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Encyclopedia > International relations

International relations is a branch of political science. It represents the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. [[[[[[[ == == == == == == ]]]]]]] is a synonym for international relations, that is, the activities of a government concerned with foreign relations, foreign policy, diplomacy, and international representation, and the academic study of these activities. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Consent of the governed is a political theory stating that a governments legitimacy and moral right to use state power is, or ought to be, derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Main International relations theory Politics Portal This box:      International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Comparative politics is a subfield of political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... This article is about the sociological concept. ... Street-level bureaucracy is a term used to refer to a public agency employee who actually performs the actions that implement laws. ... Adhocracy is a type of organization being an opposite of bureaucracy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The psychodynamics of decision-making form a basis to understand institutional functioning. ... This article is about the political process. ... Vote redirects here. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... “Electioneering” redirects here. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... NGO redirects here. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... In the humanities and social sciences, the term positive is used in a number of ways. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ...


Apart from political science, IR draws upon such diverse fields as economics, history, law, philosophy, geography, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and cultural studies. It involves a diverse range of issues, from globalization and its impacts on societies and state sovereignty to ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, terrorism, organized crime, human security, and human rights. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... This article is about the social science. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Cultural studies is an academic discipline which combines political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in various societies. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

Contents

History

The history of international relations is often traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, where the modern state system was developed. Prior to this, the European medieval organization of political authority was based on a vaguely hierarchical religious order. Westphalia instituted the legal concept of sovereignty, which essentially meant that rulers, or the legitimate sovereigns, would recognize no internal equals within a defined territory and no external superiors as the ultimate authority within the territory's sovereign borders. Classical Greek and Roman authority at times resembled the Westphalian system, but both lacked the notion of sovereignty. Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Westphalia encouraged the rise of the independent nation-state, the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. This particular European system was exported to the Americas, Africa, and Asia via colonialism and the "standards of civilization". The contemporary international system was finally established through decolonization during the Cold War. However, this is somewhat over-simplified. While the nation-state system is considered "modern", many states have not incorporated the system and are termed "pre-modern". Further, a handful of states have moved beyond the nation-state system and can be considered "post-modern". The ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of these different types of states is disputed. "Levels of analysis" is a way of looking at the international system, which includes the individual level, the domestic nation-state as a unit, the international level of transnational and intergovernmental affairs, and the global level. A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... This article is about negotiations. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


What is explicitly recognized as International Relations theory was not developed until after World War I, and is dealt with in more detail below. IR theory, however, has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences. The use of capitalizations of the 'I' and 'R' in International Relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of International Relations from the phenomena of international relations. Many cite Thucydides' "History of the Peloponnesian War" as the inspiration for realist theory, with Hobbes' "Leviathan" and Machiavelli's "The Prince" providing further elaboration. Similarly, liberalism draws upon the work of Kant and Rousseau, with the work of the former often being cited as the first elaboration of Democratic Peace Theory. Though contemporary human rights is considerably different than the type of rights envisioned under natural law, Francisco de Vitoria, Hugo Grotius and John Locke offered the first accounts of universal entitlement to certain rights on the basis of common humanity. In the twentieth century, in addition to contemporary theories of liberal internationalism, Marxism has been a foundation of international relations. Hobbes redirects here. ... For other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Liberal institutionalism. ... Kant redirects here. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland...


The study of IR

Initially, international relations as a distinct field of study was almost entirely British-centered. In 1919, the Chair in International Politics established at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, from an endowment given by David Davies, became the first academic position dedicated to IR. In the early 1920s, the London School of Economics' department of International Relations was founded at the behest of Nobel Peace Prize winner Phillip Noel-Baker. In 1927 the first university institution entirely dedicated to the study of IR, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales), was founded in Geneva, Switzerland; it sought to supply a pool of specialized personnel for the League of Nations. In the late 1920s the Los Angeles University of International Relations, later to be renamed the University of Southern California's School of International Relations (SIR), was one of the first institutions of higher education in the United States devoted to the study of international relations. Its mission was "to furnish opportunities for the training of statesmen for consular and diplomatic service, of businessmen for commerce and business administration, and of teachers in departments related to world affairs in colleges and universities." In the depths of the Cold War, the SIR housed the Research Institute on Communist Strategy and Propaganda. The School pioneered a distinctive curriculum in international studies, played an instrumental role in the founding of the International Studies Association (ISA), and offered one of the first Ph.D. degrees in international relations in the country. It is a charter member of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA), which now has over twenty members. Several USC faculty members have served as president of APSIA over the years. Other schools include the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) at Columbia University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University's Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, the School of International Relations at the University of St Andrews, and the Fletcher School at Tufts. While schools dedicated to the study of IR have been founded in Asia and South America, IR as a discipline of study remains centered chiefly in the West. Affiliations University of Wales AMBA ACU Universities UK HiPACT Website http://www. ... David Davies, 1st Baron Davies of Llandinam (11 May 1880 – 16 June 1944), was a politician and public benefactor, the grandson of the famous industrialist, David Davies Llandinam. Davies was born and died at Llandinam, Montgomeryshire. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Graduate Institute of International Studies (HEI), based in Geneva in Switzerland, is one of the worlds leading graduate schools devoted to the study of international studies, most notably of their historic, judicial, economic, political and social aspects. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Father John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... The Cabot Intercultural Center of The Fletcher School at Tufts University The Fletcher School (also called The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy) is the oldest graduate school of international relations in the United States. ... Tufts University is a university located in Medford, Massachusetts (near Boston). ...


Theory

Epistemology and IR theory

IR theories can be roughly divided into one of three epistemological camps: "positivist" and "post-positivist". Positivist theories aim to replicate the methods of the natural sciences by analysing the impact of material forces. They typically focus on features of international relations such as state interactions, size of military forces, balance of powers etc. Post-positivist epistemology rejects the idea that the social world can be studied in an objective and value-free way. It rejects the central ideas of neo-realism/liberalism, such as rational choice theory, on the grounds that the scientific method cannot be applied to the social world and that a 'science' of IR is impossible. Main International relations theory Politics Portal This box:      International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Former President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, considered to be a founder of idealism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Liberal institutionalism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations, outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book, Theory of International Politics. ... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Marxist and Neo-Marxist international relations theories are positivist paradigms which reject the realist/liberal view of state conflict or cooperation; instead focusing on the economic and material aspects. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Functionalism is a theory of international relations that arose principally from the experience of European integration. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Constructivism Neofunctionalism is a theory of regional integration, building on the work of David Mitrany. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Critical international relations theory is a set of schools of thought in international relations (IR) that have criticized the status-quo—both from positivist positions as well as postpositivist positions. ... Main International relations theory Politics Portal This box:      In the discipline of international relations, constructivism is the application of constructivist epistemology to the study of world affairs. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... Rational choice theory assumes human behavior is guided by instrumental reason. ...


A key difference between the two positions is that while positivist theories, such as neo-realism, offer causal explanations (such as why and how power is exercised) post-positivist theories focus instead on constitutive questions, for instance what is meant by 'power'; what makes it up, how it is experienced and how it is reproduced. Often, post-positivist theories explicitly promote a normative approach to IR, by considering ethics. This is something which has often been ignored under 'traditional' IR as positivist theories make a distinction between 'facts' and normative judgments, or 'values'.


During the late 1980s/1990 debate between positivists and post-positivists became the dominant debate and has been described as constituting the Third "Great Debate" (Lapid 1989).


Positivist Theories

Realism

Realism focuses on state security and power above all else. Early realists such as E.H. Carr, Daniel Bernhard and Hans Morgenthau argued that states are self-interested, power-seeking rational actors, who seek to maximize their security and chances of survival. Any cooperation between states is explained as functional in order to maximize each individual state's security (as opposed to more idealistic reasons). Many realists saw World War II as the vindication of their theory. It should be noted that classical writers such as Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Hobbes are often cited as the "founding fathers" of realism by contemporary self-described realists. However, while their work may support realist doctrine, it is not likely that they would have classified themselves as realists (in this sense of the term). Realists are often split up into two groups: Classical or Human Nature Realists (as described here) and Structural or Neorealists (below). Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Edward Hallett Carr (1892–1982) was a British historian and international relations theorist. ... Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 – July 19, 1980) was an International Relations theorist and one of the most influential to date. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Hobbes redirects here. ...


Liberalism/idealism/Liberal Internationalism

Liberal international relations theory arose after World War I in response to the inability of states to control and limit war in their international relations. Early adherents include Woodrow Wilson and Norman Angell, who argued vigorously that states mutually gained from cooperation and that war was so destructive to be essentially futile. Liberalism was not recognized as a coherent theory as such until it was collectively and derisively termed idealism by E. H. Carr. A new version of "idealism," centered around human rights as basis of the legitimacy of international law, was advanced by Hans Köchler. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Liberal institutionalism. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Sir Ralph Norman Angell (December 26, 1872 – October 7, 1967) was an English lecturer, writer, and Member of Parliament for the Labour Party. ... Edward Hallett Carr (1892–1982) was a British historian and international relations theorist. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ...

See also: liberal internationalism

Liberal internationalism is an american doctrine which says that the United States should support and respect more the United Nations and the other countries of the world. ...

Neorealism

Neorealism is largely based on the work of Kenneth Waltz (who first coined the term "structural realism" in his book Man, the State, and War). While retaining the empirical observations of realism, that international relations are characterized by antagonistic interstate relations, neorealists point to the anarchic structure of the international system as the cause. They reject explanations that take account of states' domestic characteristics, viewing all states as "black boxes" whose intentions cannot be gauged with 100% certainty. States are compelled by relative gains and balance against concentration of power. Unlike classical realism, neorealism seeks to be scientific and more positivist. What also distinguishes neo-realism from realism is that the former does not accept the latter's emphasis on the behavioural explanation of international relations. Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations, outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book, Theory of International Politics. ... Kenneth Neal Waltz (born 1924) is a member of the faculty at Columbia University and one of the most prominent scholars of international relations (IR) alive today. ... In the humanities and social sciences, the term positive is used in a number of ways. ...


Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism seeks to update liberalism by accepting the neorealist presumption that states are the key actors in international relations, but still maintains that non-state actors (NSAs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) matter. Proponents such as Maria Chattha argue that states will cooperate irrespective of relative gains, and are thus concerned with absolute gains. The growing interdependence throughout the Cold War through international institutions means that neo-liberalism is also called liberal institutionalism. This also means that nations are, in essence, free to make their own choices as to how they will go about conducting policy without any international organizations blocking a nation's right to sovereignty. Neoliberalism also contains an economic theory that is based on the use of open and free markets with little, if any, government intervention to prevent monopolies and other conglomerates from forming. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ...

See also: complex interdependence

Complex interdependence in international relations is the idea put forth by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye that states and their fortunes are inextricably tied together. ...

Regime Theory

Regime theory is derived from the liberal tradition that argues that international institutions or regimes affect the behavior of states (or other international actors). It assumes that cooperation is possible in the anarchic system of states, indeed, regimes are by definition, instances of international cooperation. Regime theory is an international relations approach, that argues that cooperation is possible in the anarchic system of states. ...


While realism predicts that conflict should be the norm in international relations, regime theorists say that there is cooperation despite anarchy. Often they cite cooperation in trade, human rights and collective security among other issues. These instances of cooperation are regimes. The most commonly cited definition of regimes comes from Stephen Krasner. Krasner defines regimes as "institutions possessing norms, decision rules, and procedures which facilitate a convergence of expectations." Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Stephen Krasner is currently the Director of Policy Planning at the United States Department of State. ...


Not all approaches to regime theory, however are liberal or neoliberal; some realist scholars like Joseph Greico have developed hybrid theories which take a realist based approach to this fundamentally liberal theory. (Realists don't say cooperation never happens, just that it's not the norm; it's a difference of degree). Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ...


Post-positivist/reflectivist theories

International society theory (the English school)

International society theory, also called the English School, focuses on the shared norms and values of states and how they regulate international relations. Examples of such norms include diplomacy, order, and international law. Unlike neo-realism, it is not necessarily positivist. Theorists have focused particularly on humanitarian intervention, and are subdivided between solidarists, who tend to advocate it more, and pluralists, who place greater value in order and sovereignty. Nicholas Wheeler is a prominent solidarist, while Hedley Bull and Robert H. Jackson are perhaps the best known pluralists. The English School of international relations theory, also known as Liberal Realism, Rationalism or the British institutionalists, maintains that there is a society of states at the international level, despite the condition of anarchy (literally the lack of a ruler or world state). ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Hedley Bull (1932 – 1985) was Professor of International Relations at the Australian National University, the London School of Economics, and the University of Oxford until his death in 1985. ...


Social Constructivism

Social Constructivism encompasses a broad range of theories that aim to address questions of ontology, such as the Structure and agency debate, as well as questions of epistemology, such as the "material/ideational" debate that concerns the relative role of material forces versus ideas. Constructivism is not a theory of IR in the manner of neo-realism, but is instead a social theory which is used to better explain the actions taken by states and other major actors as well as the identities that guide these states and actors. Constructivism is a perspective in philosophy that views all of our knowledge as constructed, under the assumption that it does not necessarily reflect any external transcendent realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ...


Constructivism in IR can be divided into what Hopf (1998) calls 'conventional' and 'critical' constructivism. Common to all varieties of constructivism is an interest in the role that ideational forces play. The most famous constructivist scholar, Alexander Wendt noted in a 1992 article in International Organization (later followed up by a book, Social Theory of International Politics (1999)), that "anarchy is what states make of it". By this he means that the anarchical structure that neo-realists claim governs state interaction is in fact a phenomenon that is socially constructed and reproduced by states. For example, if the system is dominated by states that see anarchy as a life or death situation (what Wendt terms a "Hobbesian" anarchy) then the system will be characterised by warfare. If on the other hand anarchy is seen as restricted (a "Lockean" anarchy) then a more peaceful system will exist. Anarchy in this view is constituted by state interaction, rather than accepted as a natural and immutable feature of international life as viewed by neo-realist IR scholars. Main International relations theory Politics Portal This box:      In the discipline of international relations, constructivism is the application of constructivist epistemology to the study of world affairs. ... Alexander Wendt is one of the core social constructivist scholars in the field of international relations. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ...


Critics, however, abound from both sides of the epistemological divide: Post-positivists say the focus on the state at the expense of ethnicity/race/class/gender makes social constructivism yet another positivist theory. The use of implicit rational choice theory by Wendt has also raised criticisms from scholars such as Steven Smith. Positivist scholars of (neo-)liberalism/realism hold that the theory forgoes too many positivist assumptions for it to be considered positivist. Rational choice theory assumes human behavior is guided by instrumental reason. ...


Critical Theory

Critical international relations theory is the application of 'critical theory' to international relations. Proponents such as Andrew Linklater, Robert W. Cox and Ken Booth focus on the need for human emancipation from States. Hence, it is "critical" of mainstream IR theories that tend to be state-centric. Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Critical international relations theory is a set of schools of thought in international relations (IR) that have criticized the status-quo—both from positivist positions as well as postpositivist positions. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Critical international relations theory is a set of schools of thought in international relations (IR) that have criticized the status-quo—both from positivist positions as well as postpositivist positions. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Professor Andrew Linklater, MA, PhD, is a renowned international relations academic, and is the current Woodrow Wilson Professor of International Politics at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. ... Ken Booth (born January 29, 1943) is a British International Relations theorist. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ...


Note: this is by no means an exhaustive list of IR theories.


Marxism

Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories of IR reject the realist/liberal view of state conflict or cooperation; instead focusing on the economic and material aspects. It makes the assumption that the economy trumps other concerns; allowing for the elevation of class as the focus of study. Marxists view the international system as an integrated capitalist system in pursuit of capital accumulation. Thus, the period of colonialism brought in sources for raw materials and captive markets for exports, while decolonialization brought new opportunities in the form of dependence. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Linked in with Marxist theories is dependency theory which argues that developed countries, in their pursuit of power, penetrate developing states through political advisors, missionaries, experts and MNCs to integrate them into the integrated capitalist system in order to appropriate natural resources and foster dependence by developing countries on developed countries. Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic...


Marxist theories receive scant attention in the United States where no significant socialist party ever existed. It is more common in parts of Europe and is one of the most important theoretic contributions of Latin American academia, for example through Liberation theology. Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...


Leadership Theories

Interest Group Perspective

Strategic Perspective

Poststructuralist theories

Poststructuralist theories of IR developed in the 1980s from postmodernist studies in political science. Post-structuralism explores the deconstruction of concepts traditionally not problematic in IR, such as 'power' and 'agency' and examines how the construction of these concepts shapes international relations. The examination of 'narratives' plays an important part in poststructuralist analysis, for example feminist poststructuralist work has examined the role that 'women' play in global society and how they are constructed in war as 'innocent' and 'civilians'.


Examples of post-positivist research include:

Feminism theory of international relations is a broad term given to works of those scholars who have sought to bring a concern with gender into the academic study of international politics. ... Postcolonialism (postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is a set of theories in philosophy, film, political sciences and literature that deal with the cultural legacy of colonial rule. ...

Concepts in international relations

Systemic level concepts

International relations is often viewed in terms of levels of analysis, the systemic level concepts are those broad concepts that define and shape an international milieu, characterised by Anarchy. Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Anarchy in international relations posits that the world system is leaderless: there is no universal sovereign or worldwide government. ...


Power

The concept of Power in international relations can be described as the degree of resources, capabilities, and influence in international affairs. It is often divided up into the concepts of hard power and soft power, hard power relating primarily to coercive power, such as the use of force, and soft power commonly covering economics, diplomacy and cultural influence. However, there is no clear dividing line between the two forms of power. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article is about negotiations. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Polarity

Polarity in International Relations refers to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bipolarity during the Cold War, with the international system dominated by the conflict between two superpowers, and has been applied retrospectively. Consequently, the international system prior to 1945 can be described as multi-polar, with power being shared among Great powers. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 has led to what some would call unipolarity, with the United States as a sole superpower. Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a wide scale. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Superpowers redirects here. ...


Several theories of international relations draw upon the idea of polarity.
The balance of power was a concept prevalent in Europe prior to the First World War, the thought being that by balancing power blocs it would create stability and prevent war. Theories of the balance of power gained prominence again during the Cold War, being a central mechanism of Kenneth Waltz's Neorealism. Here, the concepts of balancing (rising in power to counter another) and bandwagonning (siding with another) are developed. Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Kenneth Neal Waltz (born 1924) is a member of the faculty at Columbia University and one of the most prominent scholars of international relations (IR) alive today. ...


Hegemonic stability theory (developed by Robert Gilpin) also draws upon the idea of Polarity, specifically the state of unipolarity. Hegemony is the preponderance of power at one pole in the international system, and the theory argues this is a stable configuration because of mutual gains by both the dominant power and others in the international system. This is contrary to many Neorealist arguments, particularly made by Kenneth Waltz, stating that the end of the Cold War and the state of unipolarity is an unstable configuration that will inevitably change. Hegemonic Stability Theory postulates a number of rules for the maintenance and decline of international monetary and political systems. ... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kenneth Neal Waltz (born 1924) is a member of the faculty at Columbia University and one of the most prominent scholars of international relations (IR) alive today. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


This can be expressed in Power transition theory, which states that it is likely that a great power would challenge a hegemon after a certain period, resulting in a major war. It suggests that while hegemony can control the occurrence of wars, it also results in the creation of one. Its main proponent, A.F.K. Organski, argued this based on the occurrence of previous wars during British, Portuguese and Dutch hegemony. The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... A.F.K. Organski was Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan and a cofounder of Decision Insights, Inc. ...


Interdependence

Many advocate that the current international system is characterized by growing interdependence; the mutual responsibility and dependency on others. Advocates of this point to growing globalisation, particularly with international economic interaction. The role of international institutions, and widespread acceptance of a number of operating principles in the international system, reinforces ideas that relations are characterized by interdependence. Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ...


Dependency

Military exercises often help increase strategic cooperation between countries. Shown here are Indian Navy, JMSDF and U.S Navy ships in formation, during a trilateral exercise in 2007.
Military exercises often help increase strategic cooperation between countries. Shown here are Indian Navy, JMSDF and U.S Navy ships in formation, during a trilateral exercise in 2007.

Dependency theory is a theory most commonly associated with Marxism, stating that a set of Core states exploit a set of weaker Periphery states for their prosperity. Various versions of the theory suggest that this is either an inevitability (standard dependency theory), or use the theory to highlight the necessity for change (Neo-Marxist). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (2302 × 1500 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (2302 × 1500 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... The Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Force, tasked with the naval defense of Japan, and was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II. The force is based strictly on defensive armament, lacking the offensive... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Systemic tools of international relations

  • Diplomacy is the practice of communication and negotiation between representatives of states. To some extent, all other tools of international relations can be considered the failure of diplomacy. Keeping in mind, the use of other tools are part of the communication and negotiation inherent within diplomacy. Sanctions, force, and adjusting trade regulations, while not typically considered part of diplomacy, are actually valuable tools in the interest of leverage and placement in negotiations.
  • Sanctions are usually a first resort after the failure of diplomacy, and are one of the main tools used to enforce treaties. They can take the form of diplomatic or economic sanctions and involve the cutting of ties and imposition of barriers to communication or trade.
  • War, the use of force, is often thought of as the ultimate tool of international relations. A widely accepted definition is that given by Clausewitz, with war being "the continuation of politics by other means". There is a growing study into 'new wars' involving actors other than states. The study of war in International Relations is covered by the disciplines of 'War Studies' and 'Strategic studies'.
  • The mobilization of international shame can also be thought of as a tool of International Relations. This is attempting to alter states actions through 'naming and shaming' at the international level. A prominent use of this would be the UN Commission on Human Rights 1235 procedure, which publicly exposes state's human rights violations.
  • The allotment of economic and/or diplomatic benefits. An example of this is the European Union's enlargement policy. Candidate countries are allowed entry into the EU only after the fulfillment of the Copenhagen criteria.

This article is about negotiations. ... International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Carl Phillip Gottlieb von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 _ November 16, 1831) was a Prussian military thinker. ... War Studies is the multi-disciplinary study of war. ... The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the European Union. ...

Unit-level concepts in international relations

As a level of analysis the unit level is often referred to as the state level, as it locates its explanation at the level of the state, rather than the international system.


Regime type

It is often considered that a states regime type can dictate the way that a state interacts with others in the international system.


Democratic Peace Theory is a theory that suggests that the nature of democracy means that democratic countries will not go to war with each other. The justifications for this are that democracies externalise their norms and only go to war for just causes, and that democracy encourages mutual trust and respect. The democratic peace theory, liberal peace theory,[1] or simply the democratic peace is a theory and related empirical research in international relations, political science, and philosophy which holds that democracies — usually, liberal democracies — never or almost never go to war with one another. ...


Communism justifies a world revolution, which similarly would lead to peaceful coexistence, based on a proletarian global society. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


Revisionism/Status quo

States can be classified by whether they accept the international status quo, or are revisionist, i.e. want change. Revisionist states seek to fundamentally change the rules and practices of international relations, feeling disadvantaged by the status quo. They see the international system as a largely western creation which serves to reinforce current realities. Japan is an example of a state that has gone from being a revisionist state to one that is satisfied with the status quo, because the status quo is now beneficial to it.


Religion

It is often considered that religion can have an effect on the way a state acts within the international system. Religion is visible as an organising principle particularly for Islamic states, whereas secularism sits at the other end of the spectrum, with the separation of state and religion being responsible for the Liberal tradition. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Liberal institutionalism. ...

See also: Foundationalism

...

Individual or sub-unit level concepts

The level beneath the unit (state) level can be useful both for explaining factors in International Relations that other theories fail to explain, and for moving away from a state-centric view of international relations.

  • Psychological factors in International Relations - Evaluating psychological factors in international relations comes from the understanding that a state is not a 'black box' as proposed by Realism, and that there may be other influences on foreign policy decisions. Examining the role of personalities in the decision making process can have some explanatory power, as can the role of misperception between various actors. A prominent application of sub-unit level psychological factors in international relations is the concept of Groupthink, another is the propensity of policymakers to think in terms of analogies.
  • Bureaucratic politics - Looks at the role of the bureaucracy in decision making, and sees decisions as a result of bureaucratic in-fighting, and as having been shaped by various constraints.
  • Religious, Ethnic, and secessionist groups - Viewing these aspects of the sub-unit level has explanatory power with regards to ethnic conflicts, religious wars, transnational diaspora (diaspora politics) and other actors which do not consider themselves to fit with the defined state boundaries. This is particularly useful in the context of the pre-modern world of weak states.
  • Science, Technology and International Relations- How science and technology impact the global health, business, environment, technology, and development.

Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Groupthink is a type of thought exhibited by group members who try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas. ... This article is about the sociological concept. ... An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. ... A religious war is a war where the main cause is, or appears to be, religion or religious differences. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with identity politics. ...

Institutions in international relations

International institutions form a vital part of contemporary International Relations. Much interaction at the system level is governed by them, and they outlaw some traditional institutions and practices of International Relations, such as the use of war (except in self-defence). For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


As humanity enters the Planetary phase of civilization, some scientists and political theorists see a global hierarchy of institutions replacing the existing system of sovereign nation-states as the primary political community. They argue that nations are an imagined community that cannot resolve such modern challenges as the “Dogville” effect (strangers in a homogeneous community), the legal and political status of stateless people and refugees, and the need to address worldwide concerns like climate change and pandemics. Futurist Paul Raskin has hypothesized that a new, more legitimate form of global politics could be based on “constrained pluralism.” This principle guides the formation of institutions based on three characteristics: irreducibility, where some issues must be adjudicated at the global level; subsidiarity, which limits the scope of global authority to truly global issues while smaller-scope issues are regulated at lower levels; and heterogeneity, which allows for diverse forms of local and regional institutions as long as they meet global obligations. The Planetary Phase of Civilization is a concept defined by the Global scenario group (GSG), an environmental organization that specializes in scenario analysis and forecasting. ... The Imagined Community is the concept strongly supported by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is socially constructed and ultimately imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group. ... Dogville is a 2003 movie written and directed by Lars von Trier, starring Nicole Kidman, Paul Bettany, Lauren Bacall, Chloe Sevigny, Stellan SkarsgÃ¥rd and James Caan, among others. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Dr. Paul Raskin is President of the Tellus Institute where he directs a team of professionals in environmental, resource, and development policy research. ... Global politics is the discipline that studies the political and economical patterns of the world. ... Subsidiarity is the principle which states that matters ought to be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent authority. ... A heterogeneous compound, mixture, or other such object is one that consists of many different items. ...

See also: International organization

For the political science journal, see International Organization. ...

United Nations

Main article: United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a "global association of governments facilitating co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity"; It is the most prominent international institution. Many of the legal institutions follow the same organisational structure as the UN. UN redirects here. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... A government is an organization that has the power to make and enforce laws for a certain territory. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... Global Security redirects here. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ...


Economic institutions

For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ...

International legal bodies

Human rights

The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... The Human Rights Committee is a group of 18 experts who meet three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by United Nations member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ...

Legal

The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... The African Court of Justice will at some point in the future be merged with the African Court on Human and Peoples Rights and be the African Unions legal organ. ... The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an intergovernmental organization created by the mandate of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. ...

Regional security arrangements

Main article: Collective Security

Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Council for Security Co-operation in the Asia Pacific - CSCAP CSCAP is a non-governmental (second track) process for dialogue on security issues in Asia Pacific. ... Maritime Security Regime Maritime Security Regimes are codes and conventions of behaviour agreed upon by coastal states to provide a degree of security in territorial waters and on the high seas. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...  Member states  Observer states  Taiwan (Disputed) Secretariat RATS Beijing, China (PRC) Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Russian, Chinese Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Establishment 15 June 2001 Website http://www. ...

See also

The University of Guadalajara (UdeG) is a public university based in Guadalajara, Jalisco. ... Development criticism refers to far-reaching criticisms of modernization and its central aspects : modern technology, industrialization, capitalism and economic globalization . ... Diplomacy Monitor is an internet-based tool to monitor diplomacy documents (communiques, official statements, interview transcripts, etc. ... In international relations, the term public diplomacy is a term coined in the 1960s to describe aspects of international diplomacy other than the interactions between national governments. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... For other uses, see Human condition (disambiguation). ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... // Obafemi Awolowo University,Nigeria, Dept. ... Associations The Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA) Institutes The Royal Institute of International Affiars (Chatham House) (London, United Kinddom) The New Zealand Institute of International Affairs (Wellington, New Zealand) The Australian Institute of International Affairs (Deakin, ACT, Australia) The Canadian Institute of International Affairs (Toronto, ON, Canada... The following list of scholarly journals in international relations is not comprehensive, as there are hundreds currently published. ... Moral syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory moral beliefs, often while melding the ethical practices and of various schools of thought. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the...

References

  • Ankerl, Guy [2000]. Global communication without universal civilization, INU societal research Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 
  • Kautilya Arthashastra circa 320 BCE
  • Norman Angell The Great Illusion 1909
  • Barry Buzan Regions and Powers 2003
  • Hedley Bull Anarchical Society
  • E. H. Carr Twenty Years Crisis
  • Robert Cooper The Post-Modern State
  • Hugo Grotius The laws of war and peace
  • Rubén Herrero de Castro & Robert Jervis La Realidad Inventada
  • Thomas Hobbes Leviathan
  • Robert H. Jackson The Global Covenant 2002
  • Mary Kaldor New Wars
  • Immanuel Kant Perpetual Peace
  • Hans Köchler, Democracy and the International Rule of Law. Vienna/New York: Springer, 1995
  • Hans Köchler, Aussenpolitik und Demokratie (Foreign Policy and Democracy / German), 1986 Google Print
  • Andrew Linklater Men and citizens in the theory of international relations
  • Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince
  • Joseph Nye Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics, PublicAffairs Ltd 2004
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau The social contract
  • Thucydides The History of the Peloponnesian war
  • Francisco de Vitoria De jure belli Hispanorum in barbaros
  • Kenneth Waltz Theory of International Politics 1979
  • Kenneth Waltz Man, the State, and War
  • Alexander Wendt Social Theory of International Politics 1999
  • Daniel Deudney Bounding Power: The Republican Security Theory from the Polis to the Global Village
  • Paul Raskin The Great Transition Today: A Report from the Future

Chanakya (c. ... Sir Ralph Norman Angell (December 26, 1872 – October 7, 1967) was an English lecturer, writer, and Member of Parliament for the Labour Party. ... Barry Buzan is a Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics, and honorary professor at the University of Copenhagen. ... Hedley Bull (1932 – 1985) was Professor of International Relations at the Australian National University, the London School of Economics, and the University of Oxford until his death in 1985. ... Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 1892 – 5 November 1982) was a British historian, journalist and international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography. ... Robert Francis Cooper has been Director-General for External and Politico-Military Affairs at the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union since 2002, responsible to Javier Solana, High Representative of the EUs Common Foreign and Security Policy. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Robert Jervis, the Adlai E. Stevenson Professor of International Affairs at Columbia University, is one of the most influential scholars of international relations. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892–October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940–1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–1954). ... Kant redirects here. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Professor Andrew Linklater, MA, PhD, is a renowned international relations academic, and is the current Woodrow Wilson Professor of International Politics at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Joseph Nye (born 1937) is the founder, along with Robert Keohane, of the international relations theory neoliberalism (international relations) developed in their 1977 book Power and Interdependence. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Francisco de Vitoria Francisco de Vitoria, Statue before San Esteban, Salamanca Statue of Francisco de Vitoria, in Vitoria-Gasteiz Francisco de Vitoria (Francisci de Victoria; c. ... Kenneth Neal Waltz (born 1924) is a member of the faculty at Columbia University and one of the most prominent scholars of international relations (IR) alive today. ... Kenneth Neal Waltz (born 1924) is a member of the faculty at Columbia University and one of the most prominent scholars of international relations (IR) alive today. ... Alexander Wendt is one of the core social constructivist scholars in the field of international relations. ... Daniel Deudney is an American political scientist and Associate Professor of Political Science at Johns Hopkins University. ... Dr. Paul Raskin is President of the Tellus Institute where he directs a team of professionals in environmental, resource, and development policy research. ...

External links

A list of IR schools, journals, organisations, institutes and think tanks can be found under the appropriate lists above, under "See also".

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The University of Business and International Studies UBIS ([1]) is a private university founded on February 6, 2006 in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... The New School is an institution of higher learning in New York City, located around Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
international relations: Definition and Much More From Answers.com (3700 words)
One looks to strengthened international law and international organizations to preserve peace; the other emphasizes that nations will always use their power to achieve goals and sees the key to peace in a balance of power among competing states.
International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs).
The use of capitalizations of the I and R in International Relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of International Relations from the phenomena of international relations.
International Relations (465 words)
International Relations (IR) is concerned with transnational interactions among countries, an issue that has gained added significance in the wake of the new world disorder of post-September 11, 2001.
Because IR is carried out within a global society that is informally regulated by norms, rules, and institutions, scholars refer to the global environment as an "international system." An important goal of this study is to describe the nature and evolution of contemporary global structures.
The B.A. in International Relations has also proven to be a successful undergraduate degree for graduate programs and law school.
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