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Encyclopedia > Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
Intra-axial hemorrhages
ICD-10 code: I61
ICD-9 code: 431

Intra-axial hemorrhages, or intra-axial hematomas, are a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage that occur within the brain tissue itself. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Comparative brain sizes In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the higher, supervisory center of the nervous system. ...


Intra-axial hemorrhages are potentially deadly because they can increase intracranial pressure and crush delicate brain tissue or reduce its blood supply, causing ischemia. The other category of intracranial hemorrhage is extra-axial hemorrhage, such as epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid hematomas, which all occur within the skull but outside of the brain tissue. Intracranial pressure, or ICP, is the pressure of the brain, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains blood supply within the intracranial space. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... Extra-axial hematoma, or extra-axial hemorrhage is a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage, or bleeding within the intracranial space, that occurs within the skull but outside of the brain tissue itself. ... Nontraumatic epidural hematoma in a young woman. ... A subdural hematoma, also called a subdural hemorrhage, is a collection of blood between the dura (the outer protective covering of the brain) and the arachnoid (the middle layer of the meninges). ... A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain, i. ...


There are two main kinds of intra-axial hemmorrages: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhages.

Contents


Intraventricular hemorrhage

Intraventricular hemorrhage (or "IVH") is a bleeding of the ventricles, where the cerebrospinal fluid is normally located. The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...


It is particularly common in infants, especially premature infants or those of very low birth weight (Annibale and Hill, 2003). Most intraventricular hemorrhages occur in the first 72 hours after birth (Annibale and Hill, 2003). The term premature refers to something that occurs prior to the expected or normal time. ...


Intraventricular hemorrhage is rare in adults (Mayfrank et al., 1997) and requires a great deal of force to cause. Thus the hemorrhage usually does not occur without a extensive associated damage, and so the outcome is rarely good (Dawodu, 2004; Vinas and Pilistis, 2004). Brain contusions and subarachnoid hemorrhages are commonly associated with IVH (LeRoux et al., 1992). The bleeding can involve the middle communicating artery or the posterior communicating artery. In both adults and infants, IVH can cause dangerous increases in intracranial pressure, damage to the brain tissue, and hydrocephalus (Mayfrank et al., 1997; Annibale and Hill, 2003). Brain contusion, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. ... A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain, i. ... The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. ... Intracranial pressure, or ICP, is the pressure of the brain, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains blood supply within the intracranial space. ...


Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, or intracerebral hemorrhage, another type of intra-axial bleeding, can be caused by brain trauma, or it can occur spontaneously in hemorrhagic stroke. As with other types of hemorrhages within the skull, intraparenchymal bleeds are a serious medical emergency because they can increase intracranial pressure. The mortality rate for intraparenchymal bleeds is over 40% (Sanders and McKenna, 2001). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hemorrhagic stroke, or cerebral hemorrhage is a form of stroke that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures. ... Seven film crew. ... Intracranial pressure, or ICP, is the pressure of the brain, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains blood supply within the intracranial space. ...


More common in adults than in children, intraparenchymal bleeds are usually due to penetrating trauma, but can also be due to depressed skull fractures, acceleration-deceleration trauma (McCaffrey, 2001; Orlando Regional Healthcare, 2004; Shepherd, 2004), rupture of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and bleeding within a tumor. Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... An aneurysm (or aneurism) (from Greek ανευρυσμα, a dilatation) is a localized dilation or ballooning of a blood vessel. ... Arteriovenous malformation or AVM is a congenital disorder of the veins and arteries that make up the vascular system . ... See the article about cancer for the main article about malignant tumors. ...


The risk of death from an intraparenchymal bleed is especially high when the injury occurs in the brain stem (Sanders and McKenna, 2001). Intraparenchymal bleeds within the medulla are almost always fatal, because they cause damage to cranial nerve X, the vagus nerve, which plays an important role in blood circulation and breathing (McCaffrey, 2001). This kind of hemorrhage can also occur in the cortex or subcortical areas, usually in the frontal or temporal lobes when due to head injury, and sometimes in the cerebellum (McCaffrey, 2001; Graham and Gennareli, 2000). Where is it? The term brain stem refers to a composite substructure of the brain. ... Medulla can refer to: The medulla oblongata, a part of the brainstem Medulla, Florida, a U.S. city The 2004 music album Medúlla by Icelandic singer Björk. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Cortex (Latin for bark) has different meanings, depending on the context: In neuroanatomy: the cerebral cortex (often simply called cortex) is the thin wrinkled outermost layer of the brain. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of vertebrates. ... The temporal lobe is part of the cerebrum. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ...


Patients with intraparenchymal bleeds have symptoms that correspond to the functions controlled by the area of the brain that is damaged by the bleed (Vinas and Pilistis, 2004). Other symptoms include those that indicate a rise in intracranial pressure due to a large mass putting pressure on the brain (Vinas and Pilistis, 2004). Intracranial pressure, or ICP, is the pressure of the brain, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains blood supply within the intracranial space. ...


Intraparenchymal hemorrhage can be recognized on CT scans because blood appears brighter than other tissue and is separated from the inner table of the skull by brain tissue. The tissue surrounding a bleed is often less dense than the rest of the brain due to edema, and therefore shows up lighter on the CT scan. CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around...


Subtypes

Intracerebral hematomas that occur slowly over the course of hours or days are called delayed intracerebral hematomas. These can occur in brain contusions or in areas in which no abnormality was found in CT scans (Vinas and Pilistis, 2004). These patients appear normal after trauma and then suddenly their condition deteriorates (Vinas and Pilistis, 2004). Brain contusion, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. ...


An intracerebral hemorrhage continuous with subdural hemorrhage is called a burst lobe.


See also

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A subdural hematoma, also called a subdural hemorrhage, is a collection of blood between the dura (the outer protective covering of the brain) and the arachnoid (the middle layer of the meninges). ... Nontraumatic epidural hematoma in a young woman. ... A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain, i. ...

External link

  • LPCH on Intraventricular

References

  1. Annibale DJ and Hill J. 2003. Periventricular Hemorrhage-Intraventricular Hemorrhage. Emedicine.com.
  2. Dawodu S. 2004. "Traumatic Brain Injury: Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology" Emedicine.com.
  3. Graham DI and Gennareli TA. Chapter 5, "Pathology of Brain Damage After Head Injury" Cooper P and Golfinos G. 2000. Head Injury, 4th Ed. Morgan Hill, New York.
  4. LeRoux PD, Haglund MM, Newell DW, Grady MS, and Winn HR. 1992. "Intraventricular hemorrhage in blunt head trauma: an analysis of 43 cases." Neurosurgery. Volume 4, pp. 678-84. Abstract available.
  5. Mayfrank L, Kissler J, Raoofi R, Delsing P, Weis J, Kuker W, and Gilsbach JM. 1997. Ventricular Dilatation in Experimental Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pigs: Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics and the Effects of Fibrinolytic Treatment. Stroke, 28:141-148. Full text article available.
  6. McCaffrey P. 2001. "The Neuroscience on the Web Series: CMSD 336 Neuropathologies of Language and Cognition." California State University, Chico.
  7. Orlando Regional Healthcare, Education and Development. 2004. "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries."
  8. Sanders MJ and McKenna K. 2001. Mosby’s Paramedic Textbook, 2nd revised Ed. Chapter 22, "Head and Facial Trauma." Mosby.
  9. Shepherd S. 2004. "Head Trauma." Emedicine.com.
  10. Vinas FC and Pilitsis J. 2004. "Penetrating Head Trauma." Emedicine.com.
  11. Wagner A.L. 2004. "Subdural Hematoma." Emedicine.com.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Intracerebral Hemorrhage | Internet Stroke Center (251 words)
Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs when a diseased blood vessel within the brain bursts, allowing blood to leak inside the brain.
Since high blood pressure by itself often causes no symptoms, many people with intracranial hemorrhage are not aware that they have high blood pressure, or that it needs to be treated.
Less common causes of intracerebral hemorrhage include trauma, infections, tumors, blood clotting deficiencies, and abnormalities in blood vessels (such as arteriovenous malformations).
Intra-axial hematoma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (772 words)
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, or intracerebral hemorrhage, another type of intra-axial bleeding, can be caused by brain trauma, or it can occur spontaneously in hemorrhagic stroke.
Intraparenchymal bleeds within the medulla are almost always fatal, because they cause damage to cranial nerve X, the vagus nerve, which plays an important role in blood circulation and breathing (McCaffrey, 2001).
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage can be recognized on CT scans because blood appears brighter than other tissue and is separated from the inner table of the skull by brain tissue.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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