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Encyclopedia > International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union

International Telecommunication Union emblem
International Telecommunication Union emblem Image File history File links Flag_of_ITU.svg Flag of the International Telecommunication Union. ... An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ...

Formation May 17, 1865
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Membership United Nations
Official languages French (official + working language), English (working language), Spanish (working language)
Secretary General Hamadoun Touré
Website http://www.itu.int/

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. It was founded as the International Telegraph Union in Paris on May 17, 1865. Its main tasks include standardization, allocation of the radio spectrum, and organizing interconnection arrangements between different countries to allow international phone calls — in which regard it performs for telecommunications a similar function to what the UPU performs for postal services. It is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, next to the main United Nations campus. The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A large number of international organizations and other bodies have a secretary general or secretary-general as their chief administrative officers or in other administrative capacities. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... IGO redirects here. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...

Contents

Parts

The ITU is made up of three bureaux:

  • The Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB), known prior to 1992 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT (from its French name "Comité consultatif international téléphonique et télégraphique");
  • The Radiocommunication Bureau (BR), known prior to 1992 as the International Radio Consultative Committee or CCIR (from its French name "Comité consultatif international des radiocommunications");
  • The Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT), created in 1992.

The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is a standards body subcommittee of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) relating to radio communication. ... ITU-D, Telecom Development, is responsible for creating policies, regulation and providing training programs and financial strategies in developing countries. ...

Leadership

The ITU is headed by a Secretary-General, who is elected to a four-year term by the member states at the plenipotentiary conference.


At the 17th plenipotentiary conference in Antalya, Turkey, the ITU's member states elected Dr Hamadoun I. Toure of Mali as Secretary-General of the Union.[1] Antalya (formerly known as Adalia; from Pamphylian Greek: Αττάλεια Attália) is a large town and tourist destination, situated on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. ...


Standards

Monument in Berne, Switzerland. The text reads: "Union Télégraphique Internationale fondée à Paris en 1865 sur l'initiative du gouvernement français. Érigé par décision de l'Union Télégraphique prise à la conférence internationale de Lisbonne en 1908." (In English: "International Telegraph Union founded at Paris in 1865 on the initiative of the French government. [This monument] erected by a decision of the Telegraph Union made at the international conference at Lisbon in 1908.")
Monument in Berne, Switzerland. The text reads: "Union Télégraphique Internationale fondée à Paris en 1865 sur l'initiative du gouvernement français. Érigé par décision de l'Union Télégraphique prise à la conférence internationale de Lisbonne en 1908." (In English: "International Telegraph Union founded at Paris in 1865 on the initiative of the French government. [This monument] erected by a decision of the Telegraph Union made at the international conference at Lisbon in 1908.")

The international standards that are produced by the ITU are referred to as "Recommendations" (with the word ordinarily capitalized to distinguish its meaning from the ordinary sense of the word). Due to its longevity as an international organization and its status as a specialized agency of the United Nations, standards promulgated by the ITU carry a higher degree of formal international recognition than those of most other organizations that publish technical specifications of a similar form. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1319 KB) International Telecommunication Union monument, Bern, Switzerland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1319 KB) International Telecommunication Union monument, Bern, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ... Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ...


Digital Opportunity Index

The ITU has developed, under the Digital Opportunity Platform, the Digital Opportunity Index (or DOI) as a tool to measure the Information Society. DOI is a composite index based on 11 core ICT indicators. The structure of the index is sequential, which makes it more flexible and allows to use it in combination with other existing indices (such as the UNDP Human Development Index)[2] The DOI was endorsed by the World Summit on the Information Society [3] in the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society (para 117) as a tool for mapping of digital opportunity worldwide.


The DOI, which was compiled for 180 economies for 2005, is at present the most extensive ICT index providing an internationally-agreed benchmark of the status of ICTs around the world at the conclusion of the Tunis Summit, and can be used to track progress made in infrastructure, opportunity and utilization of ICTs by the target year 2015. The measurement of the digital divide and the analysis based on scientifically-significant evidence make it possible to inform policy-making processes and optimize the benefits of ICTs, in particular in the developing countries.


In 2005, the Asian economies of the Republic of Korea and Japan continue to lead in digital opportunity, due to their pioneering take-up of broadband and 3G mobile services. Dramatic progress has been achieved by developing countries, however, which made the greatest progress in digital opportunity - notably India, where digital opportunity nearly doubled between 2001 and 2005, and China, which experienced remarkably strong gains in infrastructure. Different countries are following their own paths in telecommunication development, with some countries leveraging their investments in infrastructure more successfully than others.


A collaborative report, the World Information Society Report[4], reviews the key trends in ICT development crystallized by the DOI and frame the ICT development debate, providing an annual contribution to the WSIS implementation. Highlights from the report as well as the chapters, different statistics and maps based on the DOI are publicly available.[5]


The policy toolkit being developed under DOP will contribute furthering the knowledge of the digital divide and allow tailoring recommendations to address the specific challenges in digital opportunity faced by individual countries or regions based on facts about what worked and what did not in a particular context. In that sense, the insights of the different stakeholders involved are valuable in developing adapted and appropriate policy support. A DOI Users’ guide is available for all those willing to calculate the DOI themselves: regulators, development professionals, academics and larger audience.[6]


The DOI is not at this point an ITU Recommendation (what the ITU calls its standards)[7]. The DOI will continue to be developed as a multi-stakeholder project involving multiple partners as an integrated element of the Digital Opportunity Platform.[8]


Members

ITU member states
ITU member states

The work of the ITU is conducted by its members. As part of the United Nations structure, a country can be a member, in which case it is referred to as a Member State. Companies and other such organizations can hold other classes of membership referred to as Sector Member or Associate status. Sector and Associate memberships enable direct participation by a company in the development of standards (something not allowed in some other standards bodies such as ISO, where formal ballots are processed by a single entity per country and companies participate only indirectly through national delegations). Various parts of the ITU also maintain liaison relationships with other organizations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Members are the Vatican City and almost all of the UN members. Only Palau and East Timor are not participating. Other entities not represented are the Palestinian Authority and Taiwan. A map of UN member states and their dependencies as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (the Palestine Liberation Organization is a UN observer), and Western Sahara (status in dispute between... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


Meetings

The ITU decides matters between states and private organizations through an extensive series of working parties, study groups, regional meetings, and world meetings.


Examples

Stamp
Stamp

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1466x987, 150 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1466x987, 150 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) is organized by ITU to review, and, if necessary, revise the Radio Regulations, the international treaty governing the use of the radio-frequency spectrum and the geostationary-satellite and non-geostationary-satellite orbits. ... The World administrative radio conference is a technical conference of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) where delegates from member nations of the ITU meet to revise or amend the entire international Radio Regulations pertaining to all telecommunication services throughout the world. ... A Regional Radiocommunications Conference (RRC) is a meeting held between members of the International Telecommunications Union from one or more ITU Regions, but from the whole world. ...

World Summit on the Information Society

Main article: World Summit on the Information Society

The ITU was the lead organizing agency of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)[9], a United Nations summit aiming at bridging the digital divide and turning it into digital opportunity for all. WSIS provided a global forum on the theme of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) for development, involving for the first time all stakeholders - governments, international organizations, civil society and business. WSIS was a pledge for building a people-centered development-oriented Information Society. Other big themes of the Summit were Internet governance and Financial mechanisms for meeting the challenges of ICTs for development. The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a pair of United Nations-sponsored conferences about information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis. ...


The idea of holding WSIS came from the Tunisian President Ben Ali on the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference in Minneapolis in 1998. The process was launched late in 2002 on the initiative of Kofi Annan. The first phase of the WSIS summit took place in December 2003 in Geneva and the second and final phase took place in Tunis in November 2005. Also see: 2002 (number). ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


See also

ITU headquarters, Geneva
ITU headquarters, Geneva
  • ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
  • ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)
  • ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D)
  • ITU-T Recommendations
  • ITU-R Recommendations
  • UIT X.509
  • Inter-American Telecommunication Commission (CITEL)
  • Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG)

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 4. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is a standards body subcommittee of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) relating to radio communication. ... ITU-D, Telecom Development, is responsible for creating policies, regulation and providing training programs and financial strategies in developing countries. ... In cryptography, X.509 is an ITU-T standard for public key infrastructure (PKI). ... The Inter-American Telecommunication Commission or Comisión Interamericana de Telecomunicaciones (CITEL), is an entity of the Organization of American States. ... The Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) is a United Nations group set up after the failure of the 2003 World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) to agree on the future of Internet governance. ...

Notes

ITU headquarters, Geneva
ITU headquarters, Geneva
  1. ^ Report on election of Toure
  2. ^ ITU Digital Opportunity Index
  3. ^ World Summit on the Information Society
  4. ^ World Information Society Report
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ The available definition of the DOI is a methodological paper first presented at the WSIS Thematic Meeting “Building Digital Bridges” in Bussan, Korea in June 2005: [3]
  8. ^ [4]
  9. ^ [5]

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2436 × 3790 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2436 × 3790 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

External links

  • ITU official site
  • ITU history from the official site
  • U.N. Summit to Focus on Internet - Washington Post article about ICANN and the United Nations' ITU relationship
  • Information on national radio frequency spectrum allocations: 960 – 3 000 MHz, ITU-D, study groups SGP 2002-2006 (DOC)

  Results from FactBites:
 
IARUWeb: (210 words)
Because it uses an international natural resource--the radio spectrum--Amateur Radio must organize nationally and internationally for better mutual use of the radio spectrum among radio amateurs throughout the world, to develop Amateur Radio worldwide, and to successfully interact with the agencies responsible for regulating and allocating radio frequencies.
At the international level, national societies throughout the world work together for the international good of Amateur Radio under the auspices of a representative democracy, the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU).
The IARU Constitution, last amended in 1989, organizes the Union into three Regional Organizations that correspond to the three radio regions of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
AllRefer.com - International Telecommunication Union, UN (United Nations) - Encyclopedia (265 words)
The union functions under the International Telecommunication Convention, which was adopted in 1947 and revised in 1967.
The goal of the organization is to extend and improve all forms of international telecommunication by allotting radio frequencies, by encouraging the establishment of low rates, and by perfecting communications in rescue operations.
The ITU is governed by the plenipotentiary conference at which all members are represented; it normally meets once every four or five years.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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