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Encyclopedia > International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry nomenclature

IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. It is developed and kept up to date under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Nomenclature refers to a set or system of names or terms, as those used in a particular science or art, used by an individual or community. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...


The rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1][2] and the Red Book[3] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[4] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[5] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[6] (in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[7] and macromolecular chemistry [8]. These books are supplemented by shorter recommendations for specific circumstances which are published from time to time in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry. Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (ISBN 0632035838), also known as the Green Book, edited by I. Mills, et al. ... A physical quantity is either a quantity within physics that can be measured (e. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of Physics. ... The Gold Book or Compendium of Chemical Terminology (ISBN 0865426848) is a book published by IUPAC containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... Nature, Science and PNAS In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ... Pure and Applied Chemistry (abb. ...


This article treats the system of nomenclature in general, notably its aims and historical development. Separate articles treat the naming of organic compounds and inorganic compounds in more detail. The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ...

Contents

Aims of chemical nomenclature

The primary function of chemical nomenclature is to ensure that the person who hears or reads a chemical name is under no ambiguity as to which chemical compound it refers: each name should refer to a single substance. It is considered less important to ensure that each substance should have a single name, although the number of acceptable names is limited.


It is also preferable that the name convey some information about the structure or chemistry of a compound. CAS numbers form an extreme example of names which do not perform this function: each refers to a single compound but none contain information about the structure. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ...


The form of nomenclature which should be used depends on the public to which it is addressed: as such there is no single correct form, but rather different forms which are more or less appropriate in different circumstances.


A common name will often suffice to identify a chemical compound in a particular set of circumstances. To be more generally applicable, the name should indicate at least the chemical formula. To be more specific still, the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms may need to be specified. A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ...


In a few specific circumstances (such as the construction of large indices), it becomes necessary to ensure that each compound has a unique name: this requires the addition of extra rules to the standard IUPAC system (the CAS system is the most commonly used in this context), at the expense of having names which are longer and less familiar to most readers. Another system gaining popularity is the International Chemical Identifier—while InChI symbols are not human readable, they contain complete information about substance structure. That makes them more general than CAS numbers. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society, and produces Chemical Abstracts, and related products. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ...


The IUPAC system is often criticized for the above failures when they become relevant (for example in differing reactivity of sulfur allotropes which IUPAC doesn't distinguish). While IUPAC has a human-readable advantage over CAS numbering, it would be difficult to claim that the IUPAC names for some larger, relevant molecules (such as rapamycin) are human-readable, and so most researchers simply use the informal names. Allotropy (Gr. ... Sirolimus is a relatively new immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, and is especially useful in kidney transplants. ...


History

First page of Lavoisier's Chymical Nomenclature in English.

The nomenclature of alchemy is rich in description, but does not effectively meet the aims outlined above. Opinions differ whether this was deliberate on the part of the early practitioners of alchemy or whether it was a consequence of the particular (and often esoteric) theoretical framework in which they worked. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1454, 47 KB) A scan of the opening page of Chymical Nomenclature from 1787 by Lavoisier, from a photocopy of a contemporary English translation. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1454, 47 KB) A scan of the opening page of Chymical Nomenclature from 1787 by Lavoisier, from a photocopy of a contemporary English translation. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...


While both explanations are probably valid to some extent, it is remarkable that the first "modern" system of chemical nomenclature appeared at the same time as the distinction (by Lavoisier) between elements and compounds, in the late eighteenth century. Lavoisier redirects here. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


The French chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau published his recommendations[9] in 1782, hoping that his "constant method of denomination" would "help the intelligence and relieve the memory". The system was refined in collaboration with Berthollet, de Fourcroy and Lavoisier,[10] and promoted by the latter in a textbook which would survive long after his death at the guillotine in 1794.[11] The project was also espoused by Jöns Jakob Berzelius,[12][13] who adapted the ideas for the German-speaking world. Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Claude Louis Berthollet Claude Louis Berthollet (December 9, 1748 – November 6, 1822) was a French chemist. ... Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy (June 15, 1755 – December 16, 1809), French chemist, the son of an apothecary in the household of the duke of Orleans, was born at Paris. ... This article is about the decapitation device. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Friherre Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 – August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ...


The recommendations of Guyton covered only what would be today known as inorganic compounds. With the massive expansion of organic chemistry in the mid-nineteenth century and the greater understanding of the structure of organic compounds, the need for a less ad hoc system of nomenclature was felt just as the theoretical tools became available to make this possible. An international conference was convened in Geneva in 1892 by the national chemical societies, from which the first widely accepted proposals for standardization arose.[14] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


A commission was set up in 1913 by the Council of the International Association of Chemical Societies, but its work was interrupted by World War I. After the war, the task passed to the newly formed International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, which first appointed commissions for organic, inorganic and biochemical nomenclature in 1921 and continues to do so to this day. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Types of nomenclature

For inorganic compounds there are a number of different ways in which compounds can be named. These are compositional, substitutive and additive. The different methods of nomenclature are covered in the article IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry 2005, which summarises the latest IUPAC recommendations.


Compositional nomenclature

Examples of compositional names are:

  • PCl5 phosphorus pentachloride
  • Ca2P3 dicalcium triphosphide

An alternative method uses the oxidation state on the metal in place of suffices e.g.:

  • SnCl2, tin (II) chloride as an alternative to tin dichloride.

Substitutive nomenclature

This naming method generally follows established IUPAC organic nomenclature. Hydrides of the main group elements (groups 13-17) are given -ane base names, e.g. borane, BH3, phosphane, PH3 (N.B. not phosphine). The compound PCl3 would be named substitutively as trichlorophosphane.


Additive nomenclature

This naming method has been developed principally for coordination compounds although it can be more widely applied. An example of its application is:

  • [CoCl(NH3)5]Cl2 pentaamminechloridocobalt(2+) chloride

Note that ligands such as chloride become chlorido- rather than chloro as in substitutive naming.


See also

For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Chemical nomenclature, replete as it is with compounds with complex names, is a repository for some very peculiar and sometimes startling names. ...

References

  1. ^ [1958 (A: Hydrocarbons, and B: Fundamental Heterocyclic Systems), 1965 (C: Characteristic Groups)] (1971 (3rd edition combined)) Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 3 (in English), London: Butterworths. ISBN 0408701447. 
  2. ^ Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, Oxford:Pergamon Press, 1979; A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds, Recommendations 1993, Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993. (ISBN 3-540-41138-0)
  3. ^ Connelly NG, McCleverty JA (2001). Nomenclature of inorganic chemistry II: recommendations 2000. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0-85404-487-6. 
  4. ^ Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (3rd Edn.), Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (2007)
  5. ^ Compendium of Chemical Terminology, IUPAC Recommendations (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (1997)
  6. ^ Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, London:Portland Press, 1992.
  7. ^ Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature, Definitive Rules 1997 (3rd Edn.), Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1998.
  8. ^ Compendium of Macromolecular Nomenclature, Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1991.
  9. '^ Guyton de Morveau, L. B. (1782). J. Phys. '19, 310.
  10. ^ Guyton de Morveau, L. B.; Lavoisier, A. L.; Berthollet, C. L.; de Fourcroy, A. F. (1787). Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique, Paris.
  11. ^ Lavoisier, A. L. (1801). Traité Elémentaire de Chimie (3e edn.), Paris:Deterville.
  12. '^ Berzelius, J. J. (1811). J. Phys. '73, 248.
  13. ^ Jaime Wisniak (2000). "Jöns Jacob Berzelius A Guide to the Perplexed Chemist". The Chemical Educator 5 (6): 343–350. doi:10.1007/s00897000430a. 
  14. '^ Bull. Soc. Chim. (Paris) '3(7), xiii. (1892)

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • IUPAC Provisional Recommendations for the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2004) (online draft of an updated version of the "Red Book")
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (online version of the "Blue Book")
  • IUPAC Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols, Terminology, etc. (includes IUBMB Recommendations for biochemistry)
  • IUPAC Abbreviated list of quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry (online version of the "Green Book")
  • IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (online version of the "Gold Book", from IUPAC)
  • IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (online version of the "Gold Book", from the RSC, allows free text searching.)
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ...

 
 

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