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Encyclopedia > Interregnum

An interregnum is any gap in the continuity of a government, organization, or social order. Interregnum may refer to: Interregnum, a period between monarchs, between popes of the Roman Catholic Church, or between consuls of the Roman Republic. ...


Generally, an interregnum is a period between monarchs, between popes, emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, Polish kings (elective monarchy) or between consuls of the Roman Republic. It can also refer to the period between the pastorates of ministers in some Protestant churches. For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


In Roman law, interregnum was usually accompanied by the proclamation of justitium (or state of exception, as did Giorgio Agamben demonstrate in his eponymic book - 2005). This is not surprising, as when a sovereign died - or when the Pope died - tumultus (upheavals) usually accompanied the news of a sovereign's death. Progressively, justitium came to signify the public mourning of the sovereign, and not anymore justitium, auctoritas being (mythically) attached to the physical body of the sovereign. Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Justitium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ...

Contents

Historical periods of interregnum

Particular historical periods known as interregna include:

In some monarchies, such as the United Kingdom, an interregnum is usually avoided due to a rule described as "the king is dead, long live the King", i.e. the heir to the throne becomes a new monarch immediately on his predecessor's death or abdication. This famous phrase signifies the continuity of sovereignty, attached to a personal form of power named Auctoritas. This is not so in other monarchies where the new monarch's reign begins only with coronation or some other formal or traditional event. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for instance, kings were elected, which often led to relatively long interregna. During that time it was the Polish primate who served as an interrex (ruler between kings). Ernst Kantorowicz's famous theory of the Kings's Two Bodies (1957) showed how auctoritas (Kantorowicz used the synonym term - here - of dignitas) was transferred from the defunct sovereign to the new one. The Rule of the Dukes was the decade-long interregnum from 574 or 575 which affected the Lombard kingdom in Italy after the death of Cleph. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Events Several Catharist heretics are killed in Toulouse. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill (died 2 September 1022), sometimes called Máel Sechnaill Mór or Máel Sechnaill II, was king of Mide and High King of Ireland. ... Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain (English: Turlough OBrien) was the son of Murchad son of Brian Boru, High King of Ireland. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Concordat of Worms condemns Pierre Abélards writings on the Holy Trinity. ... Tairrdelbach mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, born 1088, died 1156. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... History of Portugal Series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383-1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Mongol warlord Tamerlane (Timur the Lame). ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... The King is dead. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... Interrex or inter-rex (Latin; plural, interreges) was literally a ruler between kings. ... Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz (1895-1963) was a German-Jewish historian of medieval political and intellectual history, known for his 1927 book Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite on Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, and in particular The Kings Two Bodies (1957). ...


Pope's interregnum (or sede vacante)

An interregnum occurs also upon the death of the Pope, though this is generally known as a sede vacante (vacant seat). The interregnum ends immediately upon election of the new Pope by the College of Cardinals. Sede vacante is the vacancy of the episcopal see of a particular church in the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ...


Japanese era names

The Japanese era name or nengō system which was introduced in reign of Emperor Kotoku was abandoned at the end of his reign; and the nengō was not updated for a quite some time, except for very brief re-occurrence near the close of Emperor Temmu's reign. Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... Emperor Kōtoku (孝徳天皇 Kōtoku Tennō) (596? - November 24, 654)[1] was the 36th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ...


During the nearly half-century after Emperor Kōtoku, the reigning sovereigns were

  • Saimei-tennō (斉明天皇)
  • Tenji-tennō (天智天皇)
  • Kōbun-tennō (弘文天皇)
  • Temmu-tennō (天武天皇)
  • Jitō-tennō (持統天皇)
  • Mommu-tennō (文武天皇).

The first year of Emperor Mommu's rule (文武天皇元年; 686) could be arguably abbreviated as "the first year of Mommu" (文武元年; 686), but this is nowhere understood as a true nengō. The reigns of Japanese emperors and empresses are not nengō, nor were the two considered to be the same until Meiji came on the scene. Empress Kōgyoku (皇極天皇) or Saimei (斉明天皇) (594–661) was the 35th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Tenji (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Tenji, Kyoto Emperor Tenji (天智天皇 Tenji Tennō) (626-672), also known as Prince Naka no ÅŒe (中大兄皇子, Naka no ÅŒe no ÅŒji) and Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Kōbun (弘文天皇 Kōbun-tennō), also known as Prince ÅŒtomo (大友皇子, ÅŒtomo no ōji: 648 - 672) was the 39th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ... Empress Jitō (from Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō Empress Jitō (持統天皇 Jitō Tennō) (645 – December 22, 702[1]) was the 41st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Mommu (文武天皇 Mommu Tennō) (683-707) was the 42nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events October 21 - Conon becomes Pope, succeeding Pope John V. Empress Jito ascends to the throne of Japan Kingdom of Kent attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla Births August 23 - Charles Martel, winner of the Battle of Tours Deaths Emperor Temmu of Japan Korean Buddhist monk Weonhyo See... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ...


References to the emperors of Japan who ruled during this period are properly written as, for example, The following is a traditional list of Emperors of Japan. ...

  • "the 3rd year of Mommu" (文武天皇3年), and
  • not "Mommu 3" (文武3年).

Nengō were abolished during the interregnum years between Hakuchi and Shuchō, and again between Shuchō and Taihō. Near the mid-point of his reign, Emperor Mommu caused the now-conventional nengō chronologic system to be reinstated, and it has continued uninterrupted through today.

  • The two interregnum periods in the pre-Tahiō years are:
A graphical timeline is available here:
Timeline of Japanese era names
    • Taika era, 645-650
    • Hakuchi era, 650–654
      • GAP/interregnum, 654-686
      • Saimei period, 655-662
      • Tenji period, 662-672
      • Kōbun period,672-673
      • Temmu period, 673-686
    • Shuchō era, 686
      • GAP/interregnum, 686-701
      • Jitō period, 686-697
      • Mommu period, 697-701
    • Taihō era, 701-704

The broader utility of the Japanese nengō system is demonstrated by the use of a congruent device to parse non-nengō periods, including these late 7th century interregnum years between Taika and Taihō. Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ... Taika (Japanese: 大化) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Hakuchi (Japanese: 白雉) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Empress Saimeis reign or the Saimei (Japanese: 斉明) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Tenjis reign or the Tenji (Japanese: 天智) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Kōbuns reign or the Kōbun (Japanese: 弘文) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Temmus reign or the Temmu (Japanese: 天武) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Shuchō (Japanese: 朱鳥), alternatively read as Suchō or Akamitori, was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Jitōs reign or the Jitō (Japanese: 持統) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Mommus reign or the Mommu (Japanese: 文武) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Taihō (Japanese: 大宝) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ...


As an illustration: In the initial paragraph of its web page introduction to the history of Japanese calendars, the Japanese National Diet Library explains that "Japan organized its first calendar in the the 12th year of Suiko (604)." See web site of the National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- link to historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection. Koinobori, flags decorated like koi, are popular decorations around Childrens Day This mural on the wall of a Tokyo subway station celebrates Hazuki, the eighth month. ... Established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the Diet of Japan/National Diet of Japan (国会: Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy, the National Diet Library (国立国会図書館; Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the only national library in Japan. ...


See also

Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Interrex coat of arms The institution of interrex existed in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, whose ruling classes liked to view their Republic (Rzeczpospolita) or Commonwealth as an heir to Roman republican traditions. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ...

References

Philosophy Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
English Interregnum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (884 words)
The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule after the English Civil War, between the regicide of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660.
Oliver Cromwell was a Puritan and during the Interregnum, he imposed a very strict form of Christianity upon the country.
Charles Fleetwood the parliamentary commander in Ireland from 1652-1655 was viewed as being hostile to Catholics, Presbyterians and the pre war English Protestant settlers at the expense of the radical new settlers.
Interregnum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (458 words)
An interregnum is a period between monarchs, between popes of the Roman Catholic Church, emperors of Holy Roman Empire, polish kings (elective monarchy) or between consuls of the Roman Republic.
The English Interregnum from 1649–1660 was a republican period in Britain, comprising the Commonwealth and the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell after the regicide of Charles I and before the restoration of Charles II
An interregnum occurs also upon the death of the Roman Catholic Pope, though this is generally known as a sede vacante (vacant seat).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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