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Encyclopedia > Internet protocol suite
The five-layer TCP/IP model
5. Application layer

DHCP · DNS · FTP · Gopher · HTTP · IMAP4 · IRC · NNTP · XMPP · POP3 · SIP · SMTP · SNMP · SSH · TELNET · RPC · RTCP · RTSP · TLS · SDP · SOAP · GTP · STUN · NTP · (more) The TCP/IP model or Internet reference model, sometimes called the DoD model (DoD, Department of Defense) ARPANET reference model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ... The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ... DHCP redirects here. ... On the Internet, the Domain Name Server (DNS) associates various sorts of information with so-called domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on intranets and the World Wide Web. ... The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP or IMAP4, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol, Interactive Mail Access Protocol (RFC 1064), and Interim Mail Access Protocol[1]) is an application layer Internet protocol operating on port 143 that allows a local client to access e-mail on... IRC redirects here. ... The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles, as well as transferring news among news servers. ... Jabber redirects here. ... In computing, local e-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), an application-layer Internet standard protocol, to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. ... The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for e-mail transmissions across the Internet. ... The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... SSH redirects here. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... Remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one computer to cause a subroutine on another computer to be executed without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this interaction. ... RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). ... The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), developed by the IETF and created in 1998 as RFC 2326, is a protocol for use in streaming media systems which allows a client to remotely control a streaming media server, issuing VCR-like commands such as play and pause, and allowing time-based... Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as web browsing, e-mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and other data transfers. ... Session Description Protocol (SDP), is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... GPRS Tunneling Protocol (or GTP) is an IP based protocol used within GSM and UMTS networks. ... STUN (Simple Traversal of UDP over NATs) is a network protocol which helps many types of software and hardware receive UDP data properly through home broadband routers that use network address translation (NAT). ... The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. ...

4. Transport layer
TCP · UDP · DCCP · SCTP · RTP · RSVP · IGMP · (more)
3. Network/Internet layer
IP (IPv4 · IPv6) · OSPF · IS-IS · BGP · IPsec · ARP · RARP · RIP · ICMP · ICMPv6 · (more)
2. Data link layer
802.11 · 802.16 · Wi-Fi · WiMAX · ATM · DTM · Token ring · Ethernet · FDDI · Frame Relay · GPRS · EVDO · HSPA · HDLC · PPP · PPTP · L2TP · ISDN · (more)
1. Physical layer
Ethernet physical layer · Modems · PLC · SONET/SDH · G.709 · Optical fiber · Coaxial cable · Twisted pair · (more)
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The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. It has also been referred to as the TCP/IP protocol suite, which is named after two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were also the first two networking protocols defined. Today's IP networking represents a synthesis of two developments that began in the 1970s, namely LANs (Local Area Networks) and the Internet, both of which have revolutionized computing. In computing and telecommunications, the transport layer is the second highest layer in the four and five layer TCP/IP reference models, where it responds to service requests from the application layer and issues service requests to the Internet layer. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol that is currently under development in the IETF. Applications that might make use of DCCP include those with timingconstraints on the delivery of data such that reliable in-order delivery, when combined with congestion control, is likely... In the field of computer networking, the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group defined the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as a transport layer protocol in 2000. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... The Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), described in RFC 2205, is a Transport layer protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for an integrated services Internet. ... The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. ... The network layer is third layer out of seven in OSI model and it is the third layer out of five in TCP/IP model. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for routing in Internet Protocol, using a link-state in the individual areas that make up the hierarchy. ... Is Is is Yeah Yeah Yeahs third EP, to be released on July 24, 2007. ... The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the standard method for finding a hosts hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ... Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a network layer protocol used to obtain an IP address for a given hardware address (such as an Ethernet address). ... This article is chiefly about the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for the Internet Protocol, but also discusses some other routing information protocols. ... The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The ICMP for IPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6) is an integral part of the IPv6 architecture and must be completely supported by all IPv6 implementations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE 802. ... The IEEE 802. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ) is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... Official WiMax logo WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... Dynamic synchronous Transfer Mode , or DTM for short, is a network protocol. ... Token-Ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardised as IEEE 802. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... In computer networking, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a Mobile Data Service available to users of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and IS-136 mobile phones. ... Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is one telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. ... High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. ... High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... In computing, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. ... The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks. ... In computer networking, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs). ... ISDN redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE photograph of a diagram with the original terms for describing Ethernet drawn by Robert M. Metcalfe around 1976. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Power band. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Synchronous optical networking, SONET and Synchronous digital hierarchy. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... Coaxial Cable For the weapon, see coaxial weapon. ... 25 Pair Color Code Chart 10BASE-T UTP Cable Twisted pair cabling is a common form of wiring in which two conductors are wound around each other for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference known as crosstalk. ... This article concerns communication between pairs of electronic devices. ... A protocol stack (sometimes communications stack) is a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite. ... A protocol stack is a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ...


The Internet Protocol suite—like many protocol suites—can be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted. The TCP/IP reference model consists of four layers [1]. In computer networking, the upper layer protocol (ULP) refers to the more abstract protocol when performing encapsulation. ... In computer networking, the lower layer protocol (LLP) refers to the more specific protocol when performing encapsulation. ... The TCP/IP model or Internet reference model, sometimes called the DoD model (DoD, Department of Defense) ARPANET reference model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ...

Contents

History

The Internet protocol suite came from work done by DARPA in the early 1970s. After building the pioneering ARPANET, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies. In 1972, Robert E. Kahn was hired at the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across them. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol for the ARPANET. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... Robert E. Kahn, along with Vinton G. Cerf, invented the TCP/IP protocol, the technology used to transmit information on the modern Internet. ... The Information Processing Technology Office is an agency of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency whose stated mission is: [To] create a new generation of computational and information systems that possess capabilities far beyond those of current systems. ... Vinton G. Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is commonly referred to as the father of the Internet. During his tenure from 1976 to 1982 with the United States Department of Defenses Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Cerf played a key role leading the development of Internet and Internet-related... The Network Control Program (sometimes the abbreviation NCP is mistakenly expanded to Network Control Protocol, but this term is not found in the contemporary documentation) was the original protocol suite of the ARPANET. In NCP, the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer were all specified by...


By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had soon worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible. (Cerf credits Hubert Zimmerman and Louis Pouzin [designer of the CYCLADES network] with important influences on this design.) In networking, a communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of communication. ... In 1991, Hubert Zimmerman was awarded the SIGCOMM Award for 20 years of leadership in the development of computer networking and the advancement of international standardization. ... Louis Pouzin, from France, inveted the datagram and designed the first packet communications network, CYCLADES. He also created the first forms of command-line interface. ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ...


With the role of the network reduced to the bare minimum, it became possible to join almost any networks together, no matter what their characteristics were, thereby solving Kahn's initial problem. One popular saying has it that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and Kahn's work, will run over "two tin cans and a string." There is even an implementation designed to run using homing pigeons (Request for Comments 1149), [2], . This implementation is documented in [3].


A computer called a router (a name changed from gateway to avoid confusion with other types of gateway) is provided with an interface to each network, and forwards packets back and forth between them. Requirements for routers are defined in (Request for Comments 1812) [4]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gateway (telecommunications). ... In information technology, a packet is a formatted block of data carried by a packet mode computer network. ...


The idea was worked out in more detailed form by Cerf's networking research group at Stanford in the 1973–74 period, resulting in the first TCP specification (Request for Comments 675), [5]. (The early networking work at Xerox PARC, which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which was contemporaneous, was also a significant technical influence; people moved between the two.) Bold text // Headline text Link title This article is about the computer research center. ... The PARC Universal Packet (commonly abbreviated to PUP, although the original documents usually use Pup) was one of the two earliest internetwork protocol suites; it was created by researchers at Xerox PARC in the mid-1970s. ...


DARPA then contracted with BBN Technologies, Stanford University, and the University College London to develop operational versions of the protocol on different hardware platforms. Four versions were developed: TCP v1, TCP v2, a split into TCP v3 and IP v3 in the spring of 1978, and then stability with TCP/IP v4 — the standard protocol still in use on the Internet today. BBN Technologies (originally Bolt Beranek and Newman) is a high-technology company that provides research and development services. ... Stanford redirects here. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ...


In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London (UCL). In November, 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between the U.S., UK, and Norway. Between 1978 and 1983, several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centres. A full switchover to TCP/IP on the ARPANET took place January 1, 1983.[6] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


In March 1982, the US Department of Defense made TCP/IP the standard for all military computer networking.[7] In 1985, the Internet Architecture Board held a three day workshop on TCP/IP for the computer industry, attended by 250 vendor representatives, helping popularize the protocol and leading to its increasing commercial use. The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) is the committee charged with oversight of the technical and engineering development of the Internet by the Internet Society (ISOC). ...


On November 9, 2005 Kahn and Cerf were presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom for their contribution to American culture. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Layers in the Internet Protocol suite

IP suite stack showing the physical network connection of two hosts via two routers and the corresponding layers used at each hop
IP suite stack showing the physical network connection of two hosts via two routers and the corresponding layers used at each hop
Sample encapsulation of data within a UDP datagram within an IP packet
Sample encapsulation of data within a UDP datagram within an IP packet

The IP suite uses encapsulation to provide abstraction of protocols and services. Generally a protocol at a higher level uses a protocol at a lower level to help accomplish its aims. The Internet protocol stack has never been altered, by the IETF, from the four layers defined in RFC 1122. The IETF makes no effort to follow the seven-layer OSI model and does not refer to it in standards-track protocol specifications and other architectural documents. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about a computer networking device. ... Image File history File links UDP_encapsulation. ... Image File history File links UDP_encapsulation. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Encapsulation of user data in a UDP datagram inside an IP packet. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. ...

4. Application DNS, TFTP, TLS/SSL, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NNTP, POP3, SIP, SMTP, SNMP, SSH, TELNET, ECHO, RTP, PNRP, rlogin, ENRP
Routing protocols like BGP, which for a variety of reasons run over TCP, may also be considered part of the application or network layer.
3. Transport TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, IL, RUDP
2. Internet Routing protocols like OSPF, which run over IP, are also to be considered part of the network layer, as they provide path selection. ICMP and IGMP run over IP and are considered part of the network layer, as they provide control information.
IP (IPv4, IPv6)
ARP and RARP operate underneath IP but above the link layer so they belong somewhere in between.
1. Network access Ethernet, Wi-Fi, token ring, PPP, SLIP, FDDI, ATM, Frame Relay, SMDS

Some textbooks have attempted to map the Internet Protocol suite model onto the seven layer OSI Model. The mapping often splits the Internet Protocol suite's Network access layer into a Data link layer on top of a Physical layer, and the Internet layer is mapped to the OSI's Network layer. These textbooks are secondary sources that contravene the intent of RFC1122 and other IETF primary sources. The IETF has repeatedly stated that Internet protocol and architecture development is not intended to be OSI-compliant The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ... On the Internet, the Domain Name Server (DNS) associates various sorts of information with so-called domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e. ... Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a very simple file transfer protocol, with the functionality of a very basic form of FTP; it was first defined in 1980. ... Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as web browsing, e-mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and other data transfers. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on intranets and the World Wide Web. ... The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP or IMAP4, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol, Interactive Mail Access Protocol (RFC 1064), and Interim Mail Access Protocol[1]) is an application layer Internet protocol operating on port 143 that allows a local client to access e-mail on... IRC redirects here. ... The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles, as well as transferring news among news servers. ... In computing, local e-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), an application-layer Internet standard protocol, to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. ... The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for e-mail transmissions across the Internet. ... The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... SSH redirects here. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... The ECHO service is an internet protocol defined in RFC 862. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... In computing, rlogin is a Unix software utility that allows users to log in on another host via a network, communicating via TCP port 513. ... The Endpoint Handlespace Redundancy Protocol is used by the Reliable Server Pooling (RSerPool) framework for the communication between Pool Registrars to maintain and synchronize a handlespace. ... The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol that is currently under development in the IETF. Applications that might make use of DCCP include those with timingconstraints on the delivery of data such that reliable in-order delivery, when combined with congestion control, is likely... In the field of computer networking, the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group defined the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as a transport layer protocol in 2000. ... Transport layer protocol designed originally as part of the Plan 9 from Bell Labs operating system and used to carry 9P. Its main features are: Reliable datagram service In-sequence delivery Internetworking using IP Low complexity, high performance Adaptive timeouts The original paper describing IL: [1] Categories: Computer stubs ... In computer networking, the Reliable User Datagram Protocol (RUDP) is a transport layer protocol designed at Bell Labs for the Plan 9 operating system. ... The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for routing in Internet Protocol, using a link-state in the individual areas that make up the hierarchy. ... The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the standard method for finding a hosts hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ... Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a network layer protocol used to obtain an IP address for a given hardware address (such as an Ethernet address). ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ) is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... Token-Ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardised as IEEE 802. ... In computing, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. ... The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) is a mostly obsolete encapsulation of the Internet Protocol designed to work over serial ports and modem connections. ... In computer networking, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... SMDS, which stands for Switched Multi-megabit Data Services, was a connectionless service used to connect LANs, MANs and WANs to exchange data. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. ... The network layer is third layer out of seven in OSI model and it is the third layer out of five in TCP/IP model. ...


[8]. RFC3439, on Internet architecture, contains a section entitled: "Layering Considered Harmful": Emphasizing layering as the key driver of architecture is not a feature of the TCP/IP model, but rather of OSI. Much confusion comes from attempts to force OSI-like layering onto an architecture that minimizes their use.


Implementations

Today, most commercial operating systems include and install the TCP/IP stack by default. For most users, there is no need to look for implementations. TCP/IP is included in all commercial Unix systems, Mac OS X, and all free-software Unix-like systems such as Linux distributions and BSD systems, as well as Microsoft Windows. Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... Windows redirects here. ...


Unique implementations include Lightweight TCP/IP, an open source stack designed for embedded systems and KA9Q NOS, a stack and associated protocols for amateur packet radio systems and personal computers connected via serial lines. lwIP is a widely used open source TCP/IP stack designed for embedded systems. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... KA9Q, also called KA9Q NOS or simply NOS, was a popular early implementation of TCP/IP and associated protocols for amateur packet radio systems and smaller personal computers connected via serial lines. ... Packet radio is a form of digital data transmission used in amateur radio to construct wireless computer networks. ...


See also

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standard bodies; and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. ... TCP and UDP are transport protocols used for communication between computers. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. ... The TCP/IP model or Internet reference model, sometimes called the DoD model (DoD, Department of Defense) ARPANET reference model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ...

Notes

  1. ^ R. Braden (October 1989). RFC 1122: Requirements for Internet Hosts—Communication Layers. Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at University of Southern California. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  2. ^ D. Weitzmann (April 1990). [http:www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1149.txt A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers]. Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
  3. ^ Bergen Linux User Group (April 2001). The informal report from the RFC 1149 event.
  4. ^ F. Baker (June 1995). Requirements for IP Routers.
  5. ^ V.Cerf et al (December 1974). Specification of Internet Transmission Control Protocol.
  6. ^ Internet History
  7. ^ Ronda Hauben. From the ARPANET to the Internet. TCP Digest (UUCP). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  8. ^ R. Bush; D. Meyer (December 2002). Some Internet Architectural Guidelines and Philosophy. Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved on 2007-11-20.

The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Internet History -- Pages on Robert Kahn, Vinton Cerf, and TCP/IP (reviewed by Cerf and Kahn).
  • Forouzan, Behrouz A. (2003). TCP/IP Protocol Suite, 2nd, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-246060-1. 

Further reading

  • Andrew S. Tanenbaum. Computer Networks. ISBN 0-13-066102-3
  • Douglas E. Comer. Internetworking with TCP/IP - Principles, Protocols and Architecture. ISBN 86-7991-142-9
  • Joseph G. Davies and Thomas F. Lee. Microsoft Windows Server 2003 TCP/IP Protocols and Services. ISBN 0-7356-1291-9
  • Craig Hunt TCP/IP Network Administration. O'Reilly (1998) ISBN 1-56592-322-7
  • W. Richard Stevens. The Protocols (TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1). Addison-Wesley Professional; 1st edition (December 31, 1993). ISBN 0-201-63346-9
  • Ian McLean. Windows(R) 2000 TCP/IP Black Book ISBN 1-57610-687-X

Andrew S. Tanenbaum Dr. Andrew Stuart Andy Tanenbaum (sometimes called ast)[1] (born 1944) is a professor of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Douglas E. Comer. ... Joseph G Davies. ... Thomas F Lee (born 1950 Greenbelt, Maryland USA). ... William Richard (Rich) Stevens (February 5, 1951 Luanshya, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) - September 1, 1999) was one of the most famous and widely acclaimed authors of UNIX and TCP/IP books. ... Ian McLean (Born 27th August 1929 - Died 1965) was an Australian rules football player in the Victorian Football League, (VFL) . Ian McLean played in Melbourne premiership teams in 1955, 1957 and 1959, and well as the runner-up side of 1954. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Internet protocol suite Summary (3746 words)
The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run.
The Internet protocol suite — like many protocol suites — can be viewed as a set of layers, each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers.
The dynamic routing protocols which technically fit at this layer in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (since they run over IP) are generally considered to be part of the Network layer; an example is OSPF (IP protocol number 89).
Internet Protocols (3990 words)
The Internet protocols are the world's most popular open-system (nonproprietary) protocol suite because they can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected networks and are equally well suited for LAN and WAN communications.
Internet protocols were first developed in the mid-1970s, when the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) became interested in establishing a packet-switched network that would facilitate communication between dissimilar computer systems at research institutions.
To illustrate the scope of the Internet protocols, Figure 30-1 maps many of the protocols of the Internet protocol suite and their corresponding OSI layers.
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