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Encyclopedia > Intraglomerular mesangial cells

Intraglomerular mesangial cells are specialized pericytes located among the glomerular capillaries within a renal corpuscle. The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ... A renal corpuscle is the initial filtering component of a nephron in the kidney. ...


There are three primary functions of intraglomerular mesangial cells: filtration, structural support, and phagocytosis.

Contents

Filtration and structure

Glomerular capillaries consist of endothelial cells with large fenestrations, and are therefore very permeable ("leaky") for most solutes in blood plasma. The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Any membrane media that allows passage of small particles, as well as liquids and gasses from one side of the membrane to the other, is called permeable. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


They provide structural support for and regulate blood flow of the glomerular capillaries by their contractile activity.


They are also major contributors to the extracellular matrix which contains fibronectin, type IV collagen, perlecan, and laminin. In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ... Fibronectin is a high molecular weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to receptor proteins that span the cells membrane, called integrins. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Perlecan is a large multidomain proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellualr matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules. ... Laminins are a family of heterotrimeric glycoproteins found in the basal lamina underlying epithelia. ...


Phagocytosis

Mesangial cells also phagocytose glomerular basal lamina components and immunoglobulins. In phagocytosis (literally, cell eating), large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a food vacuole. ... The basal lamina (often erroneously called basement membrane) is a layer on which epithelium sits. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ...


See also

Mesangial cells are specialized cells around blood vessels in the kidneys. ... Extraglomerular mesangial cells (or lacis cells) are light-staining cells in the kidney found outside the glomerulus, near the vascular pole and macula densa. ...

External links

Urinary system - Kidney - edit
Renal fascia | Renal capsule | Renal cortex  (Renal column) | Renal medulla (Renal sinusRenal pyramids) | Renal lobe | Cortical lobule | Medullary ray | Nephron 
afferent circulation: Renal artery → Interlobar arteries → Arcuate arteries → Cortical radial arteries → Afferent arterioles → Renal corpuscle (GlomerulusBowman's capsule)

kidney tubule: Proximal tubule → Loop of Henle (Descending, Thin ascending, Thick ascending)  → Distal convoluted tubule → Connecting tubule → Collecting ducts → Duct of Bellini → Renal papilla → Minor calyx → Major calyx → Renal pelvis → Ureter For the unrelated Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and carries urine. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The renal capsule is a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney and covered in a thick layer of perinephric adipose tissue. ... The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. ... The renal column is tissue between the renal pyramids that allows for support of the renal cortex. ... The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney. ... The renal sinus is a cavity within the kidney which is occupied by the renal pelvis, renal calices, blood vessels, nerves and fat. ... Renal pyramids are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney. ... A cortical lobule (or renal lobule) is a part of a renal lobe. ... Nephron of the kidney A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... Grays Fig. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The renal arteries normally arise off the abdominal aorta and supply the kidneys with blood. ... The interlobar arteries are vessels of the renal circulation which supply the renal lobes. ... The arcuate arteries of the kidney are vessels of the renal circulation. ... The first set of renal bloodvessels, the interlobular arteries (or cortical radiate arteries, or cortical radial arteries), are given off at right angles from the side of the arterial arcade looking toward the cortical substance, and pass directly outward between the medullary rays to reach the fibrous tunic, where they... The afferent arterioles are a group of blood vessels that supply the nephrons in many excretory systems. ... A renal corpuscle is the initial filtering component of a nephron in the kidney. ... Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ... The Bowmans capsule is a blind sac at the beginning of a the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney. ... In the biology of the kidney, the proximal convoluted tubule is the segment of the renal tubule that drains Bowmans capsule. ... In the kidney, the loop of Henle is the portion of the nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule. ... The descending limb of loop of Henle is the portion of the renal tubule constituting the first part of the loop of Henle. ... Kidney nephron The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system. ... In the kidney, the collecting tubule (CNT, or junctional tubule, or arcuate renal tubule) is a tubular segment of the renal collecting duct system that connects the distal convoluted tubule to the cortical collecting duct. ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of: The connecting tubule The cortical collecting duct The medullary collecting duct Categories: | ... Position of the duct of Bellini in the kidney The duct of Bellini is an anatomical structure of the kidneys, also known as papillary duct. ... The renal pelvis represents the dilated proximal part of the ureter. ... Transverse section of ureter. ...


efferent circulation: Glomerulus → Efferent arterioles → Peritubular capillaries/Vasa recta → Arcuate veinInterlobar veinsRenal vein Grays Fig. ... The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ... The Efferent arterioles are a group of blood vessels that are part of the urinary system of many animals. ... A nephron, the vasa recta is labelled arteria recta In the blood supply of the kidney, the vasa recta form a series of straight capillaries (recta is from the Latin for straight) that descend from the cortex into the medulla. ... The arcuate vein is a vessel of the renal circulation. ... The interlobar veins are vessels of the renal circulation which drain the renal lobes. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


juxtaglomerular apparatus: Macula densaJuxtaglomerular cells, Extraglomerular mesangial cells The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a renal structure consisting of the macula densa, mesangial cells, and juxtaglomerular cells. ... In the kidney, the macula densa is an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the distal convoluted tubule where it lies next to the glomerular vascular pole. ... The juxtaglomerular cells are specialized cells that stimulate the secretion of the adrenal hormone aldosterone and play a major role in renal autoregulation, the kidneys self-governance. ... Extraglomerular mesangial cells (or lacis cells) are light-staining cells in the kidney found outside the glomerulus, near the vascular pole and macula densa. ...

Renal physiology
Filtration - Ultrafiltration | Countercurrent exchange | Glomerular basement membrane | Podocyte | Filtration slits | Intraglomerular mesangial cells

Hormones affecting filtration - Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) | Aldosterone | Atrial natriuretic peptide Renal physiology is the study of the physiology of the kidneys. ... In chemistry, alchemy and water treatment, filtration is the process of using a filter to mechanically separate a mixture. ... Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which hydrostatic pressure forces a liquid against a semipermeable membrane. ... Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism used to transfer some component of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a permeable barrier between them. ... The glomerular basement membrane is the basal laminal portion of the glomerulus which performs the actual filtration though the filtration slits between the podocytes , separating the blood on the inside from the urine on the outside. ... Podocytes are cells of the visceral epithelium in the kidneys and form a crucial component of the glomerular filtration barrier by covering the exterior basement surface of the glomerular capillary and maintaining a massive filtration surface. ... Foot processes of podocytes interdigitate with one another forming filtration slits (or slit pores) that, in contrast to those in the glomerular endothelium, are spanned by diaphragms. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ...


Endocrine - Renin | Erythropoietin (EPO) | Calcitriol (Active vitamin D) | Prostaglandins The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Renin, also known as angiotensinogenase, is a circulating enzyme (EC 3. ... Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (or EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that is a growth factor for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ...

Assessing Renal function / Measures of dialysis
Glomerular filtration rate | Creatinine clearance | Renal clearance ratio | Urea reduction ratio | Kt/V | Standardized Kt/V | Hemodialysis product

 
 

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