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Encyclopedia > Interstitial fluid

Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. Image File history File links Illu_capillary_microcirculation. ... Image File history File links Illu_capillary_microcirculation. ...

It is one of the two components of extracellular fluid, the other being plasma. In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...

On average, a person has about 11 litres (2.42 gallons) of interstitial fluid providing the cells of the body with nutrients and a means of waste removal.


Production and Removal

Plasma and interstitial fluid are very similar. Plasma, the major component in blood, communicates freely with interstitial fluid through pores and intercellular clefts in capillary endothelium. A pore, in general, is some form of opening, usually very small. ... Look up Cleft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ...

Formation of tissue fluid

The hydrostatic pressure is generated by the pumping force of the heart. It pushes water out of the capillaries. The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...

The water potential is created due to the inability of large solutes to pass through the capillary walls. This buildup of solutes induces osmosis. The water passes from a high concentration (of water) to a low concentration in an attempt to reach an equilibrium. This draws water back into the vessels. Because the blood in the capillaries is constantly flowing, equilibrium is never reached. A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of low solute potential to a region of high solute potential (or equivalently, from a region of high solvent potential to a region of low solvent potential). ... Look up equilibrium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The balance between the two forces is different at different points in the capillaries. At the arterial end of the vessel, the hydrostatic pressure is greater than the water potential, so the net movement (see net flux) favors water and other solutes being passed into the tissue fluid. At the venous end, the water potential is greater, so the net movement favours substances being passed back into the capillary. This difference is created by the direction of the flow of blood, and the imbalance in solutes created by the net movement of water favoring the tissue fluid. Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... The flux visualized. ... In geology, a vein is a regularly shaped and lengthy occurrence of an ore; a lode. ...

Removal of tissue fluid

To prevent a buildup of tissue fluid surrounding the cells in the tissue, the lymphatic system plays a part in the transport of tissue fluid. Tissue fluid can pass into the surrounding lymph vessels, and eventually ends up rejoining the blood. The human lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ...

Sometimes the removal of tissue fluid does not function correctly, and there is a buildup. This causes swelling, and can often be seen around the feet and ankles. The position of swelling is due to the effects of gravity. This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... The bones in the foot In anatomy, the ankle is the part of the lower limb that is located between the foot and the leg. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...


Interstitial fluid consists of a water solvent containing amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, coenzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, salts, as well as waste products from the cells. The general structure of an amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... Magnification of typical sugar In non-scientific use, the term sugar means sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a white crystalline solid disaccharide. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which either saturated or unsaturated. ... Coenzymes are a small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ...

The composition of tissue fluid depends upon the exchanges between the cells in the tissue and the blood. This means that tissue fluid has a different composition in different tissues and in different areas of the body. Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...

Not all of the contents of the blood passes into the tissue, which means that tissue fluid and blood are not the same. Red blood cells, platelets and plasma proteins cannot pass through the walls of the capillaries. The resulting mixture that does pass through is essentially blood plasma without the plasma proteins. Tissue fluid also contains some types of white blood cell, which help combat infection. Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Physiological Function

Interstitial fluid bathes the cells of the tissues. This provides a means of delivering materials to the cells, intercellular communication, as well as removal of metabolic waste. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ...

See also

In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...


Marieb, Elaine N. (2003). Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, Seventh Edition, San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-5385-2.

External links

eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ...

  Connective tissue  v · d · e 
classification: proper (loose/areolar, dense, adipose, reticular) embryonic (mucous, mesenchymal) specialized (cartilage, bone, blood)

extracellular matrix: ground substance (tissue fluid) fibers (collagen, reticular fiber, elastic fibers) In the human body there are four types of tissue: (1) Epithelial, (2) Connective, (3) Muscle, and (4) Nervous Tissue. ... Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types Areoloar tissue is the most common connnective tissue type and can be found in the skin as well as in places that connect epithelium to other tissues. ... Dense Connective Tissue is. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. ... Reticular connective tissue are a network of reticular fibers (fine collagen) that form a soft skeleton (stroma) to support the lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. ... Mucous connective tissue (or mucous tissue) is a type of connective tissue found during fetal development. ... Mesenchyme (also known as embryonic connective tissue) is the mass of tissue that develops mainly from the mesoderm (the middle layer of the trilaminar germ disc) of an embryo. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... // Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ... Chemical structure of one unit in a chondroitin sulfate chain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Interstitial fluid. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Reticular fibres are the main structural fibre in connective tissues. ... Elastic fibers are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. ...

cells: resident (fibroblast, adipocyte, chondroblast, osteoblast), wandering cell A fibroblast is a cell that makes the structural fibers and ground substance of connective tissue. ... Adipocytes are cells present in adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... A chondroblast is a cell, which originates from a mesenchymal stem cell and forms Chondrocytes, commonly known as cartilage cells. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and to build) is a mononucleate cell which produces a protein that produces osteoid. ... In anatomy and histology, the term wandering cell (or ameboid cell) is used to describe cells that are found in loose connective tissue, but arent fixed in place. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Ch (2329 words)
Approximately two-thirds of the body’s water is contained in the intracellular fluid, the fluid portion of the cytoplasm of cells.
The rest is extracellular fluid, which includes the intravascular fluid (the blood plasma), the cerebrospinal fluid, and the interstitial fluid.
That is, the concentration of solutes in the cells and in the interstitial fluid that bathes them is balanced, so that water does not tend to move into or out of the cells.
Extracellular fluid Summary (607 words)
The body fluids found outside the cells, such as plasma (the liquid portion of blood and lymph), and interstitial fluid, are generically termed extracellular fluid.
The interstitial fluid has almost the same composition of plasma, except for having much lower protein concentrations, and it is filtered to the extracellular matrix from the capillary vessels by diffusion (i.e., capillary pressure).
The extracellular fluid filtered from the blood vessels (arterial capillaries) into the extracellular matrix flows among the cells transporting nutrients and chemical messengers and receives from cells metabolites, ions, proteins, and other substances, and is then reabsorbed by either the venous or the lymphatic capillaries.
  More results at FactBites »



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