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Encyclopedia > International waterway
International Ownership Treaties
Antarctic Treaty System
Law of the Sea
Outer Space Treaty
Moon Treaty
International waters
Extra-terrestrial real estate

The terms international waters or transboundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Graham Bertram (NAVA) 1996 conceptual flag for Antarctica The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature ??? at ??? Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] The term United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, also called simply the Law of the Sea or... The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies also known as the Outer Space Treaty (the Treaty), was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the three... The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, better known as the Moon Treaty or Moon Agreement, was finalized in 1979 and entered into force for the ratifying parties in 1984. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The worlds oceans as seen from the South Pacific Ocean (from Okeanos, Greek for river, the ancient Greeks noticed that a strong current flowed off Gibraltar, and assumed it was a great river); covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the... Sunset at sea Look up Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water mixes with fresh water. ... The Murray River in Australia. ... A lake is a body of water surrounded by land. ... Groundwater is water which may be flowing within aquifers below the water table. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, or permeable mixtures of unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) (see also groundwater). ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ...


Oceans and seas, waters outside of national jurisdiction are also referred to as the High Seas or Mare liberum.


Ships sailing the high seas are generally under flag state jurisdiction. In the case of piracy or slave trade, any nation can exercise jurisdiction. Copyright infringement is the unauthorized use of copyrighted material in a manner that violates one of the copyright owners exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works that build upon it. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Contents


International waterways

Several intenational treaties have established freedom of navigation on semi-enclosed seas.

1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the... The Danish straits are the three channels connecting the North Sea through the Kattegat and Skagerrak to the Baltic sea. ... Bosporus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı), formerly Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits was a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. ...

Protection of natural resources

Marine and freshwater systems, including surface waters and groundwater, constitute the world's water resources, which provide humanity with drinking water, sustenance, income, transportation routes and other amenities. Much of the Earth's water resources is shared by two or more countries (e.g., 261 international river basins comprise 45% of the earth's total land area; 70% of the world's 50 large marine ecosystems, where 95% of the world's fish are caught). The worlds oceans as seen from the South Pacific Ocean (from Okeanos, Greek for river, the ancient Greeks noticed that a strong current flowed off Gibraltar, and assumed it was a great river); covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ...


Poorly managed and uncoordinated human activities across sectors are threatening these shared water resources internationally and the livelihoods of billions of people who depend on them. Major threats include sea and land-based pollution, depletion of freshwater resources, habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, and over-harvesting of living and non-living aquatic resources. Water pollution Environmental pollution is the release of environmental contaminants, generally resulting from human activity. ... Depletion is the process of running down or reducing the total resource available. ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... Sweet clover (Melilotus sp. ... Hay bales after harvest in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany In agriculture, harvesting is the process of gathering mature crops from the fields. ...


Disputes over shared water resources have a long history.[2] Water has been used as a tool and weapon of conflict, access to water has been a source of dispute and contention, and major water development projects have led to violence and civil strife. As a number of international waters agreements demonstrate, shared waters can also be a source of cooperation. This is particularly evident today with the increase in the number of initiatives related to aquifers, lakes, rivers, coasts and ocean management regimes, as well as of international waters institutions committed to bilateral and/or multilateral management of transboundary water resources.


International waters are one of several focal areas for protection and restoration projects supported by the Global Environment Facility as well as bilateral and multilateral development agencies. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), established by donor governments in 1991 to pre-empt politically more radically alternative models of conservation finance proposed at the Rio Earth Summit, helps developing countries fund projects and programs that are claimed to protect the global environment. ...


Links and References

International Waters Agreements

Global Agreements

The Houses of Parliament and the clock tower containing Big Ben Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... Los, most commonly used to refer to a person of Hispanic or Spanish-speaking origin is an abbreviation for the name Carlos. This abbreviation appears to have originated somewhere in northern California during the onset of the telecom industry boom with new startup corporations beginning to hire cheap labor in... Ramsar (in Persian: رامسر) is a town in Mazandaran pronivce of Iran, at the Caspian Sea. ... The Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty that was adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. ...

Regional Agreements

At least ten conventions are included within the Regional Seas Program of UNEP, including: Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ...

  1. the Atlantic Coast of West and Central Africa (Abidjan Convention, 1984);
  2. the North-East Pacific (Antigua Convention);
  3. the Mediterranean (Barcelona Convention);
  4. the wider Caribbean (Cartagena Convention);
  5. the South-East Pacific (Lima Convention, 1986);
  6. the South Pacific (Noumea Convention);
  7. the East African seaboard (Nairobi Convention, 1985);
  8. the Kuwait region (Kuwait Convention);
  9. the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden (Jeddah Convention).

Addressing regional freshwater issues is the 1992 Helsinki Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (UNECE/Helsinki Water Convention) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on the Caribbean Plate. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... East Africa is a region generally considered to include: Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Somalia Tanzania Uganda Burundi, Rwanda, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, and Sudan are sometimes considered a part of East Africa. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea (Arabic البحر الأحمر al-Bahr al-Ahmar; Hebrew ים סוף Yam Suf; Tigrigna ቀይሕ ባሕሪ QeyH baHri) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Gulf of Aden is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somaliland in Africa. ... Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki City manager Jussi Pajunen Official languages Finnish, Swedish Area  - total  - land ranked 342nd 185. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ...


Waterbody-Specific Agreements

  • Baltic Sea (Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1992)
  • Black Sea (Bucharest Convention,1992), see also the Black Sea Commission;
  • Caspian Sea (Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea, 2003)
  • Lake Tanganyika (Convention for the Sustainable Management of Lake Tanganyika, 2003)

The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki City manager Jussi Pajunen Official languages Finnish, Swedish Area  - total  - land ranked 342nd 185. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ... Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ...

International Waters Institutions

Freshwater Institutions

UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The International Joint Commission is an independent binational organization established by the United States and Canada under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. ... The International Water Management Institute is located in Battaramulla, Sri Lanka, and is a Future Harvet Centre of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

Marine Institutions

Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission was established by resolution 2. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

International Waters Resources on the Web

  • The GEF International Waters Resource Centre (GEF IWRC)
  • The Integrated Management of Transboundary Waters in Europe (TransCat)
  • The International Water Law Project
  • The International Water Resources Association (IWRA)
  • FAO
    • Ocean Atlas
    • Transboundary Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) article
    • OneFish fisheries research portal
    • Regional Fisheries Bodies of the World portal
  • The UNDP-GEF article describing international waters,[3] from which this article has been adapted.
  • UNEP freshwater thematic portal on transboundary waters
  • UNESCO thematic portals for oceans, water, coasts and small islands
  • WaterWiki: A new Wiki-based on-line knowledge map and collaboration tool for Water-practitioners in the Europe & CIS region

The Global Environment Facility (GEF), established by donor governments in 1991 to pre-empt politically more radically alternative models of conservation finance proposed at the Rio Earth Summit, helps developing countries fund projects and programs that are claimed to protect the global environment. ... FAO can mean: Food and Agriculture Organization Faro Airport (Portugal), IATA airport code For (The) Attention Of This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... The Global Environment Facility (GEF), established by donor governments in 1991 to pre-empt politically more radically alternative models of conservation finance proposed at the Rio Earth Summit, helps developing countries fund projects and programs that are claimed to protect the global environment. ... Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

See also


 
 

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