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Encyclopedia > International Style (architecture)
The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927)
The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927)
The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930)

The International style was a major architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s. The term usually refers to the buildings and architects of the formative decades of Modernism, before World War II. The term had its origin from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson written to record the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1932 which identified, categorised and expanded upon characteristics common to Modernism across the world. As a result, the focus was more on the stylistic aspects of Modernism. Hitchcock's and Johnson's aims were to define a style of the time, which would encapsulate this modern architecture. They identified three different principles: the expression of volume rather than mass, balance rather than preconceived symmetry and the expulsion of applied ornament. All the works which were displayed as part of the exhibition were carefully selected, as only works which strictly followed the set of rules were displayed.[1] Previous uses of the term in the same context can be attributed to Walter Gropius in Internationale Architektur, and Ludwig Hilberseimer in Internationale neue Baukunst.[2] Stuttgart-Weissenhof - from German Wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stuttgart-Weissenhof - from German Wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stuttgart-Weissenhof - from German Wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stuttgart-Weissenhof - from German Wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Henry-Russell Hitchcock (1903-1987) was an American architectural historian and professor at Smith College. ... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Ludwig Karl Hilberseimer (1885 - 1967) was a German architect and urban planner best known for his ties to the Bauhaus and to Mies van der Rohe. ...

Contents

Important buildings at the exhibition

Alvar Aalto: Turun Sanomat building, Turku, Finland 1930
Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret: Stein house, Garches, Near St. Cloud 1928
Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret: Villa Savoye, Poissy-Sur-Seine 1930
Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret: De Beistegui Pent House, Champs-Elysees, Paris 1931
Otto Eisler: Double House, Brno, Czechoslovakia 1926
Walter Gropius: Bauhaus School, Dessau, Germany 1926
Walter Gropius: City Employment Office, Dessau, Germany 1928
Erich Mendelsohn: Schocken Department Store, Chemnitz, Germany 1928-1930
Mies Van Der Rohe: Apartment House, Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart 1927
Mies Van Der Rohe: German pavilion at the Barcelona Exposition, Spain 1929
Mies Van Der Rohe: Tugendhat House, Brno, Czechoslovakia 1930
Jacobus Oud: Workers Houses,(Seidlung, Kiefhoek), Hook of Holland 1924-1927
Karl Schneider: Kunstverein, Humburg, Germany 1930
“Aalto” redirects here. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Pierre Jeanneret (1896-1967) was a Swiss architect who collaborated with his more famous cousin Charles Edouard Jeanneret (who assumed the pseudonym Le Corbusier) for about twenty years. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Pierre Jeanneret (1896-1967) was a Swiss architect who collaborated with his more famous cousin Charles Edouard Jeanneret (who assumed the pseudonym Le Corbusier) for about twenty years. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Pierre Jeanneret (1896-1967) was a Swiss architect who collaborated with his more famous cousin Charles Edouard Jeanneret (who assumed the pseudonym Le Corbusier) for about twenty years. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Translation in progress Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953) was a German Jewish architect, known for his expressionist buildings in the 1920s, the first in their style. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (February 9, 1890 - April 5, 1963) was a Dutch architect. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Europe

Around 1900 a number of architects around the world began developing new architectural solutions to integrate traditional precedents with new social demands and technological possibilities. The work of Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde in Brussels, Antoni Gaudi in Barcelona, Otto Wagner in Vienna and Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, among many others, can be seen as a common struggle between old and new. Maison and Atelier Horta, designed in 1898, now houses the Horta Museum, dedicated to his work. ... Henry Van de Velde (3 April 1863 – 15 October 1957) was a Belgian painter, architect and interior designer. ... Antoni Gaud i Cornet (more widely known in the English speaking world under the Spanish version of his first name, as Antonio Gaud , or, just simply, Gaudi), (25 June 1852–10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect famous for his unique designs expressing sculptural and individualistic qualities. ... Otto Wagner Otto Koloman Wagner (13 July 1841–11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect. ... For the chemist and inventor, see Charles Macintosh. ...


The international style as such blossomed in 1920s Western Europe. Researchers find significant contemporary common ground among the Dutch de Stijl movement, the work of visionary French/Swiss architect Le Corbusier and various German efforts to industrialize craft traditions, which resulted in the formation of the Deutscher Werkbund, large civic worker-housing projects in Frankfurt and Stuttgart, and, most famously, the Bauhaus. The Bauhaus was one of a number of European schools and associations concerned with reconciling craft tradition and industrial technology. The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... The Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) was a German association of architects, designers and industrialists, an important precursor to the Bauhaus. ... For the British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ...

For more details on this topic, see New Objectivity (architecture).

By the 1920s the most important figures in modern architecture had established their reputations. The big three are commonly recognized as Le Corbusier in France, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in Germany. Walter Gropius Bauhaus, Dessau For the literary and artistic aspects of this movement, see New Objectivity. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ...

Helsinki University of Technology auditorium, built from red brick, by Alvar Aalto
Helsinki University of Technology auditorium, built from red brick, by Alvar Aalto
The Glass Palace, a celebration of transparency, in Heerlen, The Netherlands (1935)
The Glass Palace, a celebration of transparency, in Heerlen, The Netherlands (1935)

The common characteristics of the International style include: a radical simplification of form, a rejection of ornament, and adoption of glass, steel and concrete as preferred materials. Further, the transparency of buildings, construction (called the honest expression of structure), and acceptance of industrialized mass-production techniques contributed to the international style's design philosophy. Finally, the machine aesthetic, and logical design decisions leading to support building function were used by the International architect to create buildings reaching beyond historicism. Helsinki University of Technology, auditorium of the main building, photographed by Jpk, 2004. ... Helsinki University of Technology, auditorium of the main building, photographed by Jpk, 2004. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2553x1911, 172 KB) Summary Photograph made and uploaded by Dirk van der Made The front (north east) side of the Glaspaleis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2553x1911, 172 KB) Summary Photograph made and uploaded by Dirk van der Made The front (north east) side of the Glaspaleis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... The Glaspaleis as seen from the market square (Bongerd) The mezzanine and ground floor The pillars and ventilation system The Glaspaleis (in English: Glass Palace or Crystal Palace) is the name of former fashion house and department store Schunck in Heerlen, The Netherlands, built in 1935, which is now the... In art, Historicism refers to styles that draw their inspiration from copying historic styles or artisans. ...


The ideals of the style are commonly summed up in four slogans: ornament is a crime, truth to materials, form follows function, and Le Corbusier's description of houses as "machines for living". In architecture, ornament is decorative detail on buildings. ... Truth to materials is a tenet of modern architecture (as opposed to postmodern architecture), which holds that any material should be used where it is most appropriate and its nature should not be hidden. ... Form follows function is a principle associated with Modern architecture and industrial design in the 20th Century, which states that the shape of a building or object should be predicated on its intended purpose. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ...


In 1927, one of the first and most defining manifestations of the International Style was the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, built as a component of the exhibition "Die Wohnung," organized by the Deutscher Werkbund, and overseen by Mies van der Rohe. The fifteen contributing architects included Mies, and other names most associated with the movement: Peter Behrens, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, J.J.P. Oud, Mart Stam, and Bruno Taut. The exhibition was enormously popular, with thousands of daily visitors. Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Postcard showing the Weissenhof Estate, with index of contributing architects The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate (German: Weißenhofsiedlung) is a estate of working class housing which was built in Stuttgart in 1927. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ... Peter Behrens (April 14, 1868–February 27, 1940) was a German architect and designer. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (February 9, 1890 - April 5, 1963) was a Dutch architect. ... Mart Stam (1899 - 1986) was a Dutch architect, urban planner, and chair designer. ... Bruno Julius Florian Taut (May 4, 1880, Konigsberg, Germany - December 24, 1938, Istanbul), was a prolific German architect, urban planner and author active in the Weimar period. ...


The town of Portolago (now Lakki) in the Greek Dodecanese island of Leros represents some of the most interesting urban planning from the fascist regime in the Dodecanese; an extraordinary example of city takeover in the International style known as Italian rationalist. The symbolism of the shapes is reflected with exemplary effectiveness in the buildings of Lakki: the administration building, the metaphysical tower of the market, the cinema-theatre, the Hotel Roma (now Hotel Leros), the church of San Francesco and the hospital are fine examples of the style. Many of its ideas and ideals were formalized by the 1928 Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne. The Dodecanese (Greek Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, Turkish Onikiada, both meaning twelve islands; Italian Dodecaneso) are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ... Leros (Greek: Λέρος; Italian: Lèro) is a Greek island in the Dodecanese, in the southern Aegean Sea. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congrès International dArchitecture Moderne (CIAM) (or International Congress of Modern Architecture), founded in 1928 and disbanded in 1959, was the think tank of the modern movement (or international style) in architecture. ...


United States

Rudolf Schindler's Lovell Beach House in Los Angeles, California (1926)
Rudolf Schindler's Lovell Beach House in Los Angeles, California (1926)

The same striving towards simplification, honesty and clarity are identifiable in US architects of the same period, notably in the work of Louis Sullivan, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago. As well as the west-coast residences of Irving Gill. Frank Lloyd Wright's career in the 1900s and 1910s parallels and influences the work of the European modernists, particularly via the Wasmuth Portfolio, but he refused to be categorized with them. Image File history File links Lovell_beach_house. ... Image File history File links Lovell_beach_house. ... Lovell Beach House, Los Angeles California Rudolf Michael Schindler (1887–1953) was an Austrian-American architect who worked in Los Angeles during the mid-20th century. ... Louis Henri Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, called the father of modernism. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... Irving Gill (1870 - 1936) was born in Tully (near Syracuse), New York, USA. He trained as an architect and went on to become well known for architecture in Southern California. ... This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... The Wasmuth portfolio (named after the German publisher), was one of Frank Lloyd Wrights first published works. ...


In 1922, the competition for the Tribune Tower and its famous second-place entry by Eliel Saarinen gave a clear indication of what was to come. Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. ... Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (August 20, 1873, Rantasalmi, Finland – July 1, 1950, Cranbrook, Michigan, United States) was a Finnish architect who became famous for his art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. ...


The term International Style came from the 1932 exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, organized by Philip Johnson, and from the title of the exhibition catalog for that exhibit, written by Johnson and Henry Russell Hitchcock. It addressed building from 1922 through 1932. Johnson named, codified, promoted and subtly re-defined the whole movement by his inclusion of certain architects, and his description of their motives and values. Many Modernists disliked the term, believing that they had arrived at an approach to architecture that transcended "style," along with any national or regional or continental identity. The British architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner commented, "to me what had been achieved in 1914 was the style of the century. It never occurred to me to look beyond. Here was the one and only style which fitted all those aspects which mattered, aspects of economics and sociology, of materials and function. It seems folly to think that anybody would wish to abandon it.[1] This article is about the museum in New York City. ... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... Henry-Russell Hitchcock (1903-1987) was the leading American architectural historian of his generation. ... Sir Nikolaus Pevsner CBE (January 30, 1902 – August 18, 1983) was a German-born British historian of art and, especially, architecture. ...


Johnson also defined the modern movement as an aesthetic style, rather than a matter of political statement. This was a departure from the functionalist principles of some of the original Weissenhof architects, particularly the Dutch, and especially J.J.P. Oud, with whom Johnson maintained a prickly correspondence on the topic. Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. ...

The Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building
The Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building

The same year that Johnson coined the term Internation Style, saw the completion of the world's first International Style skyscraper: Philadelphia's PSFS Building. Designed by the truly "international" team of architects, George Howe and William Lescaze, the PSFS Building has become an integral element of the Philadelphia skyline. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 429 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (458 × 640 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building, 1932 This article or image contains material based on a work of a National Park Service employee, created during the course... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 429 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (458 × 640 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building, 1932 This article or image contains material based on a work of a National Park Service employee, created during the course... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... The Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building Founded on December 20, 1816, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, PSFS, or the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, was the first savings bank in the United States. ... William Edmond Lescaze (March 27, 1896-February 9, 1969) was a Swiss-born American architect. ...


The gradual rise of the National Socialist regime in Weimar Germany in the 1930s, and the Nazi's rejection of modern architecture, meant that an entire generation of architects were forced out of Europe. When Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer fled Germany, they both arrived at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, in an excellent position to extend their influence and promote the Bauhaus as the primary source of architectural modernism. When Mies fled in 1936, he came to Chicago, and solidified his reputation as the prototypical modern architect. The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Marcel Lajos Breuer (May 21, 1902 Pécs, Hungary – July 1, 1981 New York City), architect and furniture designer, was an influential Hungarian-born modernist of Jewish descent. ... The Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) is a graduate school at Harvard University offering degrees in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Planning and Design. ... For the British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After World War II, the International Style matured, HOK and SOM perfected the corporate practice, and it became the dominant approach for decades. Perhaps its most famous/notorious manifestations include the United Nations headquarters and the Seagram Building in New York. HOK is a major international architectural practice. ... Shaklee Terraces, San Francisco, designed in 1982 with a flush aluminum and glass facade and rounded corners. ... This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City, located at 375 Park Avenue, between 52nd Street and 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan. ... This article is about the state. ...


The typical International Style high-rise usually consists of the following:
1. Square or rectangular footprint
2. Simple cubic "extruded rectangle" form
3. Windows running in broken horizontal rows forming a grid
4. All facade angles are 90 degrees.


Other countries

One of the strengths of the International Style was that the design solutions were indifferent to location, site, and climate. This was one of the reasons it was called 'international'; the style made no reference to local history or national vernacular. They were the same buildings around the world. (Later this was identified as one of the style's primary weaknesses.)


American anti-Communist politics after the war, and Philip Johnson's influential rejection of functionalism, have tended to mask the fact that many of the important contributors to the original Weissenhof project fled to the east. This group also tended to be far more concerned with functionalism. Bruno Taut, Mart Stam, the second Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer, Ernst May and other important figures of the International Style went to the Soviet Union in 1930 to undertake huge, ambitious, idealistic urban planning projects, building entire cities from scratch. This Soviet effort was doomed to failure, and these architects became stateless persons in 1936 when Stalin ordered them out of the country and Hitler would not allow them back into Germany. Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ... Bruno Julius Florian Taut (May 4, 1880, Konigsberg, Germany - December 24, 1938, Istanbul), was a prolific German architect, urban planner and author active in the Weimar period. ... Mart Stam (1899 - 1986) was a Dutch architect, urban planner, and chair designer. ... Hannes Meyer Hannes Meyer (November 18, 1889–July 19, 1954) was a Swiss architect and second director of the Bauhaus in Dessau from 1928 to 1930. ... Ernst May (July 27, 1886, Frankfurt am Main—September 11, 1970, Hamburg) was a German architect and city planner. ...


In the late 1930s this group, and their students, were dispersed to Turkey, France, Mexico, Venezuela, Kenya and India, adding up to a truly international influence. The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ...


In 2000, UNESCO, proclaimed Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas in Caracas, Venezuela, as World Cultural Heritage site, describing it as "a masterpiece of modern city planning, architecture and art, created by the Venezuelan architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and a group of distinguished avant-garde artists" being the only university campus designed in the 20th century that has received such recognition by UNESCO. A view of the main library(center) and works by Alejandro Otero(left) and Mateo Manaure(right) The Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas (University City of Caracas) is the main Campus of the Central University of Venezuela. ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Carlos Raúl Villanueva working in the house of the Hacienda Ibarra during the construction of the Ciudad Universitaria of Caracas (1959) Carlos Raúl Villanueva (London May 30, 1900 - Caracas August 16, 1975) was the most prominent Venezuelan architect of the 20th century and one of the great Modernists. ...


Also in July, 2003, UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, proclaimed The White City of Tel Aviv as a World Cultural Heritage site, describing the City as "a synthesis of outstanding significance of the various trends of the Modern Movement in architecture and town planning in the early part of the 20th century".[3] The White City is the name given to Tel Aviv, Israel, because of the large number of white, or light-colored buildings built there between the 1920s and the 1950s in the Bauhaus or International style. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


The International style today

Although it was conceived as a movement that transcended style, the International Style was largely superseded in the era of Postmodern architecture that started in the 1960s. In 2006, Hugh Pearlman, the architectural critic of The Times, observed that those using the style today are simply "another species of revivalist," noting the irony.[2] 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...


Architects


See Arts & Architecture magazine online [3] “Aalto” redirects here. ... The 3,000-seat Santa Monica Civic Auditorium, opened in 1958. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Eileen Gray Bibendum chair by Eileen Gray E1027 table by Eileen Gray Early Photograph of Eileen Grays E-1027 villa. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... Salk Institute, La Jolla, California Louis Isadore Kahn (February 20, 1901/1902 – March 17, 1974) was a world-renowned architect who practiced in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... William Edmond Lescaze (March 27, 1896-February 9, 1969) was a Swiss-born American architect. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Kaufmann House, Palm Springs, California. ... Oscar Niemeyer Oscar Niemeyer Soares Filho (born December 15, 1907) is a Brazilian architect who is considered one of the most important names in international modern architecture. ... Carlos Raúl Villanueva (London May 30, 1900 - Caracas August 16, 1975) was the most prominent Venezuelan architect of the 20th century and one of the great Modernists. ... F.P.J. Peutz (April 7, 1896 - October 24, 1974) was a Dutch architect. ... Ralph Rapson (born September 13, 1914) is a modernist architect born in Alma, Michigan. ... Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (Utrecht, June 24, 1888 – Utrecht, June 26, 1964), was a Dutch designer, architect and cabinet maker. ... Lovell Beach House, Los Angeles California Rudolf Michael Schindler (1887–1953) was an Austrian-American architect who worked in Los Angeles during the mid-20th century. ... The Architects Collaborative (TAC) was an American architectural firm founded by Walter Gropius and seven younger architects in 1945 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Translation in progress Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953) was a German Jewish architect, known for his expressionist buildings in the 1920s, the first in their style. ...


Other examples

The Villa Savoye is considered by many to be the seminal work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Poissy is a commune of the Yvelines département in France, located 20km from Paris, with a population (1999) of 36,000. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Charles M. Goodman was an architect who made a name for his modern designs in Northern Virginia after World War II. While his work has a regional feel, he ignored the colonial revival look so popular in Virginia. ... A view of the Reston Town Center Reston is an internationally known planned community whose goal was to revolutionize post-World War II concepts of land use and residential/corporate development in American suburbia. ... The Glaspaleis as seen from the market square (Bongerd) The mezzanine and ground floor The pillars and ventilation system The Glaspaleis (in English: Glass Palace or Crystal Palace) is the name of former fashion house and department store Schunck in Heerlen, The Netherlands, built in 1935, which is now the... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heerlen ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a town in the southeastern Netherlands and the fourth largest municipality in the province of Limburg. ... F.P.J. Peutz (April 7, 1896 - October 24, 1974) was a Dutch architect. ... Eileen Grays E-1027 villa. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cape Martin, also known as Cap Martin, is a small town located on the French Riviera between Menton and Monaco. ... Eileen Gray Bibendum chair by Eileen Gray E1027 table by Eileen Gray Early Photograph of Eileen Grays E-1027 villa. ... The Toronto-Dominion Centre. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ...

References

  1. ^ Henry Russell Hitchcock, Philip Johnson. The International Style. W. W. Norton & Company, 1997. ISBN 0393315185
  2. ^ Panayotis Tournikiotis. The Historiography of Modern Architecture. MIT Press, 1999. ISBN 0262700859
  3. ^ UNESCO. White City of Tel-Aviv -- the Modern Movement. Accessed 3 November 2007.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
International style (architecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1152 words)
The basic design principles of the international style are identical with those of modernism, but the term usually refers to the buildings and architects of the formative decades of modernism, before World War II.
In 1927, one of the first and most defining manifestations of the International Style was the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, built as a component of the exhibition "Die Wohnung," organized by the Deutscher Werkbund, and overseen by Mies van der Rohe.
The term International Style came from the 1932 exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, organized by Philip Johnson, and from the title of the exhibition catalog for that exhibit, written by Johnson and Henry Russell Hitchcock.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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