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Encyclopedia > International Religious Freedom Act of 1998
International Religious Freedom Act of 1998
U.S. Congress
Title: International Religious Freedom Act of 1998
Introduced by: Rep. Frank Wolf, September 9, 1997; Sen. Arlen Specter
Dates
Date passed: May 14, 1998 (House), October 9, 1998 (Senate)
Date signed into law: October 27, 1998
Amendments:
Related legislation: Foreign Service Act of 1980

The International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–292, as amended by Public Law 106–55, Public Law 106–113, Public Law 107–228, Public Law 108–332, and Public Law 108–458)[1] was passed to promote religious freedom as a U.S. Foreign policy, and to advocate on the behalf of the individuals viewed as persecuted in foreign countries on the account of religion. The United States, through its constitution and various international agreements, supposedly has an obligation to support religious freedom around the world by skirmishing religious intolerance in countries that put sanctions on the religious rights of the people. The Act was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on October 27, 1998.[2] Three cooperative entities have been maintained by this act to monitor religious persecution. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Frank Rudolph Wolf, born January 30, 1939, American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1981. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arlen Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... For a list of presidents, see list of Presidents of the United States. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ...

  1. An ambassador at large for International Religious Freedom within the Department of State,
  2. A bipartisan commission on International Religious Freedom, and
  3. A special advisor on International Religious Freedom within the National Security Council.[2]

While the original bill imposed mandatory sanctions on the countries supporting religious persecution, the amended act offers the president a waiver provision if he feels that it would further the goal of the bill or promote the interests of US national security not to impose measures on a designated country. An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... In a two-party system (such as in the United States), bipartisan refers to any bill, act, resolution, or any other action of a political body in which both of the major political parties are in agreement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A waiver is the voluntary relinquishment or surrender of some known right or privilege. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ...

Contents

History

This Act was a response to the growing concern about religious persecution throughout the world. There had been instances of toleration on the part of the governments when the religious rights of their citizens and others had been violated. There are governments around the world which openly sponsor and tolerate restrictions on their citizens' right to practice, observe, study, or associate with other members of their religious faith. It has been suggested that Historical persecution by Christians#Theological debate of persecution be merged into this article or section. ... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ...


The former Assistant Secretary of State for democracy, human rights and labor, John Shattuck, cited specific countries that fail to recognize the fundamental right of religious freedom. There is a civil war ensuing in Sudan because of the ruling party's intolerance of opposing religions.[3] The Chinese Catholics and Chinese Protestant groups battle government repression, and the Chinese government tightly regulates religious practices in the regions of Tibet and Xinjiang.[4] Members of the Rohingya Muslim minority are forced to take refuge in the neighboring Bangladesh. There are suspect cases of minority oppression in Europe as well. Russia's new religion law seeks to make restraints and inhibit new religious communities' ability to own property, publish literature or operate schools.[5] This Act tries to recognize such kind of blatant forms of religious discrimination and oppression. It finds that over one-half of the population of the world lives under regimes that have strict policies against basic religious freedoms. Title VII of the Act has noted that some regimes engage in persecution that includes subjection of those people who engage in practice of religious faiths that are not state sponsored, to detention, torture, beatings, forced marriage, rape, imprisonment, enslavement, mass resettlement and death. Senator Don Nickles (R-OK) in his speech to the Congress on October 2, 1998 stated: Assistant Secretary of State is a title used for many executive positions in the United States State Department. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... John Shattuck is chief Executive Officer of the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, and formerly United States Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor under President Clinton. ... A fundamental right is a right that has its origin in a countrys constitution or that is necessarily implied from the terms of that constitution. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article is on the politics of Mainland China. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Rohingya are a minority Muslim ethnic group in Northern Rakhine State, Western Myanmar. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Religious discrimination is valuing a person or group lower because of their religion, or treating someone differently because of what they do or dont believe. ... Oppress is the negative outcome experienced by people targeted by the cruel exercise of power in a society or social group. ... Map of countries by population —showing the population of the Peoples Republic of China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than a billion. ... Detention generally refers to a state or government holding a person in a particular area, either for interrogation, as punishment for a wrong, or as a precautionary measure while investigating a potential threat posed by that person. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... Forced marriage is a term used in the Occident to describe traditional arranged marriages in which one or more of the parties (usually the woman) is married without his/her consent or against his/her will. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Image:Don Nickles. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ...

[…]this is an important aspect of the bill. If the definition of religious persecution were limited to only torture, imprisonment, or death, […] the Act would only cover about a few countries, and would not include about 80 to 85% of the religious persecution that takes place in the world […]

This Act was first introduced as H.R. 2431 by Representative Frank Wolf to the House of Representatives on September 9, 1997. Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA) concurrently introduced the state version of the bill, S. 772. The legislation was passed on May 14, 1998, by a vote of 375-41, and was subsequently sent to the Senate. Under consideration, this Act was proposed to be modified by Senator Nickles. Frank Rudolph Wolf, born January 30, 1939, American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1981. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arlen Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ...


The primary aim of the modification was to allow the president to have more flexibility in responding to countries that violated the Act. The Nickles bill offered the president a waiver provision if he feels that it would promote the interest of the US national security to not impose measures on a designated country. The Senate agreed to the propositions on October 9, 1998, approved by H.R. 2431 as amended by a vote of 98-0. October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ...


Organization

The Act has seven titles, each containing numerous sections. These are:

  • Title I—Department of State Activity
  • Title II—Commission on International Religious Freedom
  • Title III—National Security Council
  • Title IV—Presidential Actions
  • Title V—Promotion of Religious Freedom
  • Title VI—Refugee, Asylum, and Consular Matters
  • Title VII—Miscellaneous Provisions

Scope and substance of the Act

As per the Act, the Congress and the President are obligated to take into account the various issues of religious freedom while developing the country's foreign policy. As under the Title I of the Act, a bureaucratic infrastructure is created for dealing with religious issues. This is known as the Office of the International Religious Freedom which is regulated under the US Department of State. Title II creates the Commission on International Religious Freedom and Title III a special advisor to the president on international religious freedom within the National Security Council. The crux of the Act lies in Title IV. Title IV details the possible options available to the president and his actions based upon them in response to the states which violate the provisions under the Act. Under Sec. 401(b)(1), the President shall identify specific countries that the Commission on International Religious Freedom designates as having obstructed religious freedom. The president must then, with the consultation of the secretary of state, the ambassador at large, the National Security Council special advisor, and the commission, design a response to those countries. [6]


Countries that are severe violators of religious freedom are categorized under Sec 402 of the Act and this subjects them to punitive sanctions which are listed in Sec. 405. Under this section, the president must either enter into a binding agreement with the concerned country to end the religious persecution, or to choose from remedies outlined in Sec. 405 of the Act. This section offers the president with fifteen options to exercise against countries engaging in religious persecution. These include

  • a private or a public demarche;
  • a private or public condemnation;
  • the delay or cancellation of scientific or cultural exchanges;
  • the denial, delay, or cancellation of working, official or state visits;
  • the withdrawing, limitation, or suspension of some forms of US aid;
  • direction to public and private international institutions to deny assistance;
  • and sanctions prohibiting the US government from entering into import or export agreements with the designated governments. [6]

Under Title IV, the president may waiver punitive measures against the concerned country. This would allow the president in balancing of the objectives of the bill with other US Foreign Policy interests. The Title V of the act seeks to promote religious freedom abroad through the way of international media, exchanges and foreign service awards for working to promote human rights. The Immigration and Naturalization Service officials are trained under the venues of Title VI of the Act. A démarche is a formal diplomatic representation of one government’s official position, views, or wishes on a given subject to an appropriate official in another government or international organization. ... In property law, condemnation is identical to eminent domain. ... State visits usually involve a military review. ... A diplomatic service is the body of diplomats and foreign policy officers maintained by the government of a country to communicate with the governments of other countries. ... The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice and handled legal and illegal immigration and naturalization. ...


The final provision of the Act, Title VII contains miscellaneous provisions, including 701, which urges transnational corporations to adopt codes of conduct sensitive to the right to freedom of religion. [6]


Office of International Religious Freedom

The Office of International Religious Freedom was formed under Title I of the International Religious Freedom Act, within the U.S. Department of State. This office is under a mission of promoting religious freedom as a core objective of US foreign policy. The office is headed by the Ambassador at Large John Hanford who was appointed to this position in May 2005, by the President of the United States under the aid and advice of the Senate. The main functions of the Office Director and the staff monitor religious persecution and discrimination worldwide, and recommend and implement policies in respective regions or countries.[7] Ambassador-at-Large is the title for an Ambassador (diplomat of the highest carreer rank, not counting the rather political superiors in government) who is NOT posted (in residence) in a given embassy (accredited to one or exceptionally several, usually neighbouring, governments and/or seat of international organizations), but given... John V. Hanford is the Ambassador at Large of the Office of International Religious Freedom of the US State Department which was created under the provisions of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For a list of presidents, see list of Presidents of the United States. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is...


The United States seeks to conform with international covenants that guarantee the inalienable right of religious freedom to every human being. The Act is committed to the promotion of freedom of religion and conscience throughout the world as a fundamental human right and a source of stability for all countries. It further seeks to assist newly formed democracies in implementing freedom of religion and conscience. Religious and human rights non-governmentla organizations are sought to promote religious freedom. Furthermore, the USA seeks to identify and denounce regimes that are severe persecutors of their citizens or others on the basis of religious beliefs.[7] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The Office is responsible for the monitoring of religious persecution and discrimination worldwide. Its specific activities include:

  1. It makes the Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, which is submitted to the Congress annually by the Department of State in compliance with Section 102(b) of the Act. This report supplements the most recent Human Rights Reports. It includes individual country chapters on the status of religious freedom.[8]
  2. On the basis of these annual reports, the Secretary of State will designate any country that commits systematic, ongoing and egregious violations of religious freedom as a Country of Particular Concern or CPC. States so designated are subject to further actions, including economic sanctions by the United States.
  3. Meetings are organized with foreign government officials at all levels, as well as religious and human rights groups in the United States and abroad, to address the problem of religious freedom.
  4. A testimony is made before the United States Congress, on issues of international religious freedom.
  5. Maintaining a close cooperation with the independent United States Commission on International Religious Freedom.
  6. Sponsorship of reconciliation programs in disputes that divide groups along lines of religious beliefs. The office seeks to support NGOs that are promoting reconciliation in such disputes.
  7. Outreach programs to American religious communities.[7]

Country of Particular Concern is a designation by the United States Secretary of State (under authority delegated by the President) of a nation guilty of particularly severe violations of religious freedom under the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998 (H.R. 2431) and its amendment of 1999 (Public Law... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a US government agency created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 to monitor the status of freedom of thought, conscience, and religion or belief abroad, as defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and related international instruments...

Commission on International Religious Freedom

This commission is an independent nine-member, bipartisan US government agency that was created to monitor the status of freedom of thought, conscience, and religion or belief abroad, as defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and related international instruments and to give independent policy recommendations to the President, the Secretary of State and the United States Congress.[9] This commission is funded entirely by the federal government on an annual basis and staffed by government employees. The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a US government agency created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 to monitor the status of freedom of thought, conscience, and religion or belief abroad, as defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and related international instruments... This article describes the government of the United States. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Bold text Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican...


The Commission is responsible for determining the effect of other countries' policies on religious groups, and if necessary, holding Congressional hearings to educate Congress and the public about religious persecution around the world. The Commission may not implement sanctions on countries that violate religious freedom as it only has advisory and monitoring authority, including the authority to hold hearings. While the Department of State report contains a detailed country-by-country analysis of religious freedom, the Commission's report covers few countries, but makes policy recommendations to the executive and legislative branches of the government. The Commission report also reviews and analyzes the work of Department of State.[2]


Special Advisor on International Religious Freedom

The President is assigned a special advisor on international religious freedom within the National Security Council by Title III of the Act. Under the Act, the special advisor is designated to serve as a resource for executive branch officials, compiling and analyzing information on the facts and circumstances of violations of religious freedom and formulating possible US reactions to religious persecution in the light of US national security interests. The position of the director shall be comparable to that of the director within the executive office of the President.[7] In political science and greek constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ...


Justification and legal basis

This Act has been justified by the US Congress on the basis of constitutional and international law principles. Several of the sponsors of the bill have expressed that the United States was born out of the need for religious freedom and that this principle was codified in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The First Amendment explicitly guarantees the fundamental right of religious freedom and liberty to practice any faith as according to one's choice. Their contention made, to this is that the United States has the duty to uphold this fundamental right. During a speech about the Act, on October 9, 1998, Senator Joseph Lieberman (D-CT), gave the reason as to why the founding fathers were drawn to America, This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a Jewish-American Democratic politician and a current U.S. senator from Connecticut. ... Founding Fathers are persons instrumental in the establishment of an institution, usually a political institution, especially those connected to the origination of its ideals. ...

It because of a belief that no government has the right to tell the people how to worship and certainly not the right to discriminate against them or persecute them for the way they chose to express their faith in God.

Lieberman believed that by supporting this act the US Citizens could honor the country's founders for creating the first amendment to the Constitution. // Possession of citizenship U.S. citizens have the right to participate in the political system of the United States (with most U.S. states having restrictions for felons, and federal restrictions on naturalized persons), are represented and protected abroad by the United States (through U.S. embassies and consulates), and...


The principles of international law were made inherent in the act so as to clarify its commitment to promote international religious freedom. As per the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), religious freedom is one of the most fundamental human rights outlined. This right explicitly includes the freedom to change religious faith or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance." All the members of the United Nations have adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the virtue of their UN membership and are pledged to uphold its provisions. The Article 18(1) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was ratified with reservations in April 1992, also includes a freedom of religion clause similar to that of the UDHR's. The principles in the above-mentioned international law documents, according to the Act, create a sense of responsibility in its governments to protect the freedom of religion, which the Act does by exercising the United States' ability to choose its limit in dealing with countries that violate religious freedom. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The justification for this Act lies on the guarantee of freedom of religion found in the US Constitution and in principles of international law. Critics of this Act would probably contend that while the US Constitution does prohibit Federal and State governments from infringing on the religious liberties of people living within the US, it does not obligate or permit the US to use embargo or military intervention as means to uphold these rights abroad. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ...


References

  1. ^ United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. Retrieved on August 1, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c International Religious Freedom Act of 1998. United States Government (1998). Retrieved on April 27, 2006.
  3. ^ The Root Causes of the Sudan's Civil War. Indiana University Press (2003). Retrieved on April 28, 2006.
  4. ^ People's Republic of China: Religious repression in China. Amnesty International (1996). Retrieved on April 28, 2006.
  5. ^ Russia: New Religion Law Fraught with Potential for Abuses. ChristianityToday.com (1997). Retrieved on April 28, 2006.
  6. ^ a b c Human Rights Brief Volume VI, Issue 2, p. 18
  7. ^ a b c d International Religious Freedom. US Department of State (2005). Retrieved on April 27, 2006.
  8. ^ International Religious Freedom Report. US Department of State (2005). Retrieved on April 27, 2006.
  9. ^ United States Commission on International Religious Freedom: Washington, DC. USCIRF (2006). Retrieved on April 27, 2006.

August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also

The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a US government agency created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 to monitor the status of freedom of thought, conscience, and religion or belief abroad, as defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and related international instruments... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Country of Particular Concern is a designation by the United States Secretary of State (under authority delegated by the President) of a nation guilty of particularly severe violations of religious freedom under the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998 (H.R. 2431) and its amendment of 1999 (Public Law... The Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights was established in 1998 by the President of the United States Bill Clinton, honoring outstanding American promoters of rights in the United States and around the world. ... The Washington National Cathedral, located in the capital of the U.S., is one of the largest churches in the country. ...

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