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Encyclopedia > Internet
Visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet.
Visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet.
Internet Portal

The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Internetworking involves connecting two or more distinct computer networks together into an internetwork (often shortened to internet), using devices called routers to connect them together, to allow traffic to flow back and forth between them. ... Internet and similar may refer to: The Internet, the worldwide linkup of computers. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1280 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1280 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... In Computer Science, data is often distinguished from code, though both are represented in modern computers as binary strings. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chat room. ... This article is about computer files and file systems in general terms. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ...

Contents

Terminology: Internet vis-à-vis World Wide Web

The Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous. The Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, etc. In contrast, the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is one of the services accessible via the Internet, along with many others including e-mail, Usenet, file sharing and others described below. Look up Vis-à-vis on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Vis-à-vis from the French language, literally face to face, is a type of carriage where the occupants face each other. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... A computer network is a system for communication among two or more computers. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... For the use of the term in networking, see Wireless networking. ... The term resource is a foundational term in World Wide Web architecture because it is the root of Uniform Resource Identifiers, also known as URIs and URLs. ... // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ... // Uniform Resource Locator (URL) formerly known as Universal Resource Locator, is a technical, Web-related term used in two distinct meanings: In popular usage and many technical documents, it is a synonym for Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); Strictly, the idea of a uniform syntax for global identifiers of network-retrievable... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ...


The Internet protocol suite is a collection of standards and protocols organized into layers so that each layer provides the foundation and the services required by the layer above. In this scheme, the Internet consists of the computers and networks that handle Internet Protocol (IP) data packets. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) depends on IP and solves problems like data packets arriving out of order or not at all. Next comes Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is an application layer protocol. It runs on top of TCP/IP and provides user agents, such as web browsers, with access to the files, documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on intranets and the World Wide Web. ... A user agent is the client application used with a particular network protocol; the phrase is most commonly used in reference to those which access the World Wide Web. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ...


History

Main article: History of the Internet

In the 1950s and early 1960s, prior to the widespread inter-networking that led to the Internet, most communication networks were limited by their nature to only allow communications between the stations on the network. ...

Growth

The network gained a public face in the 1990s. On August 6, 1991, CERN, which straddles the border between France and Switzerland, publicized the new World Wide Web project, two years after British scientist Tim Berners-Lee had begun creating HTML, HTTP and the first few Web pages at CERN. is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on intranets and the World Wide Web. ...


An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW based upon HyperCard. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser. In 1993 the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic/technical Internet. By 1996 usage of the word "Internet" had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its misusage as a reference to the World Wide Web. An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Screenshot of ViolaWWW ViolaWWW, first developed in the early 1990s, was the first popular web browser (though to a limited audience) which until Mosaic, was the most frequently used for access to the World Wide Web. ... HyperCard was an application program from Apple Computer that was among the first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web. ... Mosaic was the first popular World Wide Web browser and Gopher client. ... National Center for Supercomputing Applications NCSA Building, 1205 W. Clark St. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ...


Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100% per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997.[1] This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network.[citation needed] The FidoNet logo FidoNet is a worldwide computer network that is used for communication between bulletin board systems. ...


University Students Appreciation and Contributions


New findings in the field of communications during the 1960’s and 1970’s were quickly adopted by universities across the United States. Their openness for technology and new things saw many of them amongst the first to appreciate this new Cultural Revolution – in most cases seeking technological innovation for the pure joy of discovery, and seeing the potential for a tool of liberation.


Examples of early university Internet communities are Cleveland FreeNet, Blacksburg Electronic Village and Nova Scotia. Students took up the opportunity of free communications and saw this new phenomenon as a tool of liberation. Personal computers and the Internet would free them from corporations and governments (Nelson, Jennings, Stallman).


‘The culture of individual freedom sprouting in the university campuses of the 1960’s and 1970’s used computer networking to it’s own ends’ (Castells 2001)


The students appreciated it through a cultural revolutionary way of thinking, similar to that of Ted Nelson or Douglas Engelbart. Students agreed with the ideas of free software and cooperative use of resources, which was always the early hacker conduct. (Castells 2001) Theodor Holm Nelson is an American sociologist, philosopher, and pioneer of information technology. ... Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of German descent. ...


Graduate students also played a huge part in the creation of ARPANET. In the 1960’s, the network working group, which did most of the design for ARPANET’s protocols was composed mainly of graduate students. ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ...


Today's Internet

The Opera Community rack, as seen to the left. From the top, user file storage (content of files.myopera.com), "bigma" (the master MySQL database server), and two IBM blade centers containing multi-purpose machines (Apache front ends, Apache back ends, slave MySQL database servers, load balancers, file servers, cache servers and sync masters.
The Opera Community rack, as seen to the left. From the top, user file storage (content of files.myopera.com), "bigma" (the master MySQL database server), and two IBM blade centers containing multi-purpose machines (Apache front ends, Apache back ends, slave MySQL database servers, load balancers, file servers, cache servers and sync masters.

Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is essentially defined by its interconnections and routing policies. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (512x768, 111 KB) William Viker <william. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (512x768, 111 KB) William Viker <william. ... Opera is a cross-platform web browser and Internet suite which handles common Internet-related tasks including visiting web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, chatting online, viewing Widgets, downloading BitTorrents, and reading Newsfeeds. ... MySQL (pronounced (IPA) , my S-Q-L[1]) is a multithreaded, multi-user SQL database management system (DBMS)[2] which has, according to MySQL AB, more than 10 million installations. ... This article is about computing. ... For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Load balancing (computing). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Peering is the practice of exchanging Internet traffic with peers. ... This article concerns communication between pairs of electronic devices. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ...


As of September 30, 2007, 1.244 billion people use the Internet according to Internet World Stats. Writing in the Harvard International Review, philosopher N.J.Slabbert, a writer on policy issues for the Washington DC-based Urban Land Institute, has asserted that the Internet is fast becoming a basic feature of global civilization, so that what has traditionally been called "civil society" is now becoming identical with information technology society as defined by Internet use. Only 2% of the World's population regularly accesses the internet.[2] "http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/quiz/quiz_key.pdf" is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


Internet protocols

For more details on this topic, see Internet Protocols.

In this context, there are three layers of protocols: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  • At the lower level (OSI layer 3) is IP (Internet Protocol), which defines the datagrams or packets that carry blocks of data from one node to another. The vast majority of today's Internet uses version four of the IP protocol (i.e. IPv4), and although IPv6 is standardized, it exists only as "islands" of connectivity, and there are many ISPs without any IPv6 connectivity. [1]. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) also exists at this level. ICMP is connectionless; it is used for control, signaling, and error reporting purposes.
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) exist at the next layer up (OSI layer 4); these are the protocols by which data is transmitted. TCP makes a virtual 'connection', which gives some level of guarantee of reliability. UDP is a best-effort, connectionless transport, in which data packets that are lost in transit will not be re-sent.
  • The application protocols sit on top of TCP and UDP and occupy layers 5, 6, and 7 of the OSI model. These define the specific messages and data formats sent and understood by the applications running at each end of the communication. Examples of these protocols are HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.

The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... In information technology, a packet is a formatted block of data carried by a packet mode computer network. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ...

Internet structure

There have been many analyses of the Internet and its structure. For example, it has been determined that the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks. A scale-free network is a noteworthy kind of complex network because many real-world networks fall into this category. ...


Similar to the way the commercial Internet providers connect via Internet exchange points, research networks tend to interconnect into large subnetworks such as: // An Internet exchange point (IX or IXP) is a physical infrastructure that allows different Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems) by means of mutual peering agreements, which allow traffic to be exchanged without cost. ...

These in turn are built around relatively smaller networks. See also the list of academic computer network organizations For other uses, see GEANT (disambiguation). ... GLORIAD or Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development is a high-speed computer network used to connect scientific organizations in Russia, China, United States, the Netherlands, Korea and Canada. ... Abilene Network is the U.S. high-performance backbone network created by the Internet2 community. ... JANET is a private British government-funded computer network dedicated to education and research. ... A National Research and Education Network (NREN) is a specialised internet service provider dedicated to supporting the needs of the research and education communities within a country. ...


In network diagrams, the Internet is often represented by a cloud symbol, into and out of which network communications can pass. Network diagrams depict network elements and the connections between these elements. ...


ICANN

ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey
ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey
For more details on this topic, see ICANN.

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and protocol port and parameter numbers. A globally unified namespace (i.e., a system of names in which there is one and only one holder of each name) is essential for the Internet to function. ICANN is headquartered in Marina del Rey, California, but is overseen by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and non-commercial communities. The US government continues to have the primary role in approving changes to the root zone file that lies at the heart of the domain name system. Because the Internet is a distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected networks, the Internet, as such, has no governing body. ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet, but the scope of its authority extends only to the Internet's systems of domain names, IP addresses, and protocol port and parameter numbers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 785 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1324 × 1011 pixel, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The office tower in Marina Del Rey, California which is home to the University of Southern Californias Information Sciences Institute (occupies several floors) and the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 785 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1324 × 1011 pixel, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The office tower in Marina Del Rey, California which is home to the University of Southern Californias Information Sciences Institute (occupies several floors) and the... ICANN headquarters ICANN (IPA /aɪkæn/) is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ... The term domain name has multiple related meanings: A name that identifies a computer or computers on the internet. ... Marina del Rey (Spanish for Navy of the King, or Seacoast of the King) is a census-designated place seaside community located in an unincorporated area of Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... A DNS root zone is the top level of the DNS hierarchy for a given DNS system. ... An IP the Internet Protocol standard (IP)—in simpler terms, a computer address. ...


On November 16, 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues. is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a pair of United Nations-sponsored conferences about information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis. ... The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is a global venue under the auspices of the United Nations, established to accommodate multi–stakeholder policy dialogue in the field of internet governance. ...


Language

For more details on this topic, see English on the Internet.
Further information: Unicode

The prevalent language for communication on the Internet is English. This may be a result of the Internet's origins, as well as English's role as the lingua franca. It may also be related to the poor capability of early computers, largely originating in the United States, to handle characters other than those in the English variant of the Latin alphabet. The predominance of English on the Internet—English language content and English language users—has fueled the rise of the Internet as a means of communication, information dissemination and entertainment. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ...


After English (31% of Web visitors) the most-requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese 16%, Spanish 9%, Japanese 7%, German 5% and French 5% (from Internet World Stats, updated June 30, 2007). WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ...


By continent, 37% of the world's Internet users are based in Asia, 27% in Europe, 19% in North America, and 9% in Latin America and the Carribean ([2] updated September 30, 2007). For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


The Internet's technologies have developed enough in recent years, especially in the use of Unicode, that good facilities are available for development and communication in most widely used languages. However, some glitches such as mojibake (incorrect display of foreign language characters, also known as kryakozyabry) still remain. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ...


Internet and the workplace

The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections and Web applications. In software engineering, a web application is an application delivered to users from a web server over a network such as the World Wide Web or an intranet. ...


The Internet viewed on mobile devices

The Internet can now be accessed virtually anywhere by numerous means. Mobile phones, datacards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet from anywhere there is a cellular network supporting that device's technology. A modem (a portmanteau constructed from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... A handheld is most often used to refer to: A personal digital assistant (PDA). ... The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a popular video game console. ... Cellular routers (sometimes known as 3G Routers) are routers that provide shared Internet access by incorporating a cellular data modem as a WAN interface. ...


Common uses of the Internet

E-mail

For more details on this topic, see E-mail.

The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Even today it can be important to distinguish between Internet and internal e-mail systems. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other networks and machines out of both the sender's and the recipient's control. During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough. Purely internal or intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or organization's network, are much more secure, although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and occasionally accessing, the email of other employees not addressed to them. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...


The World Wide Web

For more details on this topic, see World Wide Web.
Graphic representation of less than 0.0001% of the WWW, representing some of the hyperlinks
Graphic representation of less than 0.0001% of the WWW, representing some of the hyperlinks

Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (or just the Web) interchangeably, but, as discussed above, the two terms are not synonymous. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Download high resolution version (1185x853, 110 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Internet World Wide Web Wikipedia:Todays featured article/November 2004 Wikipedia:Todays featured article/November 1, 2004 Wikipedia:Bad Jokes and Other Deleted Nonsense/Encyclopædia BJAODNonica Wikipedia:Bad Jokes and Other... Download high resolution version (1185x853, 110 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Internet World Wide Web Wikipedia:Todays featured article/November 2004 Wikipedia:Todays featured article/November 1, 2004 Wikipedia:Bad Jokes and Other Deleted Nonsense/Encyclopædia BJAODNonica Wikipedia:Bad Jokes and Other... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ...


The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents, images and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. These hyperlinks and URLs allow the web-servers and other machines that store originals, and cached copies, of these resources to deliver them as required using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). HTTP is only one of the communication protocols used on the Internet. // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ... // Uniform Resource Locator (URL) formerly known as Universal Resource Locator, is a technical, Web-related term used in two distinct meanings: In popular usage and many technical documents, it is a synonym for Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); Strictly, the idea of a uniform syntax for global identifiers of network-retrievable... HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ...


Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data. Web services architecture The W3C defines a Web service (many sources also capitalize the second word, as in Web Services) as a software system designed to support interoperable Machine to Machine interaction over a network. ...


Software products that can access the resources of the Web are correctly termed user agents. In normal use, web browsers, such as Internet Explorer and Firefox access web pages and allow users to navigate from one to another via hyperlinks. Web documents may contain almost any combination of computer data including photographs, graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and interactive content including games, office applications and scientific demonstrations. A user agent is the client application used with a particular network protocol; the phrase is most commonly used in reference to those which access the World Wide Web. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines, like Yahoo!, and Google, millions of people worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme decentralization of information and data. A keyword in an Internet search is one of the words used to find matching web pages. ... This article is about using the Internet for research; for the field of research about the Internet, see Internet studies. ... A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... This article is about the search engine. ... Googles main pages unusually spartan design, uncluttered appearance and quick loading time have contributed greatly to the sites mass appeal. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ...


It is also easier, using the Web, than ever before for individuals and organisations to publish ideas and information to an extremely large audience. Anyone can find ways to publish a web page or build a website for very little initial cost. Publishing and maintaining large, professional websites full of attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition, however.


Many individuals and some companies and groups use "web logs" or blogs, which are largely used as easily-updatable online diaries. Some commercial organizations encourage staff to fill them with advice on their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result. One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ...


Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular, and have become increasingly sophisticated. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and MySpace currently have large followings. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yahoo! GeoCities is a free webhosting service founded by David Bohnett and John Rezner in late 1994 as Beverly Hills Internet. ... Facebook headquarters in Palo Alto, CA Facebook is a social networking website, that was launched on February 4, 2004. ... MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos. ... A social network service focuses on the building and verifying of online social networks for communities of people who share interests and activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others, and which necessitates the use of software. ...


Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow. Advert redirects here. ... Electronic commerce, EC, e-commerce or ecommerce consists primarily of the distributing, buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. ...


In the early days, web pages were usually created as sets of complete and isolated HTML text files stored on a web server. More recently, web sites are more often created using content management system (CMS) or wiki software with, initially, very little content. Users of these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or other organisation or members of the public, fill the underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors. HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... A Content Management System (CMS) is a software system used for content management. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Remote access

Further information: Remote access

The Internet allows computer users to connect to other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world. They may do this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements. In telecommunication, the term remote access has the following meanings: 1. ... This article describes how security can be achieved through design and engineering. ...


This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts could have been created by home-working book-keepers, in other remote locations, based on information e-mailed to them from offices all over the world. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private, leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice. Accountancy (profession)[1] or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, statement or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions within companies, organizations, and public agencies. ... For other uses, see Audit (disambiguation). ... In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... A leased line is a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations. ...


An office worker away from his desk, perhaps the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can open a remote desktop session into their normal office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection via the Internet. This gives the worker complete access to all of their normal files and data, including e-mail and other applications, while away from the office. Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a multi-channel protocol that allows a user to connect to a computer running Microsoft Terminal Services. ... VPN redirects here. ...


This concept is also referred to by some network security people as the Virtual Private Nightmare, because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into its employees' homes; this has been the source of some notable security breaches, but also provides security for the workers.


Collaboration

See also: Collaborative software

The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and test, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place, even among niche interests. An example of this is the free software movement in software development which produced GNU and Linux from scratch and has taken over development of Mozilla and OpenOffice.org (formerly known as Netscape Communicator and StarOffice). Collaborative software is software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve their goals. ... Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, nowadays called SeaMonkey suite. ... OpenOffice. ... Netscape Communicator was a proprietary Internet suite produced by Netscape Communications Corporation. ... StarOffice is Sun Microsystems proprietary office suite software package. ...


Internet 'chat', whether in the form of IRC 'chat rooms' or channels, or via instant messaging systems allow colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. Messages can be sent and viewed even more quickly and conveniently than via e-mail. Extension to these systems may allow files to be exchanged, 'whiteboard' drawings to be shared as well as voice and video contact between team members. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ...


Version control systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents without either accidentally overwriting each other's work or having members wait until they get 'sent' documents to be able to add their thoughts and changes. Revision control is an aspect of documentation control wherein changes to documents are identified by incrementing an associated number or letter code, termed the revision level, or simply revision. It has been a standard practice in the maintenance of engineering drawings for as long as the generation of such drawings...


File sharing

For more details on this topic, see File sharing.

A computer file can be e-mailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a Web site or FTP server for easy download by others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... This article is about computer files and file systems in general terms. ... Electronic mail, abbreviated e-mail or email, is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... An e-mail attachment (or email attachment) is a computer file which is sent along with an e-mail message. ... A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...


In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication; the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption and money may change hands before or after access to the file is given. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example a credit card whose details are also passed—hopefully fully encrypted—across the Internet. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. For other uses of the terms authentication, authentic and authenticity, see authenticity. ... Encrypt redirects here. ... Look up credit card in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a type of asymmetric cryptography used to simulate the security properties of a signature in digital, rather than written, form. ... In cryptography, MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. ...


These simple features of the Internet, over a world-wide basis, are changing the basis for the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.


Internet collaboration technology enables business and project teams to share documents, calendars and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing.


Streaming media

Many existing radio and television broadcasters provide Internet 'feeds' of their live audio and video streams (for example, the BBC). They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet 'broadcasters' who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. The range of material is much wider, from pornography to highly specialized technical Web-casts. Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where—usually audio—material is first downloaded in full and then may be played back on a computer or shifted to a digital audio player to be listened to on the move. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material on a worldwide basis. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Porn redirects here. ... A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of such files, that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and personal computers. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and...


Webcams can be seen as an even lower-budget extension of this phenomenon. While some webcams can give full frame rate video, the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, the traffic at a local roundabout or their own premises, live and in real time. Video chat rooms, video conferencing, and remote controllable webcams are also popular. Many uses can be found for personal webcams in and around the home, with and without two-way sound. A typical webcam Webcams are small cameras, (usually, though not always, video cameras) whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web, instant messaging, or a PC video conferencing application. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... A chat room is an online forum where people can chat online (talk by broadcasting messages to people on the same forum in real time). ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Groupware | Telecommunications stubs ...


Voice telephony (VoIP)

For more details on this topic, see VoIP.

VoIP stands for Voice over IP, where IP refers to the Internet Protocol that underlies all Internet communication. This phenomenon began as an optional two-way voice extension to some of the Instant Messaging systems that took off around the year 2000. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the actual voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a normal telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL. IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... An outdated model of the Motorola Surfboard cable modem A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. ...


Thus VoIP is maturing into a viable alternative to traditional telephones. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Simple inexpensive VoIP modems are now available that eliminate the need for a PC.


Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls.


Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialling and reliability. Currently a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service but it is not universally available. Traditional phones are line powered and operate during a power failure, VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the electronics. Many countries public telephone networks have a single emergency telephone number, sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or occasionally the emergency services number, that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance. ... An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), also known as an uninterruptible power source or a battery backup is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. ...


Most VoIP providers offer unlimited national calling but the direction in VoIP is clearly toward global coverage with unlimited minutes for a low monthly fee.


VoIP has also become increasingly popular within the gaming world, as a form of communication between players. Popular gaming VoIP clients include Ventrilo and Teamspeak, and there are others available also. Ventrilo is a proprietary Voice over IP program with clients for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Most users of Ventrilo use a headset or microphone and use the program to talk freely to each other, similar to a telephone conference call. ... TeamSpeak is proprietary Voice over IP software that allows users to speak on a chat channel with other users, much like a telephone conference call. ...


Censorship

For more details on this topic, see Internet censorship.

Some governments, such as those of Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, the mainland of People's Republic of China and Saudi Arabia, restrict what people in their countries can access on the Internet, especially political and religious content. This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention. Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. ...


In Norway, Denmark, Finland and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily (possibly to avoid such an arrangement being turned into law) agreed to restrict access to sites listed by police. While this list of forbidden URLs is only supposed to contain addresses of known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret.[citation needed]


Many countries have enacted laws making the possession or distribution of certain material, such as child pornography, illegal, but do not use filtering software. Child pornography refers to pornographic material depicting children. ...


There are many free and commercially available software programs with which a user can choose to block offensive Web sites on individual computers or networks, such as to limit a child's access to pornography or violence. See Content-control software. DansGuardian blocking whitehouse. ...


Internet access

For more details on this topic, see Internet access.
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Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Online linux connect

Common methods of home access include dial-up, landline broadband (over coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires), Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G technology cell phones. Internet public access point. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Dial-up access is a form of Internet access via telephone line. ... A WildBlue Satellite Internet dish. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ) is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... A Wild Blue Satellite Internet dish. ... 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, after 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving... Several examples of non-folding mobile phones. ...


Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available. There are also Internet access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops, in some cases just for brief use while standing. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", and "Web payphone". Many hotels now also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based. It is widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking, bank deposit, online payment etc.e.g. 68% people have access to internet who are frequent fliers in India.now it is accessed through wireless. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and therefore can do so to the Internet itself. Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi-cafes, where a would-be user needs to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA. These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location. The whole campus or park, or even the entire city can be enabled. Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. Commercial WiFi services covering large city areas are in place in London, Vienna, Toronto, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench.[3] One definition of public space or a public place is a place where anyone has a right to come without paying an entrance or other fee. ... It has been suggested that PC bang be merged into this article or section. ... A payphone or pay phone is a public telephone, with payment by inserting money (usually coins) or a debit card (a special telephone card or a multi-purpose card) or credit card before a call is made. ... Hotspots are venues that offer Wi-Fi access. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ) is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... For the band, see Laptop (band). ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a political movement) is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ...


Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks, and fixed wireless services. Ricochet Networks was one of the pioneering wireless Internet service providers in the United States, before the advent of widespread wireless fidelity and broadband services were available to the general public. ...


High-end mobile phones such as smartphones generally come with Internet access through the phone network. Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets, which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software. More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs, though this is not as widely used. An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online. A Sony Ericsson Smartphone (Model P910i) with touch screen and QWERTY keyboard Look up smartphone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Opera is a cross-platform internet software suite consisting of a web browser, e-mail/news client, address book, newsfeed reader, IRC chat client, and download manager. ...


Leisure

The Internet has been a major source of leisure since before the World Wide Web, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much of the main traffic. Today, many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos; short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular. Over 6 million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and for the sharing of ideas. This article is about a type of online computer game. ... Look up moo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... A typical Internet forum discussion, with common elements such as quotes and spoiler brackets A page from a forum showcasing emoticons and Internet slang An Internet forum is a web application for holding discussions and posting user generated content. ... Simple animation in Flash MX; a square moving across the screen in a motion tween, one of the basic functions of Flash. ...


The pornography and gambling industries have both taken full advantage of the World Wide Web, and often provide a significant source of advertising revenue for other Web sites. Although many governments have attempted to put restrictions on both industries' use of the Internet, this has generally failed to stop their widespread popularity. A song in the Broadway musical show Avenue Q is titled "The Internet is for Porn" and refers to the popularity of this aspect of the Internet. Porn redirects here. ... Gamble redirects here. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Avenue Q is a Tony award-winning musical that was conceived by Robert Lopez and Jeff Marx, who wrote the music and lyrics. ... Avenue Q is a Broadway musical. ...


One main area of leisure on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. This form of leisure creates communities, bringing people of all ages and origins to enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing games to online gambling. This has revolutionized the way many people interact and spend their free time on the Internet. Multiplayer is a mode of play for computer and video games in which multiple people can play the same game at the same time. ... An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... This article is about video games. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Online gambling is a general term for gambling using the Internet. ...


While online gaming has been around since the 1970s, modern modes of online gaming began with services such as GameSpy and MPlayer, which players of games would typically subscribe to. Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of gameplay or certain games. GameSpy Arcade is a shareware multiplayer game server browsing utility designed for the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... MPlayer logo For the free media player, see mplayer. ...


Many use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. As discussed above, there are paid and unpaid sources for all of these, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. Discretion is needed as some of these sources take more care over the original artists' rights and over copyright laws than others.


Many use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book holidays and to find out more about their random ideas and casual interests.


People use chat, messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. Social networking Web sites like Friends Reunited and many others like them also put and keep people in contact for their enjoyment. IRC redirects here. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... Pen pals (or penpals or pen friends) are people who regularly write each other, in particular in the case of snail mail. ... A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. ... FriendsReunited. ...


The Internet has seen a growing amount of Internet operating systems, where users can access their files, folders, and settings via the Internet. An example of an opensource webOS is Eyeos. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... eyeOS is a web desktop which is also available for download as open source software (GPL), and allows everyone to install their own eyeOS server. ...


Cyberslacking has become a serious drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spends 57 minutes a day surfing the Web at work, according to a study by Peninsula Business Services [3]. Cyberslacking is the practice of employees using the Internet or other employer-provided resources for leisure during work hours, contributing to inefficiency. ...


A survey performed by JWT advertising agency showed that most Americans say they cannot live without use of the Internet for more than a week, preferring web surfing to friends and sex. 1,011 Americans participated in the survey answering such questions as how long they can do without Internet. As much as 15 percent mentioned that they would be able to live without the Internet for not more than a day or less, 21% mentioned they could be Internet-free no more than a couple of days, 19% said mentioned a few days. Only 1/3 of respondents mentioned they will be able to live without Internet for a week. [4] JWT is the current name of the United States largest and worlds fourth largest advertising agency originally founded by William James Carlton in 1864 and renamed by James Walter Thompson in 1877 to The James Walter Thompson Company. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Complex architecture

Many computer scientists see the Internet as a "prime example of a large-scale, highly engineered, yet highly complex system".[5] The Internet is extremely heterogeneous. (For instance, data transfer rates and physical characteristics of connections vary widely.) The Internet exhibits "emergent phenomena" that depend on its large-scale organization. For example, data transfer rates exhibit temporal self-similarity. Further adding to the complexity of the Internet is the ability of more than one computer to use the Internet through only one node, thus creating the possibility for a very deep and hierarchal based sub-network that can theoretically be extended infinitely (disregarding the programmatic limitations of the IPv4 protocol). However, since principles of this architecture date back to the 1960s, it might not be a solution best suited to modern needs, and thus the possibility of developing alternative structures is currently being looked into.[6] There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... In telecommunications, data transfer rate or just transfer rate is the average number of bits, characters, or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... A self-similar object is exactly or approximately similar to a part of itself. ...


According to a June 2007 article in Discover Magazine, the combined weight of all the electrons moved within the the internet in a day is 0.2 millionths of an ounce. [7] Others have estimated this at nearer 2 ounces (50 grams).[8] Discover Magazine is a science magazine that publishes articles about science. ...


Marketing

The Internet has also become a large market for companies; some of the biggest companies today have grown by taking advantage of the efficient nature of low-cost advertising and commerce through the Internet; also known as e-commerce. It is the fastest way to spread information to a vast amount of people simultaneously. The Internet has also subsequently revolutionized shopping—for example; a person can order a CD online and receive it in the mail within a couple of days, or download it directly in some cases. The Internet has also greatly facilitated personalized marketing which allows a company to market a product to a specific person or a specific group of people more so than any other advertising medium. Advert redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Electronic commerce, EC, e-commerce or ecommerce consists primarily of the distributing, buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. ... Shopping is the examining of goods or services from retailers with intent to purchase. ... CD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ... This article is about the computer terms. ... Personalized marketing (also called personalization, and sometimes called one-to-one marketing) is an extreme form of product differentiation. ...


Examples of personalized marketing include online communities such as MySpace, Friendster, Orkut, Facebook and others which thousands of Internet users join to advertise themselves and make friends online. Many of these users are young teens and adolescents ranging from 13 to 25 years old. In turn, when they advertise themselves they advertise interests and hobbies, which online marketing companies can use as information as to what those users will purchase online, and advertise their own companies' products to those users. MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos. ... Friendster is an Internet social network service. ... Orkut is an Internet social network service run by Google and named after its creator, Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten. ... Facebook headquarters in Palo Alto, CA Facebook is a social networking website, that was launched on February 4, 2004. ...

Further information: Disintermediation#Impact of Internet-related disintermediation upon various industries and Travel agency#The Internet threat

In economics, disintermediation is the removal of intermediaries in a supply chain: cutting out the middleman. Instead of going through traditional distribution channels, which had some type of intermediate (such as a distributor, wholesaler, broker, or agent), companies may now deal with every customer directly, for example via the Internet. ... A travel agency is a business that sells travel related products and services, particularly package tours, to end-user customers on behalf of third party travel suppliers, such as airlines, hotels, tour companies, and cruise lines. ...

The name Internet

For more details on this topic, see Internet capitalization conventions.
Look up Internet, internet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Internet is traditionally written with a capital first letter, as it is a proper noun. The Internet Society, the Internet Engineering Task Force, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, the World Wide Web Consortium, and several other Internet-related organizations use this convention in their publications. Internet Capitalization Conventions refer to the long-standing debate on whether to write Internet or internet. In formal usage, Internet is traditionally written with a capital first letter. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ... The Internet Society or ISOC is an international organization that promotes Internet use and access. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standard bodies; and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. ... ICANN headquarters ICANN (IPA /aɪkæn/) is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ... WWWC redirects here. ...


Many newspapers, newswires, periodicals, and technical journals capitalize the term (Internet). Examples include The New York Times, the Associated Press, Time, The Times of India, Hindustan Times, and Communications of the ACM. The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... The Times of India, often abbreviated as TOI, is one of Indias leading daily newspapers, owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Communications of the ACM (CACM) is the flagship monthly magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery. ...


Others assert that the first letter should be in lower case (internet), and that the specific article “the” is sufficient to distinguish “the internet” from other internets. A significant number of publications use this form, including The Economist, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Financial Times, The Guardian, The Times, and The Sydney Morning Herald. As of 2005, many publications using internet appear to be located outside of North America—although one U.S. news source, Wired News, has adopted the lower-case spelling. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Wired News, online at Wired. ...


Historically, Internet and internet have had different meanings, with internet meaning “an interconnected set of distinct networks,” and Internet referring to the world-wide, publicly-available IP internet. Under this distinction, "the Internet" is the familiar network via which websites exist, however "an internet" can exist between any two remote locations.[9] Any group of distinct networks connected together is an internet; each of these networks may or may not be part of the Internet. The distinction was evident in many RFCs, books, and articles from the 1980s and early 1990s (some of which, such as RFC 1918, refer to "internets" in the plural), but has recently fallen into disuse.[citation needed] Instead, the term intranet is generally used for private networks. See also: extranet. The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ... An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity to securely share part of an organizations information or operations with its employees. ... An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organizations information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses. ...


Some people use the lower-case term as a medium (like radio or newspaper, e.g. I've found it on the internet), and first letter capitalized as the global network.


See also

Find more information on Internet by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... For a more comprehensive list, see the List of Internet topics. ... This page aims to list articles related to the Internet and Internet Protocol. ...

Major aspects and issues

Internet democracy is a derivative term for e-democracy (electronic democracy), especially related to projects and concepts centered on using the Internet (and not other electronic communications technologies like short message services or teletext) for deliberative and participatory aims. ... In the 1950s and early 1960s, prior to the widespread inter-networking that led to the Internet, most communication networks were limited by their nature to only allow communications between the stations on the network. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Network neutrality. ... Internet privacy consists of privacy over the media of the Internet: the ability to control what information one reveals about oneself over the Internet, and to control who can access that information. ...

Functions

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... See Shared resource for the conventional meaning of file sharing File sharing is the practice of making files available for other users to download over the Internet and smaller networks. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... Internet fax uses the internet to receive and send faxes. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... An overview of how VoIP works A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network Ciscos implementation of VoIP - IP Phone Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP (pronounced voyp), IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the...

Underlying infrastructure

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... “ISP” redirects here. ... Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska, who referred to the Internet as a series of tubes. ...

Regulatory bodies

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the entity that oversees global IP address allocation, DNS root zone management, and other Internet protocol assignments. ... ICANN is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ... ICANN headquarters ICANN (IPA /aɪkæn/) is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Coffman, K. G; Odlyzko, A. M. (1998-10-02). "The size and growth rate of the Internet". AT&T Labs. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  2. ^ Slabbert,N.J. The Technologies of Peace, Harvard International Review, June 2006.
  3. ^ "Toronto Hydro to Install Wireless Network in Downtown Toronto". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 19-Mar-2006.
  4. ^ Most people would live without sex but not without Internet
  5. ^ Walter Willinger, Ramesh Govindan, Sugih Jamin, Vern Paxson, and Scott Shenker (2002). Scaling phenomena in the Internet. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, suppl. 1, 2573–2580.
  6. ^ "Internet Makeover? Some argue it's time". The Seattle Times, April 16, 2007.
  7. ^ "How Much Does The Internet Weigh?". Discover Magazine, June 2007.
  8. ^ How Much Does The Internet Weigh? - The Unbearable Lightness Of Fact Checking
  9. ^ What is the Internet?

Andrew Odlyzko is a mathematician who is the head of the University of Minnesotas Digital Technology Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Media Freedom Internet Cookbook by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Vienna, 2004
  • Living Internet—Internet history and related information, including information from many creators of the Internet
  • First Monday peer-reviewed journal on the Internet
  • How Much Does The Internet Weigh? by Stephen Cass, Discover 2007
  • Rehmeyer, Julie J. 2007. Mapping a medusa: The Internet spreads its tentacles. Science News 171(June 23):387-388. Available at http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20070623/fob2.asp .
  • Sohn, Emily. 2006. Internet generation. Science News for Kids (Oct. 25). Available at http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20061025/Feature1.asp .
  • Castells, M. 1996. Rise of the Network Society. 3 vols. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Castells, M. (2001), “Lessons from the History of Internet”, in “The Internet Galaxy”, Ch. 1, pp 9-35. Oxford Univ. Press.

The OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media functions as a watchdog on media developments in all 56 participating States of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). ... Discover is a science magazine that publishes articles about science for a general audience. ...

External links

  • "10 Years that changed the world" — Wired looks back at the evolution of the Internet over last 10 years
  • Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard
  • A comprehensive history with people, concepts and quotations
  • CBC Digital Archives—Inventing the Internet Age
  • How the Internet Came to Be
  • Internet Explained
  • Global Internet Traffic Report
  • The Internet Society History Page
  • RFC 801, planning the TCP/IP switchover
  • Archive CBC Video Circa 1990 about the Internet
  • "The beginners guide to the internet."
  • "Warriors of the net - A movie about the internet."

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