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Encyclopedia > Internationalized Domain Names
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Example of Arabic IDN
Download high resolution version (3012x2005, 483 KB)Chinese IDN File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...
Download high resolution version (3012x2005, 483 KB)Chinese IDN File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Enlarge
Example of Chinese IDN

An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an This article is about the Internet An internet is a more general term for any set of interconnected computer networks that are connected by internetworking Graphic representation of the WWW information network structure around Wikipedia, as represented by hyperlinks The Internet, or simply the Net, is the publicly available worldwide...Internet A domain name is the unique name of a computer on the Internet that distinguishes it from the other systems on the network. ...domain name that (potentially) contains non_ There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...ASCII characters. Such domain names could contain letters with A diacritic mark or accent mark is an additional mark added to a basic letter. ...diacritics, as required by many European languages, or characters from non_Latin scripts such as The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...Arabic or 漢字 in Traditional Chinese and other languages. ...Chinese. However, the standard for domain names does not allow such characters, and much work has gone into finding a way around this, either by changing the standard, or by agreeing on a way to convert internationalized domain names into standard ASCII domain names while preserving the stability of the domain name system.


The latter method now appears to be the one that will be adopted, a system called Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) is a mechanism defined in 2003 for handling internationalized domain names containing non_ASCII characters. ...Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) having been proposed, based on the Punycode, defined in RFC 3492, is a self_proclaimed Bootstring encoding of Unicode strings into the limited character set supported by the Domain Name System. ...Punycode ASCII encoding of normalized ( Nameprep is the process of Unicode NFKC normalization, case_folding, mapping lookalike characters together, and elimination of restricted codepoints applied to text before it is suitable to represent a domain name, or other such canonical name. ...Nameprep) In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ...Unicode strings.


In IDNA, the term internationalized domain name means specifically any domain name consisting only of labels to which the IDNA ToASCII algorithm can be successfully applied.


History of IDN

07/98

Asia Pacific Networking Group (now known as APSTAR) iDNS Working Group formed _ chaired by James Seng

1999

Early Research in IDN at National University of Singapore, Center for Internet Research

02/99

iDNS Testbed launched with participation from CNNIC, JPNIC, KRNIC, TWNIC, THNIC, HKNIC and SGNIC

11/99

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ...IETF IDN Birds_of_Feather in Washington

01/00

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ...IETF IDN Working Group formed chaired by James Seng and Marc Blanchet

03/01

ICANN is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ...ICANN Board IDN Working Group formed

11/01

ICANN is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ...ICANN IDN Committee formed

03/03

Publication of RFC 3454, RFC 3490, RFC 3491 and RFC 3492

06/03

Publication of ICANN IDN Guidelines for registries (http://www.icann.org/general/idn_guidelines_20jun03.htm)

05/04

Publication of RFC 3743, Joint Engineering Team (JET) Guidelines for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) Registration and Administration for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean

Phishing

  • It is possible to use IDN for Note: This page is about deceptive e_mail practices. ...phishing. See Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) is a mechanism defined in 2003 for handling internationalized domain names containing non_ASCII characters. ...Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications.
  • In February of 2005, the The Shmoo Group was founded by Bruce Potter in the late 1990s as a non_profit security think_tank. ...Shmoo Group made the issue of phishing by aid of IDN spoofing apparent. See The Shmoo Group _ The state of homograph attacks (http://www.shmoo.com/idn/homograph.txt).

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Internationalized domain name - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2538 words)
IDN has, by the standards of the Internet, a long history; it was originally proposed in 1996 (by M. Duerst) and implemented in 1998 (by T.W.Tan et al).
Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) is a mechanism defined in 2003 for handling internationalized domain names containing non-ASCII characters.
Such domain names could not be handled by the existing DNS and name resolver infrastructure.
hall-dm-idns-00.txt (14842 words)
Internationalized Domain Names and Labels This section describes the master template rules for all domain names and labels which may be used in the internationalized namespace, although subordinate rules and restrictions are also applied as secondary filters, depending on the intended usage of the domain name.
Internationalized Host Identifiers Internationalized host identifiers are a subset of the internationalized domain names described in section 4.1, which only use a subset of the allowable UCS characters, but which reuse the global transfer encodings and comparison routines.
Domain names which appear as unstructured data in application content are beyond the control of this specification, and are generally subject to the encoding and formatting desires of the end-users who created the data.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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