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Encyclopedia > International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station as seen from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-122.
The International Space Station as seen from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-122.
ISS Insignia
ISS Insignia
Station statistics
Call sign: Alpha
Crew: 3
Launch: 1998-Present
Launch pad: KSC LC-39,
Baikonur LC-1/5 & 81/23
Mass: 245,735 kg
(540, 617lb)
(2008-02-15)
471,736 kg (1,040,000 lb) upon completion [1]
Length: 58.2 m (191 ft)
along truss
(2007-02-22)
Width: 44.5 m (146 ft)
from Destiny to Zvezda
73.15 m (240 ft)
span of solar arrays
(2007-02-22)
Height: 27.4 m (90 ft)
(2007-02-22)
Living volume: 424.75
(15,000 ft³)
Atmospheric pressure: 101.3 kPa (29.91 inHg)
Perigee: 331.0 km (183.2 nmi)
(2008-02-15)
Apogee: 339.0 km (184.6 nmi)
(2008-02-15)
Orbit inclination: 51.6410 degrees
(2008-02-15)
Typical orbit altitude: 340.5 km (183.86 nmi)
Average speed: 27,743.8 km/h
(17,239.2 mi/h, 7706.6 m/s)
Orbital period: 91.34 minutes
Orbits per day: 15.78224218
(2008-02-15)
Days in orbit: 3405 (17 March 2008)
Days occupied: 2694 (17 March 2008)
Number of orbits: 53738 (17 March 2008)
Distance travelled: 2,000,000,000 km
(1,100,000,000 nmi)
Statistics as of November 20, 2007 (unless noted otherwise).
References: [2] [3]
Configuration
International Space Station current elements
International Space Station current elements
International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a research facility currently being assembled in space. The on-orbit assembly of ISS began in 1998. The space station is in a low Earth orbit and can be seen from Earth with the naked eye: it has an altitude of 350-460 km (217-286 statute miles)[1] above the surface of the Earth, and travels at an average speed of 27,700 km (17,210 statute miles) per hour, completing 15.77 orbits per day. The ISS is a joint project among the space agencies of the United States (NASA), Russia (RKA), Japan (JAXA), Canada (CSA) and eleven European countries (ESA).[4] ISS generally refers to the International Space Station, but may also refer to: ISS Inc. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x123, 151 KB) Flags of participating countries; International Space Station. ... Call sign can refer to different types of call signs: Airline call sign Aviator call sign Cosmonaut call sign Radio and television call signs Tactical call sign, also known as a tactical designator See also: International Callsign Allocations, Maritime Mobile Service Identity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch... The launch pad refers to the facilities where rockets or spacecrafts liftoff. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Launch Complex 39 is a large site and a collection of facilities at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, USA, originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified to support Space Shuttle operations. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... Gagarins Start (Russian: ) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome, used for the Soviet space program and managed by the Russian Federal Space Agency since 1991. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... Pressure is the application of force to a surface, and the concentration of that force in a given area. ... Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... “km” redirects here. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... International Space Station mockup at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... ISS redirects here. ... The naked eye is a figure of speech referring to human visual perception that is unaided by enhancing equipment, such as a telescope or binoculars. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos) or RKA, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ... The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ), or JAXA, is Japans national aerospace agency. ... The Canadian Space Agency (CSA or, in French, lAgence spatiale canadienne, ASC) is the Canadian government space agency responsible for Canadas space program. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... ESA redirects here. ...


The Brazilian Space Agency (AEB, Brazil) participates through a separate contract with NASA. The Italian Space Agency similarly has separate contracts for various activities not done in the framework of ESA's ISS works (where Italy also fully participates). China has reportedly expressed interest in the project, especially if it is able to work with the RKA.[5] The Chinese are not currently involved, however. The Brazilian Space Agency (Agência Espacial Brasileira) is the civilian authority in Brazil that is in charge of the countrys burgeoning space programme. ... The Italian Space Agency (Italian: Agenzia Spaziale Italiana; ASI) was founded in 1988 to promote, coordinate, and conduct space activities in Italy. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos) or RKA, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ...


The ISS is a continuation of what began as the U.S. Space Station Freedom, the funding for which was cut back severely. It represents a merger of Freedom with several other previously planned space stations: Russia's Mir 2, the planned European Columbus and Kibo, the Japanese Experiment Module. The projected completion date is 2010, with the station remaining in operation until around 2016. As of 2008, the ISS is already larger than any previous space station. Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ...


The ISS has been continuously inhabited since the first resident crew entered the station on November 2, 2000, thereby providing a permanent human presence in space. The crew of Expedition 16 are currently aboard. At present the station has a capacity for a crew of three. In order to fulfill an active research program it will be necessary to eventually hold 6 crew members.[6] Early crew members all came from the Russian and U.S. space programs. German ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter joined the Expedition 13 crew in July 2006, becoming the first crew member from another space agency. The station has, however, been visited by astronauts from 15 countries. The ISS was also the destination of the first five space tourists. Expedition 1 was the first expedition to the International Space Station. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Expedition 16 is the 16th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS). ... Thomas Reiter Thomas Reiter (born May 23, 1958 in Frankfurt, Germany) is an astronaut with the European Space Agency and is a colonel in the Luftwaffe. ... Expedition 13 (2006), the 13th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS), launched at 02:30 UTC on March 30, 2006, using the Soyuz TMA-8 spacecraft, which will stay during the entirety of the expedition for emergency evacuation. ... // This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration. ... This is a list of visitors to the International Space Station in alphabetical order. ... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ...


The station is serviced primarily by Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft and by U.S. Space Shuttle orbiters. On March 9, 2008, the European Space Agency ESA launched an Ariane 5 with the first Jules Verne ATV Automated Transfer Vehicle toward the ISS carrying over 8,000 kilograms of cargo. Rendezvous and docking are planned for early April, 2008. Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... Ariane 5 mock-up Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver satellites into geostationary transfer orbit and to send payloads to Low Earth orbit. ...


The official language of the ISS is English. [7]


The ISS is the most expensive object ever built by humankind.[8]

Origins

ISS configuration in 2000: from top to bottom, the Unity, Zarya, and Zvezda modules.
ISS configuration in 2000: from top to bottom, the Unity, Zarya, and Zvezda modules.

In the early 1980s, NASA planned Space Station Freedom as a counterpart to the Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. It never left the drawing board and, with the end of the Soviet Union and the Cold War, it was cancelled. The end of the space race prompted the U.S. administration officials to start negotiations with international partners Europe, Russia, Japan and Canada in the early 1990s in order to build a truly international space station. This project was first announced in 1993 and was called Space Station Alpha.[9] It was planned to combine the proposed space stations of all participating space agencies: NASA's Space Station Freedom, Russia's Mir-2 (the successor to the Mir Space Station, the core of which is now Zvezda) and ESA's Columbus that was planned to be a stand-alone spacelab. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 488 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1569 × 1926 pixel, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 488 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1569 × 1926 pixel, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about Mir, the Soviet space station. ... For other uses, see Zvezda. ... ESA redirects here. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ...


The first section, the Zarya Functional Cargo Block, was put in orbit in November 1998 on a Russian Proton rocket. Two further pieces (the Unity Module and Zvezda service module) were added before the first crew, Expedition 1, was sent. Expedition 1 docked to the ISS on November 2, 2000, and consisted of U.S. astronaut William Shepherd and two Russian cosmonauts, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev. Zarya module as seen from STS-88 (NASA) Zarya (meaning sunrise), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or the FGB (the Russian Acronym), was the first module launched of the International Space Station. ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... ISS Unity module (NASA) The first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station , a cylinder shaped connecting module with six passageways, or nodes, named Unity, was the primary cargo of Space Shuttle mission STS-88, launched in December 1998 as the first mission dedicated to assembly of the... For other uses, see Zvezda. ... Expedition 1 was the first expedition to the International Space Station. ... Expedition 1 was the first expedition to the International Space Station. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... William McMichael Shepherd (born July 26, 1949) is an American astronaut who served as commander of the Expedition One crew on the International Space Station. ... Yuri Pavlovich Gidzenko (Russian: Гидзенко, Юрий Павлович; born March 26, 1962 in the village of Elanets, Mykolaiv Oblast) is a Russian cosmonaut of Ukrainian descent. ... Sergei Krikalevs official NASA photo Sergei Krikalevs official RSA photo Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev dons a training space suit. ...


Assembly

Main article: Assembly of the International Space Station
See also: ISS assembly sequence

The assembly of the International Space Station is a major aerospace engineering endeavor. When assembly is complete the ISS will have a pressurized volume of approximately 1,000 cubic meters. Assembly began in November 1998 with the launch of Zarya -- the first ISS module -- on a Proton rocket, and as of 2008 assembly is on-going. International Space Station mockup at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. ... The following is the assembly sequence of the major components of the International Space Station. ... International Space Station mockup at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ...


Two weeks after Zarya was launched, the STS-88 shuttle mission followed, bringing Unity, the first of three node modules, and connecting it to Zarya. This bare 2-module core of the ISS remained unmanned for the next one and a half years, until in July 2000 the Russian module Zvezda was added, allowing a maximum crew of three astronauts or cosmonauts to be on the ISS permanently.


Pressurized modules

The ISS is currently under construction, and will eventually consist of fourteen pressurized modules with a combined volume of around 1,000 cubic metres. These modules include laboratories, docking compartments & airlocks, nodes and living quarters, eight of which are already in orbit, with the remaining six awaiting launch on the ground. Each module is launched either by Space Shuttle, Proton rocket or Soyuz rocket, and is listed below along with its purpose, launch date and mass. This article is about the space vehicle. ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...

For more information about the modules, visit the module pages linked on the table below.
Module Launch date Launch vehicle Docking date Mass Assembly flight Purpose Isolated View Station View
Zarya
(FGB)
1998-11-20 Proton-K N/A 19,323 kg (42,600 lb) 1A/R Provided electrical power, storage, propulsion, and guidance during initial assembly, now serves as a storage module (both inside the pressurized section and in the externally mounted fuel tanks).
Unity
(Node 1)
1998-12-04 Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-88 1998-12-07 11,612 kg (25,600 lb) 2A First American node, connecting the American section of the station to the Russian section (via PMA-1). Provides berthing locations for the Z0 truss, Quest airlock, Destiny laboratory and Node 3.
Zvezda
(Service Module)
2000-07-12 Proton-K 2000-07-26 19,051 kg (42,000 lb) 1R Station service module, providing main living quarters for resident crews, environmental systems and attitude & orbit control, in addition to docking locations for Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft and the Automated Transfer Vehicle. The addition of the module rendered the ISS permanently habitable for the first time.
Destiny
(US Laboratory)
2001-02-07 Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-98 2001-02-10 14,515 kg (32,000 lb) 5A Primary research facility for American payloads aboard the ISS, also providing environmental systems and living quarters to the station.
Quest
(Joint Airlock)
2001-07-12 Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-104 2001-07-14 6,064 kg (13,369 lb) 7A Primary airlock for the ISS, hosting spacewalks with both American EMU and Russian Orlan spacesuits.
Pirs
(Docking Compartment)
2001-09-14 Soyuz-U 2001-09-16 3,630 kg (8,003 lb) 4R Provides the ISS with additional docking ports for Soyuz & Progress spacecraft, and allows egress and ingress for spacewalks by cosmonauts using Russian Orlan spacesuits, in addition to providing storage space for these spacesuits.
Harmony
(Node 2)
2007-10-23 Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-120 2007-11-14 13,608 kg (30,001 lb) 10A The "utility hub" of the ISS. Node 2 contains four racks that provide electrical power, bus electronic data, and act as a central connecting point for several other components via its six Common Berthing Mechanisms (CBMs). The European Columbus is currently berthed to Harmony. The Japanese Kibō laboratories will also be berthed to Harmony when it is launched. In addition, the Harmony module serves as a berthing port for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules during space shuttle logistics flights.
Columbus
(European Laboratory)
2008-02-07[10] Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-122 2008-02-11 12,800 kg (28,219 lb) 1E Primary research facility for European payloads aboard the ISS, providing ten International Standard Payload Racks and mounting locations for external experiments.
Experiment Logistics Module
(JEM-ELM)
2008-03-11 Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-123 2008-03-12 4,200 kg (9,259 lb) 1J/A Part of the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module laboratory, the ELM provides storage and transportation facilities to the laboratory, with a pressurized section to serve internal payloads and an unpressurized section to serve external payloads.
Japanese Pressurized Module
(JEM-PM)
2008-05-25 Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-124 TBD 15,900 kg (35,053 lb) 1J Not yet launched. Part of the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module laboratory, the PM is the core module of Kibō to which the ELM & Exposed Facility are berthed and contains ten International Standard Payload Racks.
Multipurpose Laboratory Module December 2008 Proton-K TBD 21,300 kg (46,958 lb) 3R Not yet launched. The MLM will be Russia's primary research module as part of the ISS, and will be used for experiments, docking and cargo logistics. It will also serve as a crew work and rest area, and will also be equipped with a backup attitude control system that can be used to control the station's attitude.
Docking Cargo Module 2010 Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-131 TBD 4,700 kg (10,362 lb) ULF4 Not yet launched. The final Russian component of the ISS, the DCM will be used for docking and cargo storage aboard the station.
Node 3 2010 Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-132 TBD 14,311 kg (31,550 lb) 20A Not yet launched. The last of the station's US nodes, Node 3 will contain the most advanced life support systems ever flown in space, providing systems to recycle waste water for crew use and generate oxygen for the crew to breathe. The node also provides four berthing locations for more attached pressurized modules or crew transportation vehicles, in addition to the permanent berthing location for the station's Cupola.
Cupola 2010 Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-132 TBD 1,800 kg (3,968 lb) 20A Not yet launched. The Cupola is an observatory module that will provide ISS crew members with a direct view of robotic operations and docked spacecraft, as well as an observation point for watching the Earth. The module will come equipped with robotic workstations for operating the SSRMS and shutters to prevent its windows from being damaged by micrometeorites. The Cupola will be the last station component to be berthed in its permanent location.

Zarya module as seen from STS-88 (NASA) Zarya (meaning sunrise), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or the FGB (the Russian Acronym), was the first module launched of the International Space Station. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS Zarya module as seen from STS-88 (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ISS Zarya module as seen from STS-88 (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ISS Unity module (NASA) The first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station , a cylinder shaped connecting module with six passageways, or nodes, named Unity, was the primary cargo of Space Shuttle mission STS-88, launched in December 1998 as the first mission dedicated to assembly of the... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... STS-88 was a United States Space Shuttle mission. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Unity, already docked to Endeavour via PMA-2, docking with Zarya via PMA-1 (NASA) The International Space Station (ISS) uses three Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) to interconnect spacecraft and modules with different docking mechanisms. ... ISS Unity module (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 711 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1716 × 1448 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Zvezda. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... Water tank Fuel tank ATV vs Apollo vs Progress An Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 488 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1569 × 1926 pixel, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is the module of ISS Destiny. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Kenneth D. Cockrell (4), Commander Mark L. Polansky (1), Pilot Robert L. Curbeam (2), Mission Specialist Thomas D. Jones (4), Mission Specialist Marsha S. Ivins (5), Mission Specialist Mission parameters Mass: Orbiter liftoff: 115,529 kg Orbiter landing: 90... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS Destiny Lab module (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Quest Joint Airlock Module (NASA) The Quest Joint Airlock, previously known as the Joint Airlock Module, is the primary airlock for the International Space Station. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Steven W. Lindsey (3), Mission Commander Charles O. Hobaugh (1), Pilot Michael L. Gernhardt (4), Mission Specialist James F. Reilly (2), Mission Specialist Janet L. Kavandi (3), Mission Specialist Mission Parameters Mass: Orbiter Liftoff: 117,129 kg Orbiter Landing... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA portrait of American Astronaut Thomas Akers, wearing a Shuttle EMU. The Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is an independent anthropomorphic system that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications for a Shuttle or ISS crew member to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) in earth... Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, in an Orlan-M space suit as she prepares for an EVA. (NASA) The Orlan space suits are a series of semi-rigid space suits designed and built by NPP Zvezda for use in the Soviet space program and Russian space program. ... Apollo 15 space suit A spacesuit is a complex system of garments, equipment, and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. ... ISS Quest Joint airlock (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 4000 pixel, file size: 3. ... SO1 Pirs Docking compartment The Pirs docking compartment is a Russian module of the International Space Station (ISS). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harmony in the Space Station Processing Facility, awaiting launch. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational spacecraft in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ... STS-120 is the current Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS), that launched on October 23, 2007. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10, 2001 - The Leonardo Multi Purpose Logistics Module rests in Discoverys payload bay in this view taken from the ISS by a crew member using a digital still camera during STS-102. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-122 is the next NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-123 is a planned Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) which will be flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-124 is a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station, planned for April 2008. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x1995, 6223 KB) ISS japanese Kibo module original description: In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) rests on a workstand during pre-assembly measurement activities. ... MLM docked to the ISS The Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) will be a component of the International Space Station funded by the Russian Federal Space Agency. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Docking Cargo Module (DCM) (Russian: , Transliteration: {{{2}}}) is the newest addition to the International Space Station (ISS) manifest. ... STS-131 is a Contingency Logistic Flight (CLF) of the Space Shuttle Endeavour planned for no earlier than January 14, 2010. ... Purpose If Node 3 is added to the International Space Station it will contain the most advanced life support systems ever flown in space. ... This is a Space Shuttle launch to visit the International Space Station, planned for January 2010. ... ISS Cupola (NASA) View from inside of the Cupola ISS Cupola as viewed from the floor of the International Space Station Center The Cupola is a ESA-built observatory module of the International Space Station (ISS) that will provide astronauts with direct viewing for robotic operations and Space Shuttle payload... This is a Space Shuttle launch to visit the International Space Station, planned for January 2010. ...

Major ISS systems

The ISS in 2001, showing solar panels.
The ISS in 2001, showing solar panels.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 4000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 4000 pixel, file size: 3. ...

Power supply

The source of electrical power for the ISS is the sun: light is converted into electricity through the use of solar panels. Before assembly flight 4A (shuttle mission STS-97, November 30, 2000) the only power source was the Russian solar panels attached to the Zarya and Zvezda modules: the Russian segment of the station uses 28 volts dc (like the Shuttle). In the rest of the station, electricity is provided by the solar cells attached to the truss at a voltage ranging from 130 to 180 volts dc. The power is then stabilized and distributed at 160 volts dc and then converted to the user-required 124 volts dc. Power can be shared between the two segments of the station using converters, and this feature is essential since the cancellation of the Russian Science Power Platform: the Russian segment will depend on the U.S. built solar arrays for power supply.[11] Electrical power is the most critical resource for the International Space Station because it allows the crew to live comfortably, to safely operate the station, and to perform scientific experiments. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... A photovoltaic module is composed of individual PV cells. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Brent W. Jett (3), Commander Michael J. Bloomfield (2), Pilot Joseph R. Tanner (3), Mission Specialist Carlos I. Noriega (2), Mission Specialist Marc Garneau (3), Mission Specialist - Canada Mission Parameters Mass: Orbiter Liftoff: 120,742 kg Orbiter Landing: 89... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Zarya module as seen from STS-88 (NASA) Zarya (meaning sunrise), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or the FGB (the Russian Acronym), was the first module launched of the International Space Station. ... For other uses, see Zvezda. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... ISS Science Power Platform (NASA) The Science Power Platform (SPP) is a Russian element of the International Space Station (ISS) brought up by the Space Shuttle to provide additional power for the ISS as well as roll axis control capability for the orbital facility. ...


Using a high-voltage (130 to 160 volts) distribution line in the U.S. part of the station led to smaller power lines and thus weight savings. In electrical engineering High voltage refers to a voltage which is high. ...


The solar array normally tracks the sun to maximize the amount of solar power. The array is about 375 m² in area and 190 feet (58 m) long. In the fully-complete configuration, the solar arrays track the sun in each orbit by rotating the alpha gimbal; while the beta gimbal adjusts for the angle of the sun from the orbital plane. (However, until the main truss structure was brought up, the arrays were in a temporary position perpendicular to the final orientation, and in this configuration, as shown in the image to the right, the beta gimbal was used for the main solar tracking.) Another slightly different tracking option, Night Glider mode, can be used to reduce the drag slightly by orienting the solar arrays edgewise to the velocity vector. A gimbal is a mechanical device that allows the rotation of an object in multiple dimensions. ... ISS elements as of December 2006 The Integrated Truss Structure forms the backbone of the International Space Station, with mountings for unpressurized logistics carriers, radiators, solar arrays, and other equipment. ... Night Glider Mode (or XVV Night Glider mode) is one of the procedures for orienting the solar arrays on the International Space Station. ...


Life support

Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS).
Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS).

The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System provides or controls elements such as atmospheric pressure, oxygen levels, water, and fire extinguishing, among other things. The Elektron system generates oxygen aboard the station. The highest priority for the life support system is the ISS atmosphere, but the system also collects, processes, and stores waste and water produced and used by the crew. For example, the system recycles fluid from the sink, shower, urine, and condensation. Activated charcoal filters are the primary method for removing byproducts of human metabolism from the air.[12] Accelerared Learning Cycle This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Possibly unfree images, because it is missing information on its source or copyright status. ... Accelerared Learning Cycle This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Possibly unfree images, because it is missing information on its source or copyright status. ... The life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in an environment hostile to human life, eg. ... Elektron is a Russian oxygen generator used on board the International Space Station (ISS). ... Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ...


Attitude control

The attitude (orientation) of the station is maintained by either of two mechanisms. Normally, a system using several control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) keeps the station oriented, i.e. with Destiny forward of Unity, the P truss on the port side and Pirs on the earth-facing (nadir) side. When the CMG system becomes saturated, it can lose its ability to control station attitude. In this event, the Russian Attitude Control System is designed to take over automatically, using thrusters to maintain station attitude and allowing the CMG system to desaturate. This happened during Expedition 10.[13] When a shuttle orbiter is docked to the station, it can also be used to maintain station attitude. This procedure was used during STS-117 as the S3/S4 truss was being installed. Control Moment Gyro(scope) is an attitude control device generally used in satellite attitude control systems. ... Expedition 10 (2004–2005) was the 10th expedition to the International Space Station, using the Soyuz TMA-5, which stayed during the expedition for emergency evacuation. ... STS-117 is the current Space Shuttle mission being flown by Space Shuttle Atlantis, which launched from pad 39A of the Kennedy Space Center on June 8, 2007. ...


Altitude control

The ISS is maintained at an orbit from a minimum altitude limit of 278 km to a maximum limit of 460 km. The normal maximum limit is 425 km to allow Soyuz rendezvous missions. Because ISS is constantly falling due to minute atmospheric drag and gravity gradient effects, it needs to be boosted to a higher altitude several times each year.[14] A graph of altitude over time shows that it drifts down almost 2.5 km per month.[15] The boosting can be performed by two boosters on the Zvezda module, a docked Space Shuttle, or by a Progress resupply vessel and takes approximately two orbits (three hours) in which it is boosted several kilometers higher.[14] While it is being built the altitude is relatively low so that it is easier to fly the Space Shuttle with its big payloads to the space station. Atmospheric drag is a form of drag, which is the force that opposes an object moving through a liquid or gas. ... Gravity-gradient stabilization is a method of stabilizing artificial satellites in a fixed attitude using only the orbited bodys gravitational field. ... For other uses, see Zvezda. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ...


Scientific research

Columbus at Kennedy Space Center
Columbus at Kennedy Space Center

One of the main goals of the ISS is to provide a place to conduct experiments that require one or more of the unusual conditions present on the station. The main fields of research include biology (including biomedical research and biotechnology), physics (including fluid physics, materials science, and quantum physics), astronomy (including cosmology), and meteorology.[16][17] The 2005 NASA Authorization Act designated the U.S segment of the International Space Station as a national laboratory with a goal to increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector. As of 2007, little experimentation other than the study of the long-term effects of microgravity on humans has taken place. With four new research modules set to arrive at the ISS by 2010, however, more specialized research is expected to begin. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1168 × 912 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1168 × 912 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The wake Surface waves of water Giant bubbles Water waves on a flowing water Ocean surface wave Surface Waves created by the moving water striders Fluid physics (physics of fluids) is the branch of physics concerned with the motion of fluids and the effects of such motion. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Fig. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ...


Scientific ISS modules

The nadir window in the Destiny lab.

The Destiny Laboratory Module is the main research facility currently aboard the ISS. Produced by NASA and launched in February 2001, it is a research facility for general experiments.[18] The Columbus module is another research facility, designed by the ESA for the ISS. Its purpose is to facilitate scientific experiments, and was launched on February 2008. It should provide a generic laboratory as well as ones specifically designed for biology, biomedical research, and fluid physics. There are also a number of planned expansions that will be implemented to study quantum physics and cosmology. The Japanese Experiment Module, also known as Kibō, is scheduled to be in space after the STS-127 launch in or around January, 2009. It is being developed by JAXA in order to function as an observatory and to measure various astronomical data. The ExPRESS Logistics Carrier, developed by NASA, is set to be launched for the ISS with the STS-129 mission, which is expected to take place no earlier than September 11, 2009.[19] It will allow experiments to be deployed and conducted in the vacuum of space and will provide the necessary electricity and computing to locally process data from experiments. The Multipurpose Laboratory Module, created by the RKA, is expected to launch for the ISS in late 2009. It will supply the proper resources for general microgravity experiments.[20] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (437x640, 87 KB)ISS002-E-5489 (31 March 2001) --- Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, views the topography of a point on Earth from the nadir window in the U.S. Laboratory / Destiny module of the International Space Station... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (437x640, 87 KB)ISS002-E-5489 (31 March 2001) --- Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, views the topography of a point on Earth from the nadir window in the U.S. Laboratory / Destiny module of the International Space Station... This is the module of ISS Destiny. ... This is the module of ISS Destiny. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... ESA redirects here. ... European Drawer Rack (ESA / D. Ducros) The European Drawer Rack (EDR) is a European (ESA) science payload developed by Alenia Spazio for use in the Columbus Laboratory, which is part of the ISS. The EDR is a multi-user facility for flexible experiment accommodation. ... Biolab is a single-rack multi-user science payload designed for use in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. ... European Physiology Modules (ESA / D. Ducros) The European Physiology Modules (EPM) is a Payload of the Columbus Laboratory. ... Fluid Science Laboratroy (ESA / D. Ducros) The Fluid Science Laboratory is an European (ESAs) science payload designed for use in Columbus built by Alenia Aeronautica Spazio. ... Fig. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ... This is a Space Shuttle launch to visit the International Space Station, planned for January 2009. ... The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ), or JAXA, is Japans national aerospace agency. ... The ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) is an un-pressurized attached payload project for the International Space Station (ISS) that provides mechanical mounting surfaces, electrical power, and command and data handling services for science experiments on the ISS. (ExPRESS stands for Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... STS-129 is a launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour to visit the International Space Station, planned for no earlier than July 2009. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MLM docked to the ISS The Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) will be a component of the International Space Station funded by the Russian Federal Space Agency. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos) or RKA, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ...


A couple of planned research modules have been cancelled, including the Centrifuge Accommodations Module (used to produce varying levels of artificial gravity) and the Russian Research Module (used for general experimentation). Several planned experiments, such as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, have been cancelled as well. ISS Centrifuge Accommodations Module (NASA) The Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM) of the International Space Station provides controlled gravity for experiments and the capability to: Expose a variety of biological specimens to artifical gravity levels between 0. ... Artificial gravity is a simulation of gravity in outer space or free-fall. ... The Russian Research Module (RM) is a Russian element of the International Space Station (ISS) that provides facilities for Russian experiments and research. ... The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a particle physics experiment to be mounted on the International Space Station designed to search for a various types of unusual matter. ...


Areas of research

There are a number of plans to study biology on the ISS. One goal is to improve understanding of the effect of long-term space exposure on the human body. Subjects such as muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shifts are studied with the intention to utilize this data so space colonization and lengthy space travel can become feasible. The effect of near-weightlessness on evolution, development and growth, and the internal processes of plants and animals are also studied. In response to recent data suggesting that microgravity enables the growth of three-dimensional human body-like tissues and that unusual protein crystals can be formed in space, NASA has indicated a desire to investigate these phenomena.[16] // Clinical settings of atrophy There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


NASA would also like to study prominent problems in physics. The physics of fluids in microgravity are not completely understood, and researchers would like to be able to accurately model fluids in the future. Additionally, since fluids in space can be combined nearly completely regardless of their relative weights, there is some interest in investigating the combination of fluids that would not mix well on Earth. By examining reactions that are slowed down by low gravity and temperatures, scientists also hope to gain new insight concerning states of matter (specifically in regards to superconductivity).[16] In the physical sciences, a state of matter is one of the many ways that matter can interact with itself to form a macroscopic, homogenous phase. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ...


Additionally, researchers hope to examine combustion in the presence of less gravity than on Earth. Any findings involving the efficiency of the burning or the creation of byproducts could improve the process of energy production, which would be of economic and environmental interest. Scientists plan to use the ISS to examine aerosols, ozone, water vapor, and oxides in Earth's atmosphere as well as cosmic rays, cosmic dust, anti-matter, and dark matter in the Universe.[16] This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... “Space dust” redirects here. ... Antimatter is matter that is composed of the antiparticles of those that constitute normal matter. ... For other uses, see Dark matter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...


The long-term goals of this research are to develop the technology necessary for human-based space and planetary exploration and colonization (including life support systems, safety precautions, environmental monitoring in space, etc.), new ways to treat diseases, more efficient methods of producing materials, more accurate measurements that would be impossible to achieve on Earth, and a more complete understanding of the Universe.[16][17] In human spaceflight, the life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in outer space. ...


Future of the ISS

NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin says the International Space Station has a role to play as NASA moves forward with a new focus for the manned space program, which is to go out beyond Earth orbit for purposes of human exploration and scientific discovery. "The International Space Station is now a stepping stone on the way," says Griffin, "rather than being the end of the line". He says ISS crews will not only continue to learn how to live and work in space but also will learn how to build hardware that can survive and function for the years required to make the round-trip voyage from Earth to Mars. The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the highest-ranking official of that organization and serves as the senior space science advisor to the President of the United States. ... Dr. Michael D. Griffin Dr. Michael Douglas Griffin (born November 1, 1949 in Aberdeen, Maryland) has been the Administrator of NASA since April 13, 2005. ...


Major incidents

2001 – 6A Anomaly

Around the time Dennis Tito became the first independent researcher, assembly flight 6A was taking place.[21] On April 25, 2001, the Memory Storage Devices (MSDs), which comprised Disk Drive Cartridges (DDCs) on the ISS main computers (C&C MDMs) all failed nearly simultaneously.[22] The station's MDMs now use solid state mass memory units (SSMMUs) in place of traditional disk drive cartridges (DDCs). Dennis Anthony Tito (born August 8, 1940 in Queens, New York) is a United States multimillionaire who gained celebrity status by becoming the first space tourist to pay for his own ticket, although he himself opposes being called tourist and asks to be called an independent researcher since he performed...


2003 – Columbia disaster

The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster on February 1, 2003, the following two-and-a-half-year suspension of the U.S. Space Shuttle program, followed in turn by another one-year suspension following STS-114, all resulted in some uncertainty about the future of the ISS. All crew exchanges between Feb. 2003 and July 2006 were carried out solely using the Russian Soyuz spacecraft. (STS-114 in July 2005 was a logistics-only visit). Starting with Expedition 7, two-astronaut caretaker crews were launched in contrast to the previously launched crews of three. Because the ISS had not been visited by a shuttle for an extended period, a larger than planned amount of waste accumulated, temporarily hindering station operations in 2004. However, Progress transports and the STS-114 shuttle flight took care of this problem. For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... STS-114 was the first return to flight Space Shuttle mission following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... This is the seventh expedition to the International Space Station. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... STS-114 was the first return to flight Space Shuttle mission following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. ...


2006 – Smoke problem

On September 18, 2006, the Expedition 13 crew activated a smoke alarm in the Russian segment of the International Space Station when fumes from one of the three oxygen generators triggered momentary fear about a possible fire. Flight engineer Jeffrey Williams reported an unusual smell, but officials said there was no fire and the crew was not in any danger. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Expedition 13 (2006), the 13th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS), launched at 02:30 UTC on March 30, 2006, using the Soyuz TMA-8 spacecraft, which will stay during the entirety of the expedition for emergency evacuation. ... External link NASA Biography Categories: Stub | 1958 births | Astronauts ...


The crew initially reported smoke in the cabin, as well as a smell. It was later found to be caused by a leak of potassium hydroxide from an oxygen vent. The equipment was turned off. Potassium hydroxide is odorless and the smell reported by Williams more likely was associated with an overheated rubber gasket in the Elektron system. The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Elektron is a Russian oxygen generator used on board the International Space Station (ISS). ...


In any case, the station's ventilation system was shut down to prevent the spread of smoke or contaminants through the rest of the lab complex. A charcoal air filter was put in place to help scrub the atmosphere of any lingering potassium hydroxide fumes. The space station's program manager said the crew never donned gas masks, but as a precaution put on surgical gloves and masks to prevent contact with any contaminants.[23]


On November 2, 2006 the payload brought by the Russian Progress M-58 allowed the crew to repair the Elektron using spare parts.[24] is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ...


2007 – Computer failure

On June 14, 2007 during Expedition 15 and flight day 7 of STS-117's visit to ISS, a computer malfunction on the Russian segments at 06:30 UTC left the station without thrusters, oxygen generation, carbon dioxide scrubber, and other environmental control systems, and caused the temperature on the station to rise. A successful restart of the computers resulted in a false fire alarm that woke the crew at 11:43 UTC.[25][26] The two computer systems (command and navigation) are each composed of three computers. Each computer is referred to as a "lane".[26] is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Expedition 15 is the 15th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS). ... STS-117 is the current Space Shuttle mission being flown by Space Shuttle Atlantis, which launched from pad 39A of the Kennedy Space Center on June 8, 2007. ...


By June 15, the primary Russian computers were back online, and talking to the US side of the station by bypassing a circuit. Secondary systems were still offline, and further work was needed.[27] NASA reported that without the computer that controls the oxygen levels, the station had 56 days of oxygen available.[28] is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By the afternoon of June 16, ISS Program Manager Michael Suffredini confirmed that all six computers governing command and navigation systems for Russian segments of the station, including two thought to have failed, were back online, and would be tested over several days. The cooling system was the first system brought back online. NASA suggested that the overcurrent protection circuits designed to safeguard each computer from power spikes were at fault, and may have been tripped due to increased interference, or "noise," from the station's plasma environment related to the addition of the new starboard trusses and solar arrays.[26] Troubleshooting of the failure by the ISS crew found that the root cause was condensation inside the electrical connectors, leading to a short-circuit that triggered the "power off" command line leading to all three of the redundant processing units.[29] This was initially a concern, because the European Space Agency uses the same computer systems, supplied by EADS Astrium Space Transportation, for the Columbus Laboratory Module and the Automated Transfer Vehicle.[30] Once the root cause was understood, plans were implemented to avoid the problem in the future. is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS elements as of December 2006 The Integrated Truss Structure forms the backbone of the International Space Station, with mountings for unpressurized logistics carriers, radiators, solar arrays, and other equipment. ... ESA redirects here. ... EADS Astrium Space Transportation was formed in June 2003 from the Space Infrastructure division of Astrium (whose core was originally ERNO) and the EADS Launch Vehicles division (formerly Aerospatiales Space division). ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... Water tank Fuel tank ATV vs Apollo vs Progress An Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ...


2007 – Torn solar panel

On October 30, 2007 during Expedition 16 and flight day 7 of STS-120's visit to ISS, following the reposition of the P6 truss segment, ISS and Space Shuttle Discovery crew members began the deployment of the trusses two solar arrays. The first array deployed without incident, and the second array deployed approximately 80% before astronauts noticed a 2 1/2 foot tear. The arrays had been deployed in earlier phases of the space station's construction, and the retraction necessary to move the truss to its final position had gone less smoothly than planned. [31] is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Expedition 16 is the 16th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS). ... STS-120 is the current Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS), that launched on October 23, 2007. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational spacecraft in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ...


A second, smaller tear was noticed upon further inspection, and the mission's planned spacewalks were completely replanned in mere days to devise a repair. On Saturday November 3, spacewalker Scott Parazynski assisted by Douglas Wheelock fixed the torn panels using makeshift "cufflinks" and riding on the end of the space shuttle's boom inspection arm; the first ever spacewalker to do so. The spacewalk was regarded as significantly more dangerous than most due to the possibility of shock from the electricity generating solar arrays, the unprecedented usage of the shuttle boom arm, and the lack of spacewalk planning and training for the impromptu procedure. Parazynski was however, able to repair the damage as planned and the repaired array was fully deployed.[32] is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Scott E. Parazynski, M.D. (b. ... Douglas Harry Wheelock is a United States Army officer and a NASA astronaut. ...


Visiting spacecraft

Computer rendering of Rocketplane-Kistler K-1 approaching the ISS
  • American (NASA) Space Shuttle - resupply vehicle, assembly and logistics flights and crew rotation (to be retired in 2010)
  • Russian (Roskosmos) Soyuz spacecraft - crew rotation and emergency evacuation, replaced every 6 months
  • Russian (Roskosmos) Progress spacecraft - resupply vehicle

Image File history File links Kistler-COTS.jpg‎ Computer generated image of Rocketplane-Kistler K-1 upper stage approaches the International Space Station for a COTS delivery, http://www. ... Image File history File links Kistler-COTS.jpg‎ Computer generated image of Rocketplane-Kistler K-1 upper stage approaches the International Space Station for a COTS delivery, http://www. ... Rocketplane Limited, Inc. ... An illustration of a K-1 launch (RpK) The K-1 launch vehicle is a two-stage, fully reusable aerospace vehicle now in commercial development by Rocketplane Kistler. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ...

Planned

  • European (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) ISS resupply spacecraft (on its orbital way and scheduled for docking April 2008)[33][34]
  • Japanese (JAXA) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) resupply vehicle for Kibo module (scheduled for 2009)[35]
  • American (NASA) Orion for possible crew rotation and as resupply transporter (officially scheduled for 2014)

Water tank Fuel tank ATV vs Apollo vs Progress An Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ... H-II Transfer Vehicle (Courtesy of JAXA) The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) is an unmanned spacecraft on which the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA has been working since 1997 to resupply the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station, and the rest of the station, if... Orion is a spacecraft currently under development by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ...

Proposed

An additional spacecraft, the K-1 Vehicle manufactured by Rocketplane Kistler, was proposed as part of the NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program, and was scheduled to fly in 2009. On October 18, 2007, NASA discontinued its agreement with Rocketplane Kistler after the company couldn't secure further financing and didn't meet a critical design review for the pressurized cargo module.[36] NASA then announced that the remaining $175 million commitment to the project would be made available to other companies.[37] On 19 February 2008, NASA awarded Orbital Sciences Corporation with the remaining $170 million to develop its Cygnus spacecraft for the COTS program.[38] The SpaceX Dragon is a conventional blunt-cone ballistic capsule spacecraft, capable of carrying 7 people or a mixture of personnel and cargo, to and from low Earth orbit. ... t/Space CXV approaches ISS (t/Space) Commercial Orbital Transportation Services is a NASA program to coordinate the commercial delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... For the trade union, see Confederation of Cameroon Trade Unions CSTS or ACTS (Crew Space Transportation System and Advanced Crew Transportation System respectively) is a crew transportation system which is jointly studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) with the objective to design a... An illustration of a K-1 launch (RpK) The Kistler K-1 is a two-stage, fully reusable aerospace vehicle now in commercial development. ... Rocketplane Kistler is an umbrella enterprise comprised of two private aerospace firms dedicated to establishing a reusable space craft industry; Rocketplane Limited, Inc. ... t/Space CXV approaches ISS (t/Space) Commercial Orbital Transportation Services is a NASA program to coordinate the commercial delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC, though commonly abbreviated as Orbital) is a Dulles, Virginia company which specializes in satellite launch and manufacture. ...


Expeditions

See also: List of International Space Station Expeditions

All permanent station crews are named "Expedition n", where n is sequentially increased after each expedition. Expeditions have an average duration of half a year and are often considered synonymous with "Increments." However, "Increments" are distinguished from Expeditions as the programmatic planning period for activities that are to occur during a particular Expedition's residence on ISS. The start of both an Expedition and an Increment is defined by the departure of the previous Expedition crew on a Soyuz spacecraft. The definition of the Increment is in flux in preparation for 6-person crews that will be broken up into 3-person crews which overlap in their 6-month missions on ISS. This is a list of a permanent crews assigned to the International Space Station. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ...


The International Space Station is the most-visited spacecraft in the history of space flight. As of October 26, 2007, it has had 196 (non-distinct) visitors. Mir had 137 (non-distinct) visitors (See Space station). The number of distinct visitors of the ISS is 144 (see list of International Space Station visitors). is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... This is a list of visitors to the International Space Station in alphabetical order. ...

Expedition 17 is the 17th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS). ... Expedition 18 is the 18th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS). ... This would be the 1st International Space Station expedition including 6 crew members. ...

Legal aspects

Agreement

Cover page of the Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement signed on January 28, 1998.
Cover page of the Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement signed on January 28, 1998.

The legal structure that regulates the space station is multi-layered. The primary layer establishing obligations and rights between the ISS partners is the Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA), an international treaty signed on January 28, 1998 by fifteen governments involved in the Space Station project. The ISS consists of the United States, Canada, Japan, the Russian Federation, and eleven Member States of the European Space Agency (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). Article 1 outlines its purpose: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 477 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,100 × 1,381 pixels, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Front-cover of IGA (ISS Framework Agreement) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 477 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,100 × 1,381 pixels, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Front-cover of IGA (ISS Framework Agreement) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


This Agreement is a long term international co-operative framework on the basis of genuine partnership, for the detailed design, development, operation, and utilisation of a permanently inhabited civil Space Station for peaceful purposes, in accordance with international law.[39]


The IGA sets the stage for a second layer of agreements between the partners referred to as 'Memoranda of Understanding' (MOUs), of which four exist between NASA and each of the four other partners. There are no MOUs between ESA, Roskosmos, CSA and JAXA due to the fact that NASA is the designated manager of the ISS. The MOUs are used to describe the roles and responsibilities of the partners in more detail.


A third layer consists of bartered contractual agreements or the trading of the partners' rights and duties, including the 2005 commercial framework agreement between NASA and Roskosmos that sets forth the terms and conditions under which NASA purchases seats on Soyuz crew transporters and cargo capacity on unmanned Progress transporters. The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (Федеральное космическое агентство in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ...


A fourth legal layer of agreements implements and supplements the four MOUs further. Notably among them is the ISS code of conduct, setting out criminal jurisdiction, anti-harassment and certain other behavior rules for ISS crewmembers.[40] Criminal jurisdiction is a term used in the law of criminal procedure to describe the power of a court to hear a case brought by the state accusing a criminal defendant of a violation of the law of the geographic area in which the court is located. ...


Utilization

The interior of the Zarya module.
The interior of the Zarya module.

There is no fixed percentage of ownership for the whole space station. Rather, Article 5 of the IGA sets forth that each partner shall retain jurisdiction and control over the elements it registers and over personnel in or on the Space Station who are its nationals.[39] Therefore, for each ISS module only one partner retains sole ownership. Still, the agreements to use the space station facilities are more complex. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3032x2008, 1978 KB) Interior of Zarya ISS module (NASA) original description: Cosmonaut Vladimir N. Dezhurov, Expedition Three flight engineer, translates through the Zarya module or Functional Cargo Block (FGB) during one of his last days onboard the International Space Station (ISS). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3032x2008, 1978 KB) Interior of Zarya ISS module (NASA) original description: Cosmonaut Vladimir N. Dezhurov, Expedition Three flight engineer, translates through the Zarya module or Functional Cargo Block (FGB) during one of his last days onboard the International Space Station (ISS). ... Zarya module as seen from STS-88 (NASA) Zarya (meaning sunrise), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or the FGB (the Russian Acronym), was the first module launched of the International Space Station. ...


The three planned Russian segments Zvezda, the Multipurpose Laboratory Module and the Docking and Cargo Module s are made and owned by Russia, which, as of today, also retains its current and prospective usage (Zarya, although constructed and launched by Russia, has been paid for and is officially owned by NASA). In order to use the Russian parts of the station, the partners use bilateral agreements (third and fourth layer of the above outlined legal structure). The rest of the station, (the U.S., the European and Japanese pressurized modules as well as the truss and solar panel structure and the two robotic arms) has been agreed to be utilized as follows (% refers to time that each structure may be used by each partner): For other uses, see Zvezda. ... MLM docked to the ISS The Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) will be a component of the International Space Station funded by the Russian Federal Space Agency. ... The Docking Cargo Module (DCM) (Russian: , Transliteration: {{{2}}}) is the newest addition to the International Space Station (ISS) manifest. ... Zarya module as seen from STS-88 (NASA) Zarya (meaning sunrise), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or the FGB (the Russian Acronym), was the first module launched of the International Space Station. ...

  1. Columbus: 51% for ESA, 49% for NASA and CSA (CSA has agreed with NASA to use 2.3% of all non-Russian ISS structure)
  2. Kibo: 51% for JAXA, 49% for NASA and CSA (2.3%)
  3. Destiny Lab: 100% for NASA and CSA (2.3%) as well as 100% of the truss payload accommodation
  4. Crew time and power from the solar panel structure, as well as rights to purchase supporting services (upload/download and communication services) 76.6% for NASA, 12.8% for JAXA, 8.3% for ESA and 2.3% for CSA

Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... The Canadian Space Agency (CSA or, in French, lAgence spatiale canadienne, ASC) is the Canadian government space agency responsible for Canadas space program. ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ... The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ... This is the module of ISS Destiny. ...

Costs

The ISS has been far more expensive than originally anticipated. The ESA estimates the overall cost from the start of the project in the late 1980s to the prospective end in 2010 to be in the region of $130 billion (100 billion or £65.3 billion).[41] This article is about the European Space Agency. ... USD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ...


Giving a precise cost estimate for the ISS is, however, not straightforward; it is, for instance, hard to determine which costs should actually be attributed to the ISS program or how the Russian contribution should be measured, as the Russian space agency runs at considerably lower USD costs than the other partners.


NASA

Overview

NASA's current budget projections see an end to ISS funding in 2017, in order to free funds for the Vision for Space Exploration.

The overall majority of costs for NASA are incurred by flight operations and expenses for the overall management of the ISS. Costs for initially building the U.S. portion of the ISS modules and external structure on the ground and construction in space as well as crew and supply flights to the ISS do account for far less than the general operating costs (see annual budget allocation below). Image File history File links Nasabudget. ... Image File history File links Nasabudget. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ...


NASA does not include the basic Space Shuttle program costs in the expenses incurred for the ISS program, despite the fact that the Space Shuttle has been nearly exclusively used for ISS construction and supply flights since December 1998.


NASA's 2007 budget request lists costs for the ISS (without Shuttle costs) as $25.6 billion for the years 1994 to 2005.[42] For each of 2005 and 2006 about $1.7 to 1.8 billion are allocated to the ISS program. The annual expenses will increase until 2010 when they will reach $2.3 billion and should then stay at the same level, however inflation-adjusted, until 2016, the defined end of the program. NASA has allocated between $300 and 500 million for program shutdown costs in 2017.


2005 ISS budget allocation

NASA allocates about 125 million US dollars (USD) annually to EVAs.
NASA allocates about 125 million US dollars (USD) annually to EVAs.

The $1.8 billion expensed in 2005 consisted of:[43] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3032x2005, 2659 KB) original description: Astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, anchored to a foot restraint on the International Space Station’s Canadarm2, participates in the mission’s third session of extravehicular activity (EVA). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3032x2005, 2659 KB) original description: Astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, anchored to a foot restraint on the International Space Station’s Canadarm2, participates in the mission’s third session of extravehicular activity (EVA). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ...

  • Development of new hardware: $70 million were allocated to core development, for instance development of systems like navigation, data support or environmental.
  • Spacecraft Operations: $800 million consisting of $125 million for each of software, extravehicular activity systems, and logistics and maintenance. An additional $150 million is spent on flight, avionics and crew systems. The rest of $250 million goes to overall ISS management.
  • Launch and Mission operations: Although the Shuttle launch costs are not considered part of the ISS budget, mission and mission integration ($300 million), medical support ($25 million) and Shuttle launch site processing ($125 million) is within the ISS budget.
  • Operations Program Integration: $350 million was spent on maintaining and sustaining U.S. flight and ground hardware and software to ensure integrity of the ISS design and the continuous, safe operability.
  • ISS cargo/crew: $140 million was spent for purchase of supplies, cargo and crew capability for Progress and Soyuz flights.

ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ...

Shuttle costs as part of ISS costs

The only non-ISS related Shuttle flight between 2005 and 2010 is a Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission on STS-125.

Only costs for mission and mission integration and launch site processing for the 33 ISS-related Shuttle flights are included in NASA's ISS program costs. Basic costs of the Shuttle program are, as mentioned above, not considered part of the overall ISS costs by NASA, because the Shuttle program is considered an independent program aside from the ISS. Since December 1998 the Shuttle has, however, been used nearly exclusively for ISS flights (since the first ISS flight in December 1998, until October 2007 only 5 flights out of 28 flights have not been to the ISS, and only the planned Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission in 2008 will not be ISS-related out of 13 planned missions until the end of the Space Shuttle program in 2010). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (992x986, 913 KB)Astronauts work on installing Hubbles corrective optics during Servicing Mission 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (992x986, 913 KB)Astronauts work on installing Hubbles corrective optics during Servicing Mission 1. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... STS-125 is a planned Space Shuttle mission to be flown by Space Shuttle Atlantis. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ...


Shuttle program costs during ISS operations from 1999 to 2005 (disregarding the first ISS flight in December 1998) have amounted to approximately $24 billion (1999: $3,028.0 million, 2000: $3,011.2 million, 2001: $3,125.7 million, 2002: $3,278.8 million, 2003: $3,252.8 million, 2004: $3,945.0 million, 2005: $4,319.2 million). In order to derive the ISS-related costs, expenses for non-ISS flights need to be subtracted, which amount to 20% of the total or about $5 billion. For the years 2006-2011 NASA projects another $20.5 billion in Space Shuttle program costs (2006: $4,777.5 million, 2007: $4,056.7 million, 2008: $4,087.3 million, 2009: $3,794.8 million, 2010: $3,651.1 million and 2011: $146.7 million). If the Hubble servicing mission is excluded from those costs, ISS-related costs will be approximately $19 billion for Shuttle flights from 2006 until 2011. In total, ISS-related Space Shuttle program costs will therefore be approximately $38 billion.


Overall ISS costs for NASA

Assuming NASA's projections of average costs of $2.5 billion from 2011 to 2016 and the end of spending money on the ISS in 2017 (about $300-500 million) after shutdown in 2016 are correct, the overall ISS project costs for NASA from the announcement of the program in 1993 to its end will be about $53 billion (25.6 billion for the years 1994-2005 and about 27 to 28 billion for the years 2006-2017).


There have also been considerable costs for designing Space Station Freedom in the 1980s and early 1990s, before the ISS program started in 1993. Plans of Space Station Freedom were reused for the International Space Station. Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ...


To sum up, although the actual costs NASA views as connected to the ISS are only half of the $100 billion figure often cited in the media, if combined with basic program costs for the Shuttle and the design of the ISS' precursor project Space Station Freedom, the costs reach $100 billion for NASA alone.


ESA

ESA calculates that its contribution over the 30 year lifetime of the project will be €8 billion.[44] The costs for the Columbus Laboratory total more than €1 billion already, costs for ATV development total several hundred million and considering that each Ariane 5 launch costs around €150 million, each ATV launch will incur considerable costs as well. In addition ESA has established the Columbus Control Center in the South of Germany in order to control the Columbus Laboratory. Water tank Fuel tank ATV vs Apollo vs Progress An Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ... Ariane 5 mock-up Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver satellites into geostationary transfer orbit and to send payloads to Low Earth orbit. ... The Columbus Control Center is the Mission Control Center which will be used for capsule communication with the Columbus research laboratory once it has been added to the International Space Station. ...


JAXA

The development of the Kibo Laboratory, JAXA's main contribution to the ISS, has cost about 325 billion yen (about $2.8 billion).[45] In the year 2005, JAXA allocated about 40 billion yen (about 350 million USD) to the ISS program.[46] The annual running costs for Kibo will total around $350 to 400 million. In addition JAXA has committed itself to develop and launch the HTV-Transporter, for which development costs total nearly $1 billion. In total, over the 24 year lifespan of the ISS program, JAXA will contribute well over $10 billion to the ISS program. The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ...


Roskosmos

A considerable part of the Russian Space Agency's budget is used for the ISS. Since 1998 there have been over two dozen Soyuz and Progress flights, the primary crew and cargo transporters since 2003. The question of how much Russia spends on the station (measured in USD), is, however, not easy to answer. The two modules currently in orbit are derivatives of the Mir program and therefore development costs are much lower than for other modules. In addition, the exchange rate between ruble and USD is not adequately giving a real comparison to what the costs for Russia really are. The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... USD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ...


CSA

Canada, whose main contribution to the ISS is the Canadarm2, and upcoming addition of the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (aka Dextre or Canada Hand), estimates that through the last 20 years it has contributed about C$1.4 billion to the ISS. Canada has continued to be a leader and vital member of ISS through the past ten years and continues to play a major role in the ISS.[47] The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) or Canadarm2 is a robotic system and associated equipment on the International Space Station that plays a key role in station assembly and maintenance: moving equipment and supplies around the station, supporting astronauts working in space, and servicing instruments and other payloads attached to the... ISS Canada hand (NASA) The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator is a robotic arm or telemanipulator, or waldo which is part of the Mobile Servicing System. ... C$ redirects here. ...


Criticism

The (cancelled) ISS Centrifuge Accommodations Module.
The (cancelled) ISS Centrifuge Accommodations Module.

The ISS and NASA have been the targets of varied criticism over the years. Critics contend that the time and money spent on the ISS could be better spent on other projects—whether they be robotic spacecraft missions, space exploration, investigations of problems here on Earth, or just tax savings.[48] Some critics, like Robert L. Park, argue that very little scientific research was convincingly planned for the ISS in the first place.[49] They also argue that the primary feature of a space-based laboratory is its microgravity environment, which can usually be studied more cheaply with a "vomit comet" (that is, an aircraft which flies in parabolic arcs.)[50] ISS Centrifuge Accommodations Module (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ISS Centrifuge Accommodations Module (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... Robert L. Park is a professor of physics at the University of Maryland, College Park. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article is about the concept. ... Main article: Weightlessness A microgravity environment is one where gravity has little or no measurable effect. ... Project Mercury astronauts on C-131 flying as Vomit Comet, 1959 Weightlessness inside the Vomit Comet Vomit Comet is a nickname for any airplane that briefly provides a nearly weightless environment in which to train astronauts, conduct research, and film motion pictures. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... A parabola A parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a cone, and a plane tangent to the cone or parallel to some plane tangent to the cone. ...


Two of the most ambitious ISS projects to date—the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer and the Centrifuge Accommodations Module—have both been cancelled due to the prohibitive costs NASA faces in simply completing the ISS. As a result, the research done on the ISS is generally limited to experiments which do not require any specialized apparatus. For example, in the first half of 2007, ISS research dealt primarily with human biological responses to being in space, covering topics like kidney stones, circadian rhythm, and the effects of cosmic rays on the nervous system.[51][52][53] Critics tend to believe that this sort of research is of little practical value, since space exploration is today almost universally done by robots. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a particle physics experiment to be mounted on the International Space Station designed to search for a various types of unusual matter. ... ISS Centrifuge Accommodations Module (NASA) The Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM) of the International Space Station provides controlled gravity for experiments and the capability to: Expose a variety of biological specimens to artifical gravity levels between 0. ... Kidney stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are cells called neurons. ...


Other critics have attacked the ISS on some technical design grounds:

  1. Jeff Foust argued that the ISS requires too much maintenance, especially by risky, expensive EVAs;[54]
  2. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific has mentioned that its orbit is rather highly inclined, which makes Russian launches cheaper, but US launches more expensive.[55] This was intended as a design point, to encourage Russian involvement with the ISS—and Russian involvement saved the project from abandonment in the wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster—but the choice may have increased the costs of completing the ISS substantially.

In response to some of these criticisms, advocates of manned space exploration say that criticism of the ISS project is short-sighted, and that manned space research and exploration have produced billions of dollars' worth of tangible benefits to people on Earth. Jerome Schnee estimated that the indirect economic return from spin-offs of human space exploration has been many times the initial public investment.[56] A review of the claims by the Federation of American Scientists argued that NASA's rate of return from spin-offs is actually very low, except for aeronautics work that has led to aircraft sales.[57] Jeff Foust is the author of Astronomers Computer Companion and editor, publisher and writer for The Space Review. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ...


Critics also say that NASA is often casually credited with "spin-offs" (such as Velcro and portable computers) that were developed independently for other reasons.[58] NASA maintains a list of spin-offs from the construction of the ISS, as well as from work performed on the ISS.[59][60] However, NASA's official list is much narrower and more arcane than dramatic narratives of billions of dollars of spin-offs. Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right). ...


It is therefore debatable whether the ISS, as distinct from the wider space program, will be a major contributor to society. Some advocates argue that apart from its scientific value, it is an important example of international cooperation.[61] Others claim that the ISS is an asset that, if properly leveraged, could allow more economical manned Lunar and Mars missions.[62] Either way, advocates argue that it misses the point to expect a hard financial return from the ISS; rather, it is intended as part of a general expansion of spaceflight capabilities.


Sightings

Due to the size of the International Space Station, which is the size of an American football field, and particularly due to the large reflective area offered by its solar panels, ground based observation of the station is possible with the naked eye. In many cases the station is one of the brightest naked-eye objects in the sky, though it is only visible for brief periods of time. This is because the station is in low earth orbit, and the sun angle and observer locations need to coincide.[63] United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The naked eye is a figure of speech referring to human visual perception that is unaided by enhancing equipment, such as a telescope or binoculars. ...


NASA provides data on forthcoming opportunities for viewing the ISS (and other objects) on the Station Sightings web page, as do the European Space Agency and the independent site Heavens-Above.[63][64] ESA redirects here. ...


Miscellany

Yuri Malenchenko was the first person to be married in space.
Yuri Malenchenko was the first person to be married in space.

NASA pic, from http://www. ... NASA pic, from http://www. ... Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko (Russian: Юрий Иванович Маленченко; born December 22, 1961, Svetlovodsk Ukraine) is a cosmonaut who flew on the following missions: Soyuz TM-19 Commander 04. ...

Space tourism and a wedding

As of 2007 there have been five space tourists to the ISS, each spending around US $25 million; they all went there aboard Russian supply missions. There has also been a space wedding when cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko on the station married Ekaterina Dmitrieva, who was in Texas. The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ... Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko (Russian: Юрий Иванович Маленченко; born December 22, 1961, Svetlovodsk Ukraine) is a cosmonaut who flew on the following missions: Soyuz TM-19 Commander 04. ...


ISS golf event

Golf Shot Around The World was an event in which, on an EVA, a special golf ball, equipped with a tracking device, was hit from the station and sent into its own low Earth orbit for a fee paid by a Canadian golf equipment manufacturer to the Russian Space Agency. The task was supposed to be performed on Expedition 13, but the event was postponed, and took place on Expedition 14.[65] Expedition 14 is the 14th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS). ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Expedition 13 (2006), the 13th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS), launched at 02:30 UTC on March 30, 2006, using the Soyuz TMA-8 spacecraft, which will stay during the entirety of the expedition for emergency evacuation. ... Expedition 14 is the 14th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS). ...


Microgravity

At the station's orbital altitude, the gravity from the Earth is 88% of that at sea level. The state of weightlessness is due to the constant free fall of the ISS, which according to the equivalence principle, is indiscernible from being in a state of zero gravity. The environment on the station is often described as microgravity, due to four effects: Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness. ... In the physics of relativity, the equivalence principle is applied to several related concepts dealing with gravitation and the uniformity of physical measurements in different frames of reference. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ...

  • The drag resulting from the residual atmosphere.
  • Vibratory acceleration due to mechanical systems and the crew on board the ISS.
  • Orbital corrections by the on-board gyroscopes (or thrusters).
  • The spatial separation from the real center of mass of the ISS, with a level of gravity on the order of 2 to 1,000 millionths of one g (the value varies with the frequency of the disturbance, with the low value occurring at frequencies below 0.1 Hz, and the higher value at frequencies of 100 Hz or more).[66]

In physics, the center of mass of a system of particles is a specific point at which, for many purposes, the systems mass behaves as if it were concentrated. ... g (also gee, g-force or g-load) is a non-SI unit of acceleration defined as exactly 9. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ...

Time zone

The ISS uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, sometimes informally called GMT) to regulate its onboard day. This is roughly equidistant between its two control centres in Houston and Moscow. The windows are covered at "night" to give the impression of darkness since it experiences 16 sunrises/sunsets a day. The crew typically wakes up at around 7:00 UTC; they work for about ten hours each weekday and five hours each Saturday.[67] During visiting shuttle missions, the ISS crew will mostly follow the shuttle's Mission Elapsed Time (MET), which is a flexible timezone based solely on the launchtime of the shuttle mission.[68][69] Because the sleeping periods between the UTC timezone and the MET usually differ, the ISS crew often has to adjust their sleeping pattern before the shuttle arrives and after it leaves to shift from one timezone to the other, therefore this is called sleepshifting. UTC redirects here. ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... Mission Elapsed Time (MET) is used by NASA during their space missions, most notably during their Space Shuttle missions. ...


Atmosphere

The atmosphere on board the ISS is maintained to have a composition similar to that of the Earth's atmosphere.[70] Normal air pressure on the Space Station is 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi), the same as at sea level on Earth. This does not match the atmosphere on the shuttle, so adjustments are performed during visits.[71] For other uses, see Atmosphere (disambiguation). ... Air redirects here. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikinews
Wikinews has news related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a list of visitors to the International Space Station in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of extra-vehicular activities at the International Space Station. ... This is a chronological list of manned spaceflights to the International Space Station. ... See also International Space Station List of manned spaceflights to the ISS List of ISS spacewalks Categories: International Space Station ...

Other

The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... The X-38 was a program under leadership of NASA Johnson Space Center to build a series of incremental flight demonstrators for the proposed Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station. ... A cut away view of a Transhab concept. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... A lunar space elevator (also called a moonstalk) is a proposed cable running from the surface of the Moon into space. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Space simulation. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ...

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2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Space. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... ESA redirects here. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA Logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Jeff Foust is the author of Astronomers Computer Companion and editor, publisher and writer for The Space Review. ... The Space Review is a free online publication, published every week on Monday, with in-depth articles, essays, commentary and reviews on space exploration and development. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Russian: ), also known as RKK Energiya, is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Official ISS pages at the participating space agencies' websites

Flag of the United States United States Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • International Space Station — NASA site
  • International Space Station — NASA's Consolidated Launch Manifest
  • International Space Station — NASA History Portal

Flag of Canada Canada Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • International Space Station — CSA Site
  • International Space Station — CSA: Assembly stages, past and future

Flag of Europe European Union Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • International Space Station — ESA site

Flag of Japan Japan Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...

  • International Space Station — JAXA site

Flag of Brazil Brazil Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ...

  • International Space Station — AEB site

Flag of Italy Italy Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...

  • International Space Station — ASI site

Interactive/Multimedia

  • NASA's International Space Station Interactive Reference Guide - Flash Multimedia
  • NASA's ISS Image gallery Search page
ISS pages of major ISS contractors
  • International Space Station — Energia site
  • International Space Station — Boeing site
Other ISS links
  • NASA's ISS Daily Reports
  • NASA's ISS Daily crew timelines
  • Listen to the ISS - transmission frequencies
  • CNN page with 3D model
  • NASA Scale Model Drawing Package
  • Associated Press International Space Station Timeline - Interactive
  • ISS Expedition Experiment List - List of experiments conducted aboard ISS sorted by Expedition No.
  • Experiment List - Alphabetical - List of experiments conducted aboard ISS sorted by experiment name
  • ISS Familiarization and Training Manual - NASA July 1998 (PDF format)
  • Current ISS Vital Statistics
  • Heavens-Above.com - Real-time ISS and satellite/shuttle sighting opportunities.
  • ISS Fan Club devoted to ham radio communications with the ISS
  • ISS safety report
  • Detailed list of cancelled components
  • Build-up of the ISS (simulation) at tietronix.com
  • International Space Station Full coverage of all ISS activities, includes all Status Reports issued since January 2003
  • International Space Station from Encyclopedia Astronautica (out of date)

The Encyclopedia Astronautica is a reference web site on space travel. ... Zarya module as seen from STS-88 (NASA) Zarya (meaning sunrise), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or the FGB (the Russian Acronym), was the first module launched of the International Space Station. ... For other uses, see Zvezda. ... Quest Joint Airlock Module (NASA) The Quest Joint Airlock, previously known as the Joint Airlock Module, is the primary airlock for the International Space Station. ... SO1 Pirs Docking compartment The Pirs docking compartment is a Russian module of the International Space Station (ISS). ... Harmony in the Space Station Processing Facility, awaiting launch. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ... March 10, 2001 - The Leonardo Multi Purpose Logistics Module rests in Discoverys payload bay in this view taken from the ISS by a crew member using a digital still camera during STS-102. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ... Purpose If Node 3 is added to the International Space Station it will contain the most advanced life support systems ever flown in space. ... ISS Cupola (NASA) View from inside of the Cupola ISS Cupola as viewed from the floor of the International Space Station Center The Cupola is a ESA-built observatory module of the International Space Station (ISS) that will provide astronauts with direct viewing for robotic operations and Space Shuttle payload... The Docking Cargo Module (DCM) (Russian: , Transliteration: {{{2}}}) is the newest addition to the International Space Station (ISS) manifest. ... The ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) is an un-pressurized attached payload project for the International Space Station (ISS) that provides mechanical mounting surfaces, electrical power, and command and data handling services for science experiments on the ISS. (ExPRESS stands for Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station. ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... MLM docked to the ISS The Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) will be a component of the International Space Station funded by the Russian Federal Space Agency. ... Computer model of the ERA at work on the ISS payload mounting units that arm can not be used on the Russian part of the ISS. The ERA project is very international. ... ISS elements as of December 2006 The Integrated Truss Structure forms the backbone of the International Space Station, with mountings for unpressurized logistics carriers, radiators, solar arrays, and other equipment. ... ISS Canadarm2 (NASA) The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is a robotic arm and associated equipment on the International Space Station that plays a key role in station assembly and maintenance: moving equipment and supplies around the station, supporting astronauts working in space, and servicing instruments and other payloads attached to... ISS Canada hand (NASA) The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator is a robotic arm or telemanipulator, or waldo which is part of the Mobile Servicing System. ... ESP-1 can be seen as the rectangular shaped object attached to the Destiny Laboratory ESP-2 can be seen under the Quest Joint Airlock The External Stowage Platforms (ESP) are three components of the International Space Station (ISS). ... Unity, already docked to Endeavour via PMA-2, docking with Zarya via PMA-1 (NASA) The International Space Station (ISS) uses three Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) to interconnect spacecraft and modules with different docking mechanisms. ... ISS Centrifuge Accommodations Module (NASA) The Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM) of the International Space Station provides controlled gravity for experiments and the capability to: Expose a variety of biological specimens to artifical gravity levels between 0. ... ISS Interim Control Module (U.S. Navy) The Interim Control Module (ICM) was a NASA constructed module to serve as a temporary tug for the International Space Station in case the ISS Zvezda service module was destroyed or not launched for an extended period of time. ... The Russian-built Universal Docking Module (UDM) is a hub for an additional four modules of the Russian built portion of the International Space Station. ... The Docking and Stowage Module (DSM) is a Russian element that provides facilities for stowage and additional docking ports. ... ISS Habitation module (NASA) The U.S. built Habitation Module was scheduled to be the International Space Stations main living quarters. ... The Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), sometimes referred to as the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV), was the proposed lifeboat or escape module for the International Space Station (ISS). ... ISS Propulsion Module (NASA) An ISS Propulsion module was proposed as a backup to functions performed by the Zvezda Service Module and Progress spacecraft. ... ISS Science Power Platform (NASA) The Science Power Platform (SPP) is a Russian element of the International Space Station (ISS) brought up by the Space Shuttle to provide additional power for the ISS as well as roll axis control capability for the orbital facility. ... The Russian Research Module (RM) is a Russian element of the International Space Station (ISS) that provides facilities for Russian experiments and research. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... Water tank Fuel tank ATV vs Apollo vs Progress An Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ... H-II Transfer Vehicle (Courtesy of JAXA) The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) is an unmanned spacecraft on which the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA has been working since 1997 to resupply the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station, and the rest of the station, if... The SpaceX Dragon is a conventional blunt-cone ballistic capsule spacecraft, capable of carrying 7 people or a mixture of personnel and cargo, to and from low Earth orbit. ... Orion is a spacecraft currently under development by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... International Space Station mockup at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. ... The following is the assembly sequence of the major components of the International Space Station. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Genesis I is an experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace and launched in 2006. ... Genesis II is the second experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 511 pixelsFull resolution (2928 × 1872 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... MOL test launch Nov. ... The original Skylab space station. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... Polyus cutaway The Polyus spacecraft, also known as Polus, Skif-DM, or 17F19DM, was a prototype orbital weapons platform designed to defend against anti-satellite weapons with recoilless cannon. ... Galaxy is the second phase of a technology demonstration program currently underway by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace as a follow on to the Genesis-class vehicles. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The first model of a planned Chinese space station, unveiled in 2000 Project 921-2 is the working name given by the Peoples Republic of China in 1992 for plans to create a manned space station. ... A revolutionary yacht designed and built by Len Last in Exeter in 1971. ... A photograph of a full-size mock up of the expanded BA 330 module on the ground at Bigelow Aerospaces North Las Vegas plant, to give an impression of its size. ... Galactic Suite is a planned space station intended for use as an orbital hotel to be made operational in 2012. ... A rotating wheel space station is a hypothetical wheel-shaped space station that could create artificial gravity by rotating. ... A Bernal sphere is a type of space habitat intended as a long-term home for permanent residents, first proposed in 1929 by Dr. John Desmond Bernal. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders The ONeill cylinder is a space habitat design proposed by physicist Gerard K. ONeill in his book, The High Frontier. ... Exterior view of a Stanford torus. ... Wet Workshop was originally any idea of using a spent rocket booster as a makeshift space station. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... Space Industries Incorporated was a company formed in the 1980s for the purpose of building a privately owned space station, which was to be called the Industrial Space Facility (ISF). ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Human spaceflight Mercury program Gemini program Apollo program Apollo-Soyuz (Soviet Union partnership) Skylab Space Shuttle Shuttle-Mir Program (Russian partnership) International Space Station (working together with Russia, Canada, ESA, and JAXA along with co-operators, ASI and Brazil) Orion Program Satellite and Robotic space missions Earth Observing Explorer I... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The North American X-15 rocket plane was part of the USAF/NASA/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, including also the Bell X-1. ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... Man In Space Soonest was a American program to put an astronaut into outer space before the Soviet Union would be able to. ... An artists conception of the NASA reference design for the Project Orion spacecraft powered by nuclear propulsion. ... Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a USAF program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... MOL test launch Nov. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... // Background The Orbital Space Plane program (now defunct and replaced by the Spiral series of CEV — Crew Exploration Vehicles) was designed to support the International Space Station requirements for crew rescue, crew transport and contingency cargo such as supplies, food and other needed equipment. ... From World War II until its breakup, the Soviet Union undertook projects to build rockets, craft, and instruments for war and exploration of space. ... Soyuz spacecraft from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project The Soyuz human spaceflight programme was initiated in the early 1960s as part of the manned lunar programme that was intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... Vostok spacecraft model The Vostok programme (Восто́к, translated as East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in putting a person into Earth orbit for the first time. ... Image:Woschod 1 Montage. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ... Proton-K rocket with Zond (7K-L1) circumlunar spacecraft (Baikonur) Details of the Soviet Moonshot were kept intensely secret until the arrival of glasnost. ... TMK was the designation of a Soviet Union space exploration project to send a manned flight to Mars (without landing). ... Spiral 50 / 50. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... The TKS spacecraft was first designed as a Proton rocket launched manned spacecraft, with the VA (Vozvrashaemiy Apparat) capsule on top for the crew, where they would enter the lower portion of the TKS, the FGB (the Functional Cargo Block), through a hatch cut in the heat shield. ... An artists conception of a Soviet Buran space shuttle lifting off atop the Energia booster. ... Model of Energia rocket with Buran shuttle The Soviet reusable spacecraft program Buran (Бура́н meaning snowstorm or blizzard in Russian) began in 1976 at TsAGI as a response to the United States Space Shuttle program. ...


 
 

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