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Encyclopedia > Interneuron
Interneuron
The mechanism of the reflex arc. (Relay neuron labeled at right center. Diagram discusses the PNS definition.)
MeSH Interneurons
Dorlands/Elsevier i_10/12455676

An interneuron (also called association neuron or bipolar neuron) is a sensory neuron in neural pathways like the motor neurons their bodies cells are always located in the CNS. Image File history File links ReflexArc1. ... A reflex arc is the neural pathway mediating a reflex. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... In vertebrates, the term motor neuron (or motoneuron) classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS) which project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. ... CNS is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Cairns International Airport, IATA code. ...

Contents

CNS

According to the PNS definition, the neurons of the central nervous system, including the brain, are all interneurons. However, in the CNS, the term of interneuron is used for small, locally projecting neurons of the central nervous system (in contrast to larger projection neurons with long-distance connections). CNS interneurons are typically inhibitory, and use the neurotransmitter GABA or glycine. However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like acetylcholine. A human brain contains about 100 billion interneurons. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... A pyramidal cell (or pyramidal neuron, or projection neuron) is a multipolar neuron located in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ...


An example of interneurons is inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex which selectively inhibit sections of the thalamus based on synaptic input both from other parts of the neocortex and from the thalamus itself. This is theorized to help focus higher attention on relevant sensory input and help block out behaviorally irrelevant or unchanging input, such as the sensation of the backs of your thighs on a chair. The neurophysiological measure short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) is believed to be mediated by these inhibitory interneurons.[citation needed] The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ...


Spinal interneurons

  • 1a Inhibitory Neuron: Found in Lamina VII. Responsible for inhibiting antagonist motor neuron. 1a spindle afferents activate 1a inhibitory neuron.
  • 1b Inhibitory Neuron: Found in Lamina V, VI, VII. 1b afferent or golgi tendon organ activates it.

Bold text In vertebrates, the term motor neuron (or motoneuron) classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS) which project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. ...

dont use webster for anything

Cortical interneurons

  • Parvalbumin-containing interneurons
  • CCK-containing interneurons
  • VIP-containing interneurons

Cerebellar interneurons

External links

Bold text == Headline text == minni hi. ... This article is about cellular photoreceptors. ... Hair cells are the sensory cells of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... Neuroglia of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... Astrocytes (also known collectively as astroglia) are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain. ... Radial glial cells are a pivotal cell type in the developing CNS involved in key developmental processes, ranging from patterning and neuronal migration to their newly described role as precursors during neurogenesis. ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek literally meaning few tree cells), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue),[1] are a variety of neuroglia. ... Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord canal. ... Microglia cells positive for lectins Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek literally meaning few tree cells), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue),[1] are a variety of neuroglia. ... Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann, Schwann cells are a variety of neuroglia that mainly provide myelin insulation to axons in the peripheral nervous system of jawed vertebrates. ... Neurolemma (spelled also neurolema, neurilemma and neurilema, and used interchangeably with epineurium) is the insulating myelin layer that surrounds an individual peripheral nerve fiber. ... This article is about anatomy; for the musical group see Nodes of Ranvier (band) Nodes of Ranvier are regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheath around an axon or nerve fiber. ... The portion of nerve fiber between two Nodes of Ranvier is called an internodal segment (or internode). ... Oblique clefts may be seen in the medullary sheath, subdividing it into irregular portions, which are termed Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (or clefts of schmidt-lanterman, segments of Lantermann, medullary segments. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Neurolemma (spelled also neurolema, neurilemma and neurilema, and used interchangeably with epineurium) is the insulating myelin layer that surrounds an individual peripheral nerve fiber. ... In a nerve fiber, the tubular sheath of the funiculi, perineurium, is a fine, smooth, transparent membrane, which may be easily separated, in the form of a tube, from the fibers it encloses; in structure it is made up of connective tissue, which has a distinctly lamellar arrangement. ... The nerve fibers are held together and supported within the funiculus by delicate connective tissue, called the endoneurium. ... A small bundle of fibers, enclosed in a tubular sheath, is called a funiculus; if the nerve is of small size, it may consist only of a single funiculus; but if large, the funiculi are collected together into larger bundles or nerve fascicles, which are bound together in a common... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ...

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Background (1286 words)
Since each interneuron is connected to many PCs and other interneurons, all of these postsynaptic cells will be inhibited simultaneously, and if the ongoing excitation in each cell is similar, they all will tend to fire at the same time when they recover from the inhibition.
If the interneuron is firing repetitively, for example because it and all of its neighbors in the network are generating their own theta rhythm, then the postsynaptic cells will be silenced repetitively, i.e.
The interneurons generate a timing signal, and the pyramidal cells generate their output at a fixed time relative to the ongoing oscillation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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