the brain, from the superficial parts of the face, and from the neck. ... Grays Fig. ...


Another type of central line, called a Hickman line or Broviac catheter, is inserted into the target vein and then "tunneled" under the skin to emerge a short distance away. This reduces the risk of infection, since bacteria from the skin surface are not able to travel directly into the vein; these catheters are also made of materials that resist infection and clotting. A Hickman line in a leukemia patient. ...


Implantable ports

A port (often referred to by brand names such as Port-a-Cath or MediPort) is a central venous line that does not have an external connector; instead, it has a small reservoir that is covered with silicone rubber and is implanted under the skin. Medication is administered intermittently by placing a small needle through the skin, piercing the silicone, into the reservoir. When the needle is withdrawn the reservoir cover reseals itself. The cover can accept hundreds of needle sticks during its lifetime. It is possible to leave the ports in the patient's body for years, if this is done however, the port must be accessed monthly and flushed with an anti-coagulant, or the patient risks it getting plugged up. If it is plugged it becomes a hazard as a thrombosis will eventually form with an accompanying risk of embolisation. Removal of a port is usually a simple outpatient procedure, however installation is more complex and a good implant is fairly dependent on the skill of the Radiologist. Ports cause less inconvenience and have a lower risk of infection than PICCs, and are therefore commonly used for patients on long-term intermittent treatment. Port-a-Cath device. ...


Forms of intravenous therapy

Intravenous drip

An intravenous drip is the continuous infusion of fluids, with or without medications, through an IV access device. This may be to correct dehydration or an electrolyte imbalance, to deliver medications, or for blood transfusion. Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ...


IV fluids

There are two types of fluids that are used for intravenous drips; crystalloids and colloids. Crystalloids are aqueous solutions of mineral salts or other water-soluble molecules. Colloids contain larger insoluble molecules, such as gelatin; blood itself is a colloid. Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ...


The most commonly used crystalloid fluid is normal saline, a solution of sodium chloride at 0.9% concentration, which is close to the concentration in the blood (isotonic). Ringer's lactate or Ringer's acetate (ASERING, patented brandname of Otsuka Indonesia) is another isotonic solution often used for large-volume fluid replacement. A solution of 5% dextrose in water, sometimes called D5W, is often used instead if the patient is at risk for having low blood sugar or high sodium. The choice of fluids may also depend on the chemical properties of the medications being given. In medicine, saline is a solution of sodium chloride (a substance also commonly known as table salt) in sterile water, used frequently for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, and nasal irrigation (or the yogic practice called jala neti). ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For Isotonic muscle exercise, see Isometric exercise and Weight training. ... Lactated Ringers Solution is a solution that is isotonic with blood and intended for intravenous administration. ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ...


Intravenous fluids must always be sterile. Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ...

Composition of Common Crystalloid Solutions
Solution Other Name [Na+](mmol/L) [Cl-](mmol/L) [Glucose](mmol/L) [Glucose](mg/dl)
D5W 5% Dextrose 0 0 278 5000
2/3D & 1/3S 3.3% Dextrose / 0.3% saline 51 51 185 3333
Half-normal saline 0.45% NaCl 77 77 0 0
Normal saline 0.9% NaCl 154 154 0 0
Ringer's lactate Lactated Ringer 130 109 0 0

Ringer's lactate also has 28 mmol/L lactate, 4 mmol/L K+ and 3 mmol/L Ca2+. Ringer's acetate (ASERING) also has 28 mmol/L acetate, 4 mmol/L K+ and 3 mmol/L Ca2+. A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... In medicine saline is a solution of sodium chloride in water. ... Lactated Ringers Solution is a solution that is isotonic with blood and intended for intravenous administration. ...

Effect of Adding One Litre
Solution Change in ECF Change in ICF
D5W 333 mL 667 mL
2/3D & 1/3S 556 mL 444 mL
Half-normal saline 667 mL 333 mL
Normal saline 1000 mL 0 mL
Ringer's lactate 900 mL 100 mL

In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ... The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. ... In medicine saline is a solution of sodium chloride in water. ...

Infusion equipment

A standard IV infusion set consists of a pre-filled, sterile container (glass bottle, plastic bottle or plastic bag) of fluids with an attached drip chamber which allows the fluid to flow one drop at a time, making it easy to see the flow rate (and also reducing air bubbles); a long sterile tube with a clamp to regulate or stop the flow; a connector to attach to the access device; and connectors to allow "piggybacking" of another infusion set onto the same line, e.g., adding a dose of antibiotics to a continuous fluid drip. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


An infusion pump allows precise control over the flow rate and total amount delivered, but in cases where a change in the flow rate would not have serious consequences, or if pumps are not available, the drip is often left to flow simply by placing the bag above the level of the patient and using the clamp to regulate the rate; this is a gravity drip. An infusion pump or perfusor infuses fluids, medication or nutrients into a patients circulatory system. ...


A rapid infuser can be used if the patient requires a high flow rate and the IV access device is of a large enough diameter to accommodate it. This is either an inflatable cuff placed around the fluid bag to force the fluid into the patient or a similar electrical device that may also heat the fluid being infused.


Intermittent infusion

Intermittent infusion is used when a patient requires medications only at certain times, and does not require additional fluid. It can use the same techniques as an intravenous drip (pump or gravity drip), but after the complete dose of medication has been given, the tubing is disconnected from the IV access device. Some medications are also given by IV push, meaning that a syringe is connected to the IV access device and the medication is injected directly (slowly, if it might irritate the vein or cause a too-rapid effect). Once a medicine has been injected into the fluid stream of the IV tubing there must be some means of ensuring that it gets from the tubing to the patient. Usually this is accomplished by allowing the fluid stream to flow normally and thereby carry the medicine into the bloodstream; however, a second fluid injection is sometimes used, a "flush", following the injection to push the medicine into the bloodstream more quickly.


Risks of intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy has many risks and should therefore only be performed by trained personnel under medical supervision, using proper equipment.


Infection

Any break in the skin carries a risk of infection. Although IV insertion is a sterile procedure, skin-dwelling organisms such as Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus or Candida albicans may enter through the insertion site around the catheter, or bacteria may be accidentally introduced inside the catheter from contaminated equipment. Moisture introduced to unprotected IV sites through washing or bathing substantially increases the infection risks. Binomial name Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout 1923 Synonyms Candida stellatoidea [1] Candida albicans is a diploid asexual fungus (a form of yeast), and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and vaginal infections in humans. ...


Infection of IV sites is usually local, causing easily visible swelling, redness, and fever. If bacteria do not remain in one area but spread through the bloodstream, the infection is called septicemia and can be rapid and life-threatening. An infected central IV poses a higher risk of septicemia, as it can deliver bacteria directly into the central circulation. Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ...


Phlebitis

Phlebitis is irritation of a vein that is not caused by infection, but from the mere presence of a foreign body (the IV catheter) or the fluids or medication being given. Symptoms are swelling, pain, and redness around the vein. The IV device must be removed and if necessary re-inserted into another extremity. Phlebitis is an inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs. ...


Due to frequent injections and recurring phlebitis, the peripheral veins of intravenous drug addicts, and of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, become hardened and difficult to access over time.


Fluid overload

This occurs when fluids are given at a higher rate or in a larger volume than the system can absorb or excrete. Possible consequences include hypertension, heart failure, and pulmonary edema. For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ...


Electrolyte imbalance

Administering a too-dilute or too-concentrated solution can disrupt the patient's balance of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and other electrolytes. Hospital patients usually receive blood tests to monitor these levels. For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ...


Embolism

A blood clot or other solid mass, or an air bubble, can be delivered into the circulation through an IV and end up blocking a vessel; this is called embolism. Peripheral IVs have a low risk of embolism, since large solid masses cannot travel through a narrow catheter, and it is nearly impossible to inject air through a peripheral IV at a dangerous rate. The risk is greater with a central IV. An embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ...


Air bubbles of less than 30 milliliters generally dissolve into the circulation harmlessly. A larger amount of air, if delivered all at once, can cause life-threatening damage to pulmonary circulation, or, if extremely large (3-8 milliliters per kilogram of body weight), can stop the heart. Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


One reason veins are preferred over arteries for intravascular administration is because the flow will pass through the lungs before passing through the body. Air bubbles can leave the blood through the lungs. A patient with a heart defect causing a right-to-left shunt is vulnerable to embolism from smaller amounts of air.


Fatality by air embolism is vanishingly rare, in part because it is also difficult to diagnose.


Extravasation

Extravasation is the accidental administration of IV infused medicinal drugs into the surrounding tissue, either by leakage (e.g. because of brittle veins in very elderly patients), or directly (e.g. because the needle has punctured the vein and the infusion goes directly into the arm tissue). Extravasation refers to the leakage of a fluid out of its container. ...


See also

Life support, in the medical field, refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patients life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Blood substitutes, often called artificial blood, are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other blood gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Oral Rehydration Therapy, or ORT, is a simple, cheap, and effective treatment for diarrhea caused by, e. ...

External links

  • IV-Therapy.net
  • UWash
Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Advanced cardiac life support or (ACLS) refers to a set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment of cardiac arrest and other life threatening medical emergencies, as well as the knowledge and skills to deploy those interventions. ... Advanced Life Support (ALS) is a treatment consensus for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest and related medical problems, as agreed in Europe by the European Resuscitation Council, most recently in 2005. ... Advanced Trauma Life Support is a training program in acute management of trauma cases, developed in 1976 by the American College of Surgeons. ... Basic life support (BLS) is a specific level of prehospital medical care provided by trained responders, including emergency medical technicians, in the absence of advanced medical care. ... CPR redirects here. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) is a system of Advanced Life Support applied to infants and children. ... A trauma center is a hospital equipped to perform as a casualty receiving station for the emergency medical services by providing the best possible medical care for traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. ... Level I trauma center provides the highest level of Surgical care to trauma patients. ... In the United States a Level II trauma center provides Emergency medicine to trauma patients who do not need the services of a Level I trauma center. ... A Level III trauma center provides Emergency medicine to trauma patients who do not need the services of a Level I or a Level II trauma center. ... A Level IV trauma center provides the stabilization and treatment of severely injured patients in remote areas where no alternative care is available. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... A disposable BVM Resuscitator A bag valve mask (also known as a BVM or Ambu bag) is a hand-held device used to provide ventilation to a patient who is not breathing or who is breathing inadequately. ... A chest tube or chest drain is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ... An automated external defibrillator, open and ready for pads to be attached An Automated External Defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,[1] and is able to treat them by application... ICD An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), also known as an automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), is a small battery powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. ... “QRS” redirects here. ... Intraosseous infusion is the process of injection directly into the marrow of the bone. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... An emergency physician is a physician who works at an emergency department to care for acutely ill patients. ... For other uses, see Basics. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agent. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... In emergency medicine the golden hour is the first sixty minutes after the occurrence of multi-system trauma. ... The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and... An Emergency medical service (abbreviated to initialism EMS in many countries) is a service providing out-of-hospital acute care and transport to definitive care, to patients with illnesses and injuries which the patient believes constitutes a medical emergency. ... Emergency psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry and emergency medicine designed to respond to emergencies requiring psychiatric intervention. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Intravenous Rehydration Information on Healthline (764 words)
Intravenous (IV) rehydration is a treatment for fluid loss in which a sterile water solution containing small amounts of salt or sugar is injected into the patient's bloodstream.
The intravenous solutions are prepared under the supervision of a pharmacist using sanitary techniques that prevent bacterial contamination.
Intravenous rehydration is typically prescribed by a doctor and administered by a nurse, physician's assistant, or home health care aide.
Intravenous therapy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2431 words)
Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein.
This is the most common method of intravenous drug use for euphoriants such as heroin, or in any case where a person must self-administer intravenous medication at home.
PICC lines are used when intravenous access is required over a prolonged period of time, as in the case of long chemotherapy regimens, extended antibiotic therapy, or total parenteral nutrition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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