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Encyclopedia > Internet service provider

An Internet service provider (abbr. ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a business or organization that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services. In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone companies. Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual or group with sufficient money and expertise. In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services including Internet transit, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting, and colocation. ISP may refer to: Business classification: Internet service provider, an organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services Independent Solutions Provider, provides solutions associated with a product or a final service to the client Professional designation: Information Systems Professional, an Information Technology title and post-nominal. ... In telecommunication, the term dial-up has the following meanings: Dial-up access, typically to the Internet A service feature in which a user initiates service on a previously arranged trunk or transfers, without human intervention, from an active trunk to a standby trunk. ... DSL may refer to: Damn Small Linux Dark and Shattered Lands, a MUD based loosely on Forgotten Realms and Dragonlance books. ... Internet transit is the provision of a dedicted connection to the internet that works at an extremely high speed. ... The term domain name has multiple related meanings: A name that identifies a computer or computers on the internet. ... Web hosting is a service that provides individuals, organizations and users with online systems for storing information, images, video, or any content accessible via the Web. ... A colocation centre (colo) or carrier hotel is a type of data center where multiple telecommunications network or service providers, such as telcos or ISPs, site their connections to one anothers networks (points of presence). ...

Contents

ISP connection options

ISPs employ a range of technologies to enable consumers to connect to their network. For "home users", the most popular options include dial-up, DSL (typically ADSL), Broadband wireless access, Cable modem, and ISDN (typically BRI). For customers who have more demanding requirements, such as medium-to-large businesses, or other ISPs, DSL (often SHDSL or ADSL), Ethernet, Metro Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN (BRI or PRI), ATM, satellite Internet access and SONET are more likely. With the increasing popularity of downloading music and online video and the general demand for faster page loads, higher bandwidth connections are becoming more popular. In telecommunication, the term dial-up has the following meanings: Dial-up access, typically to the Internet A service feature in which a user initiates service on a previously arranged trunk or transfers, without human intervention, from an active trunk to a standby trunk. ... DSL may refer to: Damn Small Linux Dark and Shattered Lands, a MUD based loosely on Forgotten Realms and Dragonlance books. ... Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. ... Three 45 Mbit/s wireless dishes on top of 307 W. 7th Street Fort Worth TX Broadband wireless access is a technology aimed at providing wireless access to data networks, with high data rates. ... A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... ISDN is also short for isosorbide dinitrate Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog... Basic rate interface (BRI, 2B+D, 2B1D) is an Integrated Services Digital Network configuration defined in the physical layer standard I.430 produced by the ITU. This configuration consists of two 64 kbit/s bearer channels (B channels) and one 16 kbit/s data channel (D channel). ... DSL may refer to: Damn Small Linux Dark and Shattered Lands, a MUD based loosely on Forgotten Realms and Dragonlance books. ... Symmetric high-speed digital subscriber line (SHDSL) is a telecommunications technology for DSL subscriber lines. ... Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operates at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... A Metro Ethernet is a computer network based on the Ethernet standard covering a metropolitan area. ... Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet packets at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802. ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay (also found written as frame-relay) consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... ISDN is also short for isosorbide dinitrate Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog... Basic rate interface (BRI, 2B+D, 2B1D) is an Integrated Services Digital Network configuration defined in the physical layer standard I.430 produced by the ITU. This configuration consists of two 64 kbit/s bearer channels (B channels) and one 16 kbit/s data channel (D channel). ... The primary rate interface (PRI) is a telecommunications standard for carrying multiple DS0 voice and data transmissions between two physical locations. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, Circuit switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... Satellite Internet services are used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available and in locations which move frequently. ... Synchronous Optical Networking, commonly known as SONET, is a standard for communicating digital information over optical fiber. ...


How ISPs connect to the Internet

Just as their customers pay them for Internet access, ISPs themselves pay upstream ISPs for Internet access. In the simplest case, a single connection is established to an upstream ISP using one of the technologies described above, and the ISP uses this connection to send or receive any data to or from parts of the Internet beyond its own network; in turn, the upstream ISP uses its own upstream connection, or connections to its other customers (usually other ISPs) to allow the data to travel from source to destination. “ISP” redirects here. ...


In reality, the situation is often more complicated. For example, ISPs with more than one Point of Presence (PoP) may have separate connections to an upstream ISP at multiple PoPs, or they may be customers of multiple upstream ISPs and have connections to each one at one or more of their PoPs. ISPs may engage in peering, where multiple ISPs interconnect with one another at a peering point or Internet exchange point (IX), allowing the routing of data between their networks, without charging one another for that data - data that would otherwise have passed through their upstream ISPs, incurring charges from the upstream ISP. ISPs that require no upstream, and have only customers and/or peers, are called Tier 1 ISPs, indicating their status as ISPs at the top of the Internet hierarchy. Routers, switches, Internet routing protocols, and the expertise of network administrators all have a role to play in ensuring that data follows the best available route and that ISPs can "see" one another on the Internet. A point-of-presence (POP) is an artificial demarcation or interface point between communications entities. ... Peering is the practice of voluntarily interconnecting distinctly separate data networks on the Internet, for the purposes of exchanging traffic between the customers of the peered networks. ... Peering is the practice of exchanging Internet traffic with peers. ... An Internet exchange point (IX or IXP) is a physical infrastructure that allows different Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems) by means of mutual peering agreements, which allow traffic to be exchanged without cost. ... A Tier 1 ISP is a telco or Internet service provider IP network which connects to the rest of the Internet only via a practice known as peering. ...


Virtual ISP

A Virtual ISP (vISP) purchases services from another ISP (sometimes called a wholesale ISP or similar within this context) that allow the vISP's customers to access the Internet via one or more Points of Presence (PoPs) that are owned and operated by the wholesale ISP. There are various models for the delivery of this type of service, for example, the wholesale ISP could provide network access to end users via its dial-up modem PoPs or DSLAMs installed in telephone exchanges, and route, switch, and/or tunnel the end user traffic to the vISP's network, whereupon they may route the traffic toward its destination. In another model, the vISP does not route any end user traffic, and needs only provide AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting) functions, as well as any "value-add" services like email or web hosting. Any given ISP may use their own PoPs to deliver one service, and use a vISP model to deliver another service, or, use a combination to deliver a service in different areas. The service provided by a wholesale ISP in a vISP model is distinct from that of an upstream ISP, even though in some cases, they may both be one and the same company. The former provides connectivity from the end user's premises to the Internet or to the end user's ISP, the latter provides connectivity from the end user's ISP to all or parts of the rest of the Internet. A point-of-presence (POP) is an artificial demarcation or interface point between communications entities. ... In telecommunication, the term dial-up has the following meanings: Dial-up access, typically to the Internet A service feature in which a user initiates service on a previously arranged trunk or transfers, without human intervention, from an active trunk to a standby trunk. ... A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... A digital subscriber line access multiplexer, (DSLAM) is a multiplexer located in the telephone company exchange that provides consumers access to DSL services over twisted pair copper cabling. ... A telephone operator manually connecting calls with patch cables at a telephone switchboard. ... A tunneling protocol is a network protocol which encapsulates one protocol or session inside another. ... In computer security, AAA stands for “authentication, authorization and accounting”. Authentication  Authentication refers to the confirmation that a user who is requesting services is a valid user of the network services requested. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... Web hosting is a service that provides individuals, organizations and users with online systems for storing information, images, video, or any content accessible via the Web. ... “ISP” redirects here. ...


A vISP can also refer to a completely automated white label service offered to anyone at no cost or for a minimal set-up fee. The actual ISP providing the service generates revenue from the calls and may also share a percentage of that revenue with the owner of the vISP. All technical aspects are dealt with leaving the owner of vISP with the task of promoting the service. This sort of service is however declining due to the popularity of unmetered internet access also known as flatrate.


Related services

Broadband Internet access, often shortened to broadband Internet or just broadband is a high data-transmission rate Internet connection. ... Three 45 Mbit/s wireless dishes on top of 307 W. 7th Street Fort Worth TX Broadband wireless access is a technology aimed at providing wireless access to data networks, with high data rates. ... A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... In telecommunications, the Triple Play service is a marketing term for the provisioning of the three services: high-speed Internet, television (Video on Demand or regular broadcasts) and telephone service over a single broadband connection. ... An Internet hosting service is a service that runs Internet servers, allowing organizations and individuals to serve content on the Internet. ... An example of rack mounted servers. ... An e-mail hosting service is an Internet hosting service that runs e-mail servers. ... A DNS hosting service is a service that runs Domain Name System servers. ... Dynamic DNS is a system which allows the domain name data held in a name server to be updated in real time. ...

See also


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