FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Internet Message Access Protocol
The five-layer TCP/IP model
5. Application layer

DHCPDNSFTPGopherHTTPIMAP4IRCNNTPXMPPPOP3SIPSMTPSNMPSSHTELNETRPC • RTP • RTCPRTSPTLS/SSLSDPSOAPBGP • PPTP • L2TPGTPSTUNNTP • … The TCP/IP model or Internet reference model, sometimes called the DoD model (DoD, Department of Defense), ARPANET reference model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ... The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ... (DHCP) is a set of rules used by a communications device such as a computer, router or network adapter to allow the device to request and obtain an IP address from a server which has a list of addresses available for assignment. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... “FTP” redirects here. ... Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet chat or synchronous conferencing. ... The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles, as well as transferring news among news servers. ... Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol, or XMPP, is an open, XML-based protocol for near real-time extensible messaging and presence events. ... In computing, local e-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), an application-layer Internet standard protocol, to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. ... The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for e-mail transmissions across the Internet. ... The simple network management protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel between two computers. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... Remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one computer to cause a subroutine on another computer to be executed without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this interaction. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). ... The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), developed by the IETF and published in 1998 as RFC 2326, is a protocol for use in streaming media systems which allows a client to remotely control a streaming media server, issuing VCR-like commands such as play and pause, and allowing time-based... Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as web browsing, e-mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and other data transfers. ... Session Description Protocol (SDP), is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters. ... It has been suggested that Handmade soap be merged into this article or section. ... The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. ... The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks. ... In computer networking, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs). ... GPRS Tunneling Protocol (or GTP) is an IP based protocol used within GSM and UMTS networks. ... STUN is (Simple Traversal Underneath Network Address Translators (NAT)) is a network protocol allowing clients behind NAT (or multiple NATs) to find out its public address, the type of NAT it is behind and the internet side port associated by the NAT with a particular local port. ... The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. ...

4. Transport layer

TCPUDPDCCPSCTP • … In computing and telecommunications, the transport layer is the second highest layer in the four and five layer TCP/IP reference models, where it responds to service requests from the application layer and issues service requests to the Internet layer. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite, often simply referred to as TCP/IP. Using TCP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange streams of data using Stream Sockets. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol that is currently under development in the IETF. Applications that might make use of DCCP include those with timingconstraints on the delivery of data such that reliable in-order delivery, when combined with congestion control, is likely... In the field of computer networking, the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group defined the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as a transport layer protocol in 2000. ...

3. Internet Layer

IP (IPv4IPv6) • IGMPICMPRSVPOSPFISISIPsecARPRARPRIP • … The network layer is third layer out of seven in OSI model and it is the third layer out of five in TCP/IP model. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... The Internet Group Management Protocol is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. ... The (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), described in RFC 2205, is a transport layer protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for an integrated services Internet. ... The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for routing in Internet Protocol, using a link-state in the individual areas that make up the hierarchy. ... Intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS), is an IGP routing protocol originally designed for CLNS as part of the OSI protocol stack and described in ISO 10589 . ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the method for finding a hosts hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ... Reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) is a protocol used to resolve an IP address from a given hardware address (such as an Ethernet address). ... This article is chiefly about the Routing Information Protocol for IPv4 and IPv6. ...

2. Data link layer

802.11ATMDTMToken RingEthernetFDDIFrame RelayGPRS • EVDO • HSPA • HDLC • PPP • … This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE 802. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, Circuit switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... Dynamic synchronous Transfer Mode , or DTM for short, is a network protocol. ... Token-Ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardised as IEEE 802. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operates at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... In computer networking, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay (also found written as frame-relay) consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM and IS-136 mobile phones. ... Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is one telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. ... High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. ... High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... In computing, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. ...

1. Physical layer

Ethernet physical layerISDNModemsPLCSONET/SDHG.709Optical FiberWiFiWiMAXCoaxial Cable . Twisted Pair . … This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE photograph of a diagram with the original terms for describing Ethernet drawn by Robert M. Metcalfe around 1976. ... // Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a circuit-switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds than that is available with the PSTN system. ... A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... For other uses, see Power band. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Synchronous optical networking, SONET and Synchronous digital hierarchy. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in a propagating form. ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ... WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802. ... Coaxial Cable For the weapon, see coaxial weapon. ... 25 Pair Color Code Chart 10BASE-T UTP Cable Twisted pair cabling is a common form of wiring in which two conductors are wound around each other for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference known as crosstalk. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP or IMAP4, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol, Interactive Mail Access Protocol (RFC 1064), and Interim Mail Access Protocol[1]) is an application layer Internet protocol operating on port 143 that allows a local client to access e-mail on a remote server. The current version, IMAP version 4 revision 1 (IMAP4rev1), is defined by RFC 3501. IMAP4 and POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) are the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval. Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support both. The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A mail transfer agent or MTA (also called a mail server, or a mail exchange server in the context of the Domain Name System) is a computer program or software agent which transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another. ... In computing, local e-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), an application-layer Internet standard protocol, to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. ... An Internet standard is a specification for an innovative internetworking technology or methodology, which the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) ratified as an open standard after the innovation underwent peer review. ...

Contents

E-mail protocols

IMAP supports both connected and disconnected modes of operation. E-mail clients using IMAP generally leave messages on the server until the user explicitly deletes them. This and other facets of IMAP operation allow multiple clients to access the same mailbox. Most e-mail clients support either POP3 or IMAP to retrieve messages; however, fewer Internet Service Providers (ISPs) support IMAP. IMAP4 offers access to the mail store; the client may store local copies of the messages, but these are considered to be a temporary cache; the server's store is authoritative.


E-mail messages are generally sent to an e-mail server that stores received messages in the recipient's e-mail mailbox. The user later retrieves these messages with either a web browser or an e-mail client that uses one of a number of e-mail retrieval protocols. While some clients and servers preferentially use vendor specific, typically proprietary protocols, most support the Internet standard protocols SMTP for sending e-mail and POP3 and IMAP4 for retrieving e-mail, allowing interoperability with other servers and clients. For example, Microsoft's Outlook client typically uses a proprietary protocol to communicate with an Exchange server as does IBM's Notes client when communicating with a Domino server, but all of these products also support SMTP, POP3, and IMAP4. Support for the Internet standard protocols allows many other e-mail clients such as Qualcomm's Eudora or Mozilla Thunderbird (see comparison of e-mail clients) to access these servers and similarly allows the clients to be used with other servers (see list of mail servers). An example of a web browser (Internet Explorer), displaying the English Wikipedia main page. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for email transmission across the Internet. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Microsoft Outlook or Outlook (full name Microsoft Office Outlook since Outlook 2003) is a personal information manager from Microsoft, and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. ... See also Microsoft Exchange Client Microsoft Exchange Server is a messaging and collaborative software product developed by Microsoft. ... IBM redirects here. ... Lotus Domino is an IBM server product that provides enterprise-grade e-mail, collaboration capabilities, and custom application platform. ... Qualcomm (NASDAQ: QCOM) is a wireless telecommunications research and development company based in San Diego, California. ... Eudora is an e-mail client used on the Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Mozilla Thunderbird is a free, cross-platform e-mail and news client developed by the Mozilla Foundation. ... The following tables compare general and technical information between a number of e-mail client programs. ... This is a list of mail servers: mail transfer agents, mail delivery agents, and other computer software which provide e-mail services. ...


E-mail clients can generally be configured to use either POP3 or IMAP4 to retrieve e-mail and in both cases use SMTP for sending. Most e-mail programs can also use Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for directory services. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP (IPA: ), is an application protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP.[1] A directory is a set of information with similar attributes organized in a logical and hierarchical manner. ...


Nearly all subscribers to individual Internet service provider e-mail accounts access their e-mail with client software that uses POP3.[citation needed] “ISP” redirects here. ...


IMAP is often used in large networks; for example, a college campus mail system. IMAP allows users to access new messages instantly on their computers, since the mail is stored on the network. With POP3, users either download the e-mail to their computer or access it via the web. Both methods take longer than IMAP, and the user must either download any new mail or "refresh" the page to see the new messages.


History

IMAP was designed by Mark Crispin in 1986 as a remote mailbox protocol, in contrast to the widely used POP, a protocol for retrieving the contents of a mailbox.[2] Mark Crispin (born 1956) is a staff member at the University of Washington, noted as the inventor of IMAP. He is the author or co-author of numerous RFCs; and is the principal author of UW IMAP, one of the reference implementations of the IMAP4rev1 protocol described in RFC 3501. ...


Original IMAP

The original Interim Mail Access Protocol was implemented as a Xerox Lisp Machine client and a TOPS-20 server. Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... The original Lisp machine built by Greenblatt and Knight Lisp machines were general-purpose computers designed (usually through hardware support) to efficiently run Lisp as their main software language. ... The TOPS-20 operating system by DEC was the second proprietary OS for the PDP-10. ...


No copies of the original interim protocol or its software exist; all known installations of the original protocol were updated to IMAP2. Although some of its commands and responses were similar to IMAP2, the interim protocol lacked command/response tagging and thus its syntax was incompatible with all other versions of IMAP.


IMAP2

The interim protocol was quickly replaced by the Interactive Mail Access Protocol (IMAP2), defined in RFC 1064 and later updated by RFC 1176. IMAP2 introduced command/response tagging and was the first publicly distributed version.


IMAP2bis

With the advent of MIME, IMAP2 was extended to support MIME body structures and add mailbox management functionality (create, delete, rename, message upload) that was absent in IMAP2. This experimental revision was called IMAP2bis; its specification was never published in non-draft form. Early versions of Pine were widely distributed with IMAP2bis support (Pine 4.00 and later supports IMAP4rev1). Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ... Pine is a powerful freeware text-based e-mail client: the University of Washingtons mail user agent (Email client) its name being an acronym for: Program for Internet News & Email (or PINE Is Nolonger Elm if you so prefer. ...


IMAP4

An IMAP Working Group formed in the IETF in the early 1990s and took over responsibility for the IMAP2bis design. The IMAP WG decided to rename IMAP2bis to IMAP4 to avoid confusion with a competing IMAP3 proposal from another group that never got off the ground. The expansion of the IMAP acronym also changed to the Internet Message Access Protocol. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ...


Some design flaws in the original IMAP4 (defined by RFC 1730) that came out in implementation experience led to its revision and replacement by IMAP4rev1 two years later. There were very few IMAP4 client or server implementations due to its short lifetime.


IMAP4rev1

The current version of IMAP since 1996, IMAP version 4 revision 1 (IMAP4rev1), is defined by RFC 3501 which revised the earlier RFC 2060.


IMAP4rev1 is upwards compatible with IMAP2 and IMAP2bis; and is largely upwards-compatible with IMAP4. However, the older versions are either extinct or nearly so.


Unlike many older Internet protocols, IMAP4 natively supports encrypted login mechanisms. Plain-text transmission of passwords in IMAP4 is also possible. Because the encryption mechanism to be used must be agreed between the server and client, plain-text passwords are used in some combinations of clients and servers (typically Microsoft Windows clients and non-Windows servers). It is also possible to encrypt IMAP4 traffic using SSL, either by tunneling IMAP4 communications over SSL on port 993, or by issuing STARTTLS within an established IMAP4 session (see RFC 2595). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as web browsing, e-mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and other data transfers. ... Extended SMTP (ESMTP), sometimes referred to as Enhanced SMTP, is a definition of protocol extensions to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol standard. ...


IMAP4 works over a TCP/IP connection using network port 143. It has been suggested that Internet Protocols be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Computer port (software). ...


Advantages over POP3

Connected and disconnected modes of operation

When using POP3, clients typically connect to the e-mail server briefly, only as long as it takes to download new messages. When using IMAP4, clients often stay connected as long as the user interface is active and download message content on demand. For users with many or large messages, this IMAP4 usage pattern can result in faster response times.


Multiple clients simultaneously connected to the same mailbox

The POP3 protocol requires the currently connected client to be the only client connected to the mailbox. In contrast, the IMAP protocol specifically allows simultaneous access by multiple clients and provides mechanisms for clients to detect changes made to the mailbox by other, concurrently connected, clients.


Access to MIME message parts and partial fetch

Nearly all internet e-mail is transmitted in MIME format, allowing messages to have a tree structure where the leaf nodes are any of a variety of single part content types and the non-leaf nodes are any of a variety of multipart types. The IMAP4 protocol allows clients to separately retrieve any of the individual MIME parts and also to retrieve portions of either individual parts or the entire message. These mechanisms allow clients to retrieve the text portion of a message without retrieving attached files or to stream content as it is being fetched. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ... A tree structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ...


Message state information

Through the use of flags defined in the IMAP4 protocol clients can keep track of message state, for example whether or not the message has been read, replied to, or deleted. These flags are stored on the server, so different clients accessing the same mailbox at different times can detect state changes made by other clients. POP3 provides no mechanism for clients to store such state information on the server so if a single user accesses a mailbox with two different POP3 clients state information, such as whether a message has been accessed, cannot be synchronized between the clients. The IMAP4 protocol supports both pre-defined system flags and client defined keywords, System flags indicate state information such as whether a message has been read. Keywords, which are not supported by all IMAP servers, allow messages to be given one or more tags whose meaning is up to the client. Adding user created tags to messages is an operation supported by some Webmail services, such as Gmail, although generally not using IMAP. For a proposal for tagging in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:WikiProject Microformats#MediaWiki issues A tag cloud with terms related to Web 2. ... Gmail, officially Google Mail in Germany, Austria and the United Kingdom, is a free Web-based email (Webmail) and POP3 e-mail service provided by Google. ...


Multiple mailboxes on the server

IMAP4 clients can create, rename, and/or delete mailboxes (usually presented to the user as folders) on the server, and move messages between mailboxes. Multiple mailbox support also allows servers to provide access to shared and public folders.


Server-side searches

IMAP4 provides a mechanism for a client to ask the server to search for messages meeting a variety of criteria. This mechanism avoids requiring clients to download every message in the mailbox in order to perform these searches.


Built-in extension mechanism

Reflecting the experience of earlier Internet protocols, IMAP4 defines an explicit mechanism by which it may be extended. Many extensions to the base protocol have been proposed and are in common use. IMAP2bis did not have an extension mechanism, and POP3 now has one defined by RFC 2449.


Disadvantages of IMAP

While IMAP remedies many of the shortcomings of POP, this inherently introduces additional complexity. Much of this complexity (e.g., mutliple clients accessing the same mailbox at the same time) is compensated for by server-side workarounds such as maildir or database backends. Maildir is a format for an e-mail spool that does not require file locking to maintain message integrity because the messages are kept in separate files with unique names. ...


Unless the mail store and searching algorithms on the server are carefully implemented, a client can potentially consume large amounts of server resources when searching massive mailboxes.


IMAP4 clients need to explicitly request new email message content potentially causing additional delays on slow connections such as those commonly used by mobile devices. A private proposal, push IMAP, would extend IMAP to implement push e-mail by sending the entire message instead of just a notification. However, push IMAP has not been generally accepted and current IETF work has addressed the problem in other ways (see the Lemonade Profile for more information). The Push-IMAP protocol (P-IMAP) is based on IMAPv4 Rev1 [RFC3501], but contains additional enhancements for optimization in a mobile setting. ... Push e-mail is used to describe e-mail systems that provide an always-on capability, in which new e-mail is instantly and actively transferred (pushed) as it arrives by the mail delivery agent (MDA) (commonly called mail server) to the mail user agent (MUA), also called the e... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standard bodies; and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. ... The Lemonade Profile is a set of protocols and mandatory extensions which provides email access to diverse environments, including mobile handsets and other resource constrained devices. ...


Unlike some proprietary protocols which combine sending and retrieval operations, sending a message and saving a copy in a server-side folder with a base-level IMAP client requires transmitting the message content twice, once to SMTP for delivery and a second time to IMAP to store in a sent mail folder. This is remedied by a set of extensions defined by the IETF LEMONADE Working Group for mobile devices: URLAUTH (RFC 4467) and CATENATE (RFC 4469) in IMAP and BURL (RFC 4468) in SMTP-SUBMISSION. POP3 servers don't support server-side folders so clients have no choice but to store sent items on the client. IMAP clients can be configured to store sent mail in a client-side folder. In addition to the LEMONADE "trio", Courier Mail Server offers a non-standard method of sending using IMAP by copying an outgoing message to a dedicated outbox folder. The Courier mail transfer agent (MTA) is an integrated mail/groupware server based on open commodity protocols, such as ESMTP, IMAP, POP3, LDAP, SSL/TLS, and HTTP. Courier provides ESMTP, IMAP, POP3, webmail, and mailing list services within a single, consistent framework. ...


Common Server implementations

Main article: List of mail servers

The following IMAP-servers are common: This is a list of mail servers: mail transfer agents, mail delivery agents, and other computer software which provide e-mail services. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

BincIMAP is a well designed, modular IMAP server for Maildir. ... Maildir is a format for an e-mail spool that does not require file locking to maintain message integrity because the messages are kept in separate files with unique names. ... qmail is a mail transfer agent that runs on Unix. ... More screenshots on the project site // What is Citadel? Citadel (formerly Citadel/UX) is an open source groupware (messaging and collaboration) software package, written to run on open source operating systems such as Linux or BSD. It is designed to be a messaging platform that you can build a community... CommuniGate Pro is a Stalker software based Internet Communications Server providing various protocol services. ... The Courier mail transfer agent (MTA) is an integrated mail/groupware server based on open commodity protocols, such as ESMTP, IMAP, POP3, LDAP, SSL/TLS, and HTTP. Courier provides ESMTP, IMAP, POP3, webmail, and mailing list services within a single, consistent framework. ... Maildir is a format for an e-mail spool that does not require file locking to maintain message integrity because the messages are kept in separate files with unique names. ... The Cyrus IMAP server differs from other IMAP server implementations in that it is generally intended to be run on sealed servers, where normal users are not permitted to log in. ... Maildir is a format for an e-mail spool that does not require file locking to maintain message integrity because the messages are kept in separate files with unique names. ... Dovecot is an open source IMAP and POP3 server for Linux/UNIX-like systems, written primarily with security in mind. ... Maildir is a format for an e-mail spool that does not require file locking to maintain message integrity because the messages are kept in separate files with unique names. ... FirstClass is an email, online conferencing, and bulletin-board system for Windows, Macintosh, and Linux. ... Lotus Domino is an IBM server product that provides enterprise-grade e-mail, collaboration capabilities, and custom application platform. ... Kerio MailServer is secure mail server developed by Kerio Technologies. ... MailEnable is a mail server for Microsoft Windows. ... Mailtraq ® is a secure mail server oriented primarily towards small businesses, the government and education sectors and communication consultants. ... The Merak Email Server Merak Email Server is a Mail Transfer Agent package developed by IceWarp Software. ... Mirapoint Email Appliance is a Unix-like standards-compliant black-box e-mail server, with built-in anti-spam, anti-virus, webmail, POP, IMAP, and LDAP routing options available. ... See also Microsoft Exchange Client Microsoft Exchange Server is a messaging and collaborative software product developed by Microsoft. ... Openwave (formally phone. ... GroupWise is a collaboration software product from Novell, Inc. ... The UW IMAP server is the reference server implementation of the IMAP protocol. ... Mbox is the name for several different things, including an electronic mail file format. ... MMDF, the Multichannel Memorandum Distribution Facility, is a mail transfer agent (MTA) originally developed at the University of Delaware in the late 1970s. ... The MH Message Handling System is different from almost all other mail reading systems in that, instead of a single program, it is made from several different programs which are designed to work from the command line provided by the shell on Unix-like operating systems. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ...

Common Client implementations

The following IMAP-clients are common (see also Comparison of e-mail clients): The following tables compare general and technical information between a number of e-mail client programs. ...

The following Web-based e-mail services support IMAP access: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pine is a powerful freeware text-based e-mail client: the University of Washingtons mail user agent (Email client) its name being an acronym for: Program for Internet News & Email (or PINE Is Nolonger Elm if you so prefer. ... Mutt is a text-based e-mail client for Unix-like systems. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to... Mail (aka Mail. ... The Bat! is an e-mail client for the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... Evolution or Novell Evolution (formerly Ximian Evolution, prior to Novells 2003 acquisition of Ximian) is the official personal information manager and workgroup information management tool for GNOME. It combines e-mail, calendar, address book, and task list management functions. ... GroupWise is a collaboration software product from Novell, Inc. ... Forté Agent Forté Agent is a newsreader used on the Windows operating system. ... KMail is the email client of the KDE Desktop Environment. ... Eudora is an e-mail client used on the Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Outlook Express for Mac Microsoft Outlook Express is a email client and NNTP news reader bundled with operating systems and the Internet Explorer web browser by Microsoft, and also available as a no-charge download for the classic Apple Macintosh operating system (although not for the newer Mac OS X... Microsoft Outlook or Outlook (full name Microsoft Office Outlook since Outlook 2003) is a personal information manager from Microsoft, and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. ... Mozilla Thunderbird is a free, cross-platform e-mail and news client developed by the Mozilla Foundation. ... Mulberry was a commercial e-mail client marketed by Cyrusoft from approximately 1995 to 2005. ... Pegasus Mail is a freeware, proprietary, electronic mail client that was developed and maintained by David Harris and his team. ... Opera is an Internet suite which handles common internet-related tasks, including visiting web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, and online chat. ... SeaMonkey is a free, open source, and cross-platform Internet suite that is the continuation of the former Mozilla Application Suite. ... In software engineering, a web application is an application delivered to users from a web server over a network such as the World Wide Web or an intranet. ... SquirrelMail is a Webmail application started by Nathan and Luke Ehresman and written in the PHP scripting language. ... RoundCube is an open-source webmail client featuring Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, or Ajax. ... The Internet Messaging Program or IMP is a popular open-source PHP-based webmail system. ...

The following clients support IMAP on a Treo It has been suggested that AOL search data scandal be merged into this article or section. ... AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) is an advertisement-supported proprietary freeware instant messaging and presence computer program which uses the OSCAR instant messaging protocol and the TOC protocol. ... Apple Inc. ... .Mac (pronounced Dot Mac) refers to a group of online services offered by Apple Inc. ... FastMail is an Australian email provider with data facilities in New York. ... Runbox AS is a private Norwegian company developing the email service Runbox Mail Manager (RMM). ...

ChatterEmail is an application program for the Palm TREO PDA. It provides push e-mail for IMAP4 servers capable of the IMAP IDLE function. ...

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of mail servers: mail transfer agents, mail delivery agents, and other computer software which provide e-mail services. ... In computing, local e-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), an application-layer Internet standard protocol, to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. ... The Push-IMAP protocol (P-IMAP) is based on IMAPv4 Rev1 [RFC3501], but contains additional enhancements for optimization in a mobile setting. ... The Simple Mail Access Protocol (SMAP) is an application layer Internet protocol for accessing e-mail stored on a server. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for e-mail transmissions across the Internet. ... Webmail is a class of web applications that allow users to read and write e-mail using a web browser, or in a more general sense, an e-mail account accessed through such an application. ...

References

External links

  • RFC 3501 - specification of IMAP version 4 revision 1
  • RFC 2683 - IMAP Implementation Suggestions RFC
  • RFC 2177 - IMAP4 IDLE command
  • The IMAP connection - resources for developers of programs using the IMAP protocol
  • IMAP connection's listing of products and service providers supporting IMAP

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is IMAP? - a definition from Whatis.com - see also: Internet Message Access Protocol (414 words)
IMAP (the latest version is IMAP Version 4) is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server.
IMAP requires continual access to the server during the time that you are working with your mail.
POP3 and IMAP deal with the receiving of e-mail from your local server and are not to be confused with Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol used for exchanging e-mail between points on the Internet.
Internet Message Access Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1061 words)
The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol) is an application layer Internet protocol used for accessing e-mail on a remote server from a local client.
IMAP was designed by Mark Crispin in 1986 [1] as a modern alternative to the widely used POP e-mail retrieval protocol.
MIME allows messages to have a tree structure where the leaf nodes are any of a variety of single part content types and the non-leaf nodes are any of a variety of multipart types.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m