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Encyclopedia > International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
Type: Alphabet
Languages: Reserved for phonetic transcription of any language
Time period: 1888 to the present
Parent writing systems: Romic Alphabet
 Phonotypic Alphabet
  International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
Phonetic Alphabet
History
Nonstandard symbols
Extended IPA
Naming conventions
IPA for English

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)[1] is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists. It is intended to provide a standardized, accurate and unique way of representing the sounds of any spoken language,[2] and is used, often on a day-to-day basis, by linguists, speech pathologists and therapists, foreign language teachers, lexicographers, and translators.[3] In its unextended form (as of 2005) it has approximately 107 base symbols and 55 modifiers.[4] FAA radiotelephony phonetic alphabet and Morse code chart. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...   The Romic Alphabet, sometimes known as the Romic Reform, is a phonetic alphabet proposed by Henry Sweet. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet is a system used for describing the sounds of spoken language, and has a long history originating with the International Phonetic Association. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet inherited alternate symbols from various traditions, but eventually settled on one for each sound. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet requires specific names for the symbols and diacritcs used in the alphabet. ... The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet can be used to show pronounciation in English. ... Phonetic transcription (or phonetic notation) is the visual system of symbolization of the sounds occurring in spoken human language. ... The following is a list of linguists, those who study linguistics. ... The following is a list of linguists, those who study linguistics. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech therapy, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ... Lexicography is either of two things Practical lexicography is the art or craft of writing dictionaries. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet are divided into three categories: Letters (which indicate “basic” sounds), diacritics (which further specify those sounds), and suprasegmentals (which indicate such qualities as speed, tone, and stress). These categories are then divided into smaller sections: letters are divided into vowels and consonants,[5] and diacritics and suprasegmentals are divided according to whether they indicate articulation, phonation, tone, intonation, or stress.[2] From time to time, symbols are added, removed, and modified by the International Phonetic Association. A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Articulation may refer to several topics: In speech, linguistics, and communication: Topic-focus articulation Articulation score Place of articulation Manner of articulation In music: Musical articulations (staccato, legato, etc) In education: Articulation (education) In sociology: Articulation (sociology) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ...


Although the IPA is meant to represent only those qualities of speech that are relevant to language itself (such as tongue position, manner of articulation, and the separation and accentuation of words and syllables),[2] an extended set of symbols called Extended IPA has been created by phonologists to record qualities of speech that have no direct effect on meaning (such as tooth-gnashing, lisping, and sounds made by people with a cleft).[3] A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... Look up Cleft lip and palate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the IPA
A diagram explaining the International Phonetic Alphabet.

The development of the IPA began in 1886, when a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known as the International Phonetic Association. The association's original intention was to create a different set of phonetic symbols for each language, where one symbol may have a different definition from language to language.[6] For example, the sound /ʃ/ (sh in shoe) was originally represented with the letter <c> in English but with the letter <x> in French.[7] However, for some reason it was eventually decided to keep the alphabet the same for all languages.[8] The first official version of the IPA was released in 1888, two years after the formation of the International Phonetic Association,[9] based upon the Romic alphabet of Henry Sweet,[10][11] which in turn was formed from the Phonotypic Alphabet of Isaac Pitman and Alexander John Ellis.[12] The International Phonetic Alphabet is a system used for describing the sounds of spoken language, and has a long history originating with the International Phonetic Association. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1275x1650, 166 KB) Summary The full IPA chart, including labiodental flap adopted in 2005 and (in grey) some ad hoc symbols found in the literature. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1275x1650, 166 KB) Summary The full IPA chart, including labiodental flap adopted in 2005 and (in grey) some ad hoc symbols found in the literature. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Paul Édouard Passy (1859-1940) was a French linguist, founder of the International Phonetic Association in 1886. ... The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...   The Romic Alphabet, sometimes known as the Romic Reform, is a phonetic alphabet proposed by Henry Sweet. ... Henry Sweet (1845-1912) was a philologist, and is also considered to be an early linguist. ... Categories: Stub ... Alexander John Ellis (or Alexander Sharpe) (1814 - 1890) was an English philologist. ...


Since its creation, the organization of vowels and consonants has largely remained the same. However, the alphabet itself has undergone a few revisions. The IPA Kiel Convention in 1989 made many changes to the earlier 1932 version. A minor revision took place in 1993, with the addition of the mid-central vowel[3] and the removal of symbols for voiceless implosives,[13] and the alphabet was last revised in May 2005, when a symbol for the labiodental flap was added.[14] The IPA Kiel Convention was an event maintained by the International Phonetic Association in 1989 held in Kiel, Germany. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet is a system used for describing the sounds of spoken language, and has a long history originating with the International Phonetic Association. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Wikimedia Commons has media related to: May 2005 Deaths in May May 26: Eddie Albert May 25: Ismail Merchant May 25: Sunil Dutt May 25: Graham Kennedy May 22: Thurl Ravenscroft May 21: Howard Morris May 21... Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a labiodental flap in languages of the Central African Republic and neighboring countries, such as Margi and Kera, as well as in Zimbabwe. ...


Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories, and modifying typefaces.[3]


Extensions of the alphabet are relatively recent; the Extended IPA was first created in 1991 and revised to 1997. Also, the VoQS (Voice Quality Symbols) were proposed in 1995 to provide a system for more detailed transcription of voice production.[15] The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Description

The general principle of the IPA is to provide one symbol for each sound (or speech segment). This means that the IPA does not use letter combinations unless the sound being represented can be regarded as a sequence of two or more sounds.[16] The IPA also does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them (a property known as “selectiveness”[3]),[17][18] and it does not use letters that represent multiple sounds, the way <x> represents the double consonant [ks] in English. Additionally, the IPA does not use letters whose sound value is context-dependent, such as c in English (and most other European languages). In linguistics (and phonetics), segment is used primarily “to refer to any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech” (after A Dictionary of Linguistics & Phonetics, David Crystal, 2003, pp. ... Vintage German letter balance for home use Look up letter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... C (lowercase c) is the third letter of the Roman alphabet. ...


Letterforms

The symbols chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet.[19] For this reason, most symbols are either Latin or Greek letters, or modifications thereof. However, there are symbols that are neither: for example, the symbol denoting the glottal stop [ʔ] has the form of a “gelded” question mark, and was originally an apostrophe.[20] Indeed, some symbols, such as that of the pharyngeal fricative [ʕ], though modified to look more Latin, were inspired by glyphs in other writing systems (in this case, the Arabic letter <ﻉ>‎, `ain).[13] The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... ? redirects here. ... An apostrophe An apostrophe (French, from the Greek αποστροφος προσωδια, the accent of elision) ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic ‎ (in abjadi order). ...


Despite its preference for letters that harmonize with the Latin alphabet, the International Phonetic Association has occasionally admitted symbols that seem to have nothing to do with Roman letters. For example, prior to 1989, the IPA symbols for click consonants were [​ʘ​], [​ʇ​], [​ʗ​], and [​ʖ​], all of which are clearly derived from Latin and Greek letters, as well as punctuation marks. However, except for [ʘ], none of these symbols was reflective of contemporary practice among Khoisanists (who use symbols for click consonants the most frequently). As a result, they were replaced by the more iconic symbols [​ʘ​], [​ǀ​], [​ǃ​], [​ǂ​], and [​ǁ​] at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989.[21] Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... The bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants found only in the Southern Khoisan family, the &#8225;Hõã language of Botswana, and the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. ... The dental click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar and postalveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ... The bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants found only in the Southern Khoisan family, the &#8225;Hõã language of Botswana, and the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. ... The dental click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar and postalveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. ... The palatal click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The IPA Kiel Convention was an event maintained by the International Phonetic Association in 1989 held in Kiel, Germany. ...


Symbols and sounds

The majority of the symbols in the IPA have been deliberately based on the letter forms of the Latin alphabet, using as few non-Latin forms as possible.[22] The Association created the IPA so that the sound values of most consonants taken from the Latin alphabet would correspond to their pronunciation in the majority of European languages (including English).[23] These consonants are [b], [d], [f], (hard) [ɡ], [k], [l], [m], [n], [p], (voiceless) [s], [t], [v], and [z]. The other consonants from the Latin alphabet, [c], [h], [j], [q], [r], [w], [x], and [y], correspond to the sounds these letters represent in various other languages: In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

IPA as pronounced in
[c] Kinyarwanda, IAST transliteration of Sanskrit, Irish (in some contexts)
[h] English, most Germanic languages
[j] most Germanic and Slavic languages
[q] Quechua, Aymara; Inuktitut; Arabic transliteration
[r] Slavic, most Romance
[w] English
[x] Russian <х> in the Cyrillic alphabet
[y] German, Old English and the Scandinavian languages;
Ancient Greek <Υ> (upsilon);

The vowels from the Latin alphabet ([a], [e], [i], [o], [u]) correspond to the vowels of Spanish. [i] is like the vowel in machine, [u] is as in rule, etc. Contents // Categories: Bantu languages | Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo | Languages of Rwanda | Languages of Uganda | Language stubs ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Quechua Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Kha, or Ha, (Ð¥, Ñ…) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the voiceless velar fricative /x/ (pronounced like the ch in German Bach). It is derived from the Greek letter chi (Χ, χ). Categories: Cyrillic letters | Language stubs ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Symbols derived from the Greek alphabet include [β], [ɣ], [ɛ], [θ], [ɸ], and [χ]. Of these, the only ones that closely correspond to the Greek letters they are derived from are [ɣ] and [θ]. Although [β], [ɛ], [ɸ], and [χ] denote beta-like, epsilon-like, phi-like, and chi-like sounds, they do not correspond to them exactly. The letter [ʋ], though visually similar to the Greek vowel letter <υ>, upsilon, is actually a consonant. Greek ( IPA: or IPA: — Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in that language family. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chi (upper case Χ, lower case χ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ...


The sound-values of modifications of Latin letters can usually be derived from those of the original letters.[24] For example, letters with a rightward-facing hook at the bottom represent retroflex consonants; and small capital letters usually represent uvular consonants. Apart from the fact that certain kinds of modification to the shape of a letter correspond to certain kinds of modification to the sound represented, there is no way to deduce the sound represented by a symbol from the shape of the symbol (unlike in Visible Speech). Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Visible speech is the name of the system used by Alexander Melville Bell, who was known internationally as a teacher of speech and proper elocution and an author of books on the subject. ...


Beyond the letters themselves, there are a variety of secondary symbols which aid in transcription. Diacritic marks can be combined with IPA letters to transcribe modified phonetic values or secondary articulations. There are also special symbols for suprasegmental features such as stress and tone that are often employed. A diacritic mark or accent mark is an additional mark added to a basic letter. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Secondary articulation refers to co-articulated consonants (consonants produced simultaneously at two places of articulation) where the two articulations are not of the same manner. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ...


Usage

Further information: Phonetic transcription
A transcription of the French word ébauche.
A transcription of the French word ébauche.

Although at first the IPA may seem too precise to offer any choice in how to transcribe speech, it is in fact possible to do so with various levels of accuracy. The most accurate kind of phonetic transcription, in which sounds are described in as much detail as the system allows, without any regard for the linguistic significance of the distinctions thus made, is known as narrow transcription. Anything else is termed broad transcription, though “broad” is obviously a relative term. Both kinds of transcriptions are generally enclosed in brackets,[2] but broad transcriptions are sometimes enclosed in slashes instead of brackets. Phonetic transcription (or phonetic notation) is the visual system of symbolization of the sounds occurring in spoken human language. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ébauche is a French term meaning outline or blank. In horology the term refers to an incomplete watch movement. ... See parenthesis for an account of the rhetorical concept from which the name of the punctuation mark is derived. ...

Two phonetic transcriptions of the word "international," demonstrating two distinctly different pronunciations.
Two phonetic transcriptions of the word "international," demonstrating two distinctly different pronunciations.

Broad transcription only distinguishes sounds which are considered different by speakers of a language. Sounds that may be pronounced differently between styles and dialects or depending on neighbouring sounds can be considered the "same" sound in the sense that they are allophones of the same phoneme. When a word is written as phonemes, it is usually enclosed in slashes. For example, the American pronunciation of the English word “little” may be transcribed broadly using the IPA as /lɪtl/. The broad transcription (placed between slashes) merely identifies the separate sounds in the word, and does not bother to indicate how it was said. On the other hand, the narrow transcription (placed between square brackets) specifies the way each sound is pronounced. A more narrow transcription of “little” would be different depending on the way it is said: [lɪɾɫ], [lɪʔɫ], or [lɪːɫ] are just a few possibilities. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The slash A slash or stroke, /, is a punctuation mark. ...


Use in dictionaries

Many British English dictionaries, such as the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary and the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, now use the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent the pronunciation of words.[25] However, most American (and some British) volumes each use their own conventions supposed to be more intuitive for readers unfamiliar with the IPA. For example, the pronunciation-representation systems in many American dictionaries (such as Merriam-Webster[26]) use “y” for IPA [j] and “sh” for IPA [ʃ], reflecting common representations of those sounds in written English. (In IPA, [y] represents the sound of the German ü, and [sh] represents the pair of sounds in grass hut.) The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English from 1963. ... In order to help readers who may be unfamiliar with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the following chart matches the IPA symbols used to represent the sounds in the English language with the phonetic symbols used in a few dictionaries/reference materials. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ...


One of the benefits of using an alternative to the IPA is the ability to use a single symbol for a sound pronounced differently in different dialects. For example, the American Heritage Dictionary uses ŏ for the vowel in cot (kŏt) but ô for the one in caught (kôt).[27] American regional dialects without the caught-cot merger generally pronounce cŏt like IPA [kʰɑt] (with an open central unrounded vowel) and côt like IPA [kʰɔt] (with an open back rounded vowel), whereas those with the merger pronounce the vowels ŏ and ô the same way (for example, like IPA [ɒ] in the Boston dialect). Using one symbol for the vowel in cot (instead of having different symbols for different pronunciations of the o) enables the dictionary to provide meaningful pronunciations for speakers of most dialects of English. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... The areas enclosed by the green line are those where most speakers have completely merged the vowels of cot and caught. ... The open central unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The Boston accent is the English dialect not only of the city of Boston, Massachusetts itself, but more generally of all of eastern New England; some form of it can be heard commonly in an area stretching throughout Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, southern Maine, and eastern Connecticut. ...


The IPA is also not universal among dictionaries in other countries and languages. Mass-market Czech multilingual dictionaries, for instance, tend to use the IPA only for sounds not found in the Czech language.[28] Czech (čeština []) is one of the West Slavic languages, along with Slovak, Polish, Pomeranian (Kashubian), and Lusatian Sorbian. ...


Educational initiative

There is some interest in using native speakers to produce sound and video files of sufficient breadth to completely demonstrate all the speech sounds covered by the IPA. Such a project would encompass a large subset of the world's languages. This would aid linguistic and anthropologic research, as well as help teach language learning. Specifically, the development of a reference standard using the IPA (mirroring the idea of the Rosetta Stone) could be used in order to preserve intact examples of the sounds of human language. For education, the IPA can help standardize resources which prepare students and very young children (ages 6-36 months) for universal language acquisition through familiarization and subsequent imitation of the breadth of human speech sounds.[29] Rosetta Stone is language-learning software produced by Fairfield Language Technologies. ...


Letters

The International Phonetic Alphabet divides its symbols into three categories: pulmonic consonants, non-pulmonic consonants, and vowels.[30] This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


Consonants (pulmonic)

Main article: Consonant

A pulmonic consonant is a consonant made by obstructing the glottis or oral cavity and either simultaneously or subsequently letting out air from the lungs. Pulmonic consonants make up the majority of consonants in the IPA, as well as in human language. All consonants in the English language fall into this category.[31] In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ...


The pulmonic consonant table, which includes most consonants, is arranged in rows that designate manner of articulation, meaning how the consonant is produced, and columns that designate place of articulation, meaning where in the vocal tract the consonant is produced. The main chart includes only consonants with a single place of articulation. In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ...

View this table as an image.
Place of articulation Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical (none)
Manner of articulation Bi­la­bial La­bio‐
den­tal
Den­tal Al­veo­lar Post‐
al­veo­lar
Re­tro‐
flex
Pa­la­tal Ve­lar Uvu­lar Pha­ryn‐
geal
Epi‐
glot­tal
Glot­tal
Nasal    m    ɱ    n    ɳ    ɲ    ŋ    ɴ  
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ   ʡ ʔ  
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approx­imant    β̞    ʋ    ɹ    ɻ    j    ɰ      
Trill    ʙ    r    *    ʀ    *  
Tap or Flap    ѵ̟    ѵ    ɾ    ɽ          *  
Lateral Fricative ɬ ɮ *    *    *       
Lateral Approx­imant    l    ɭ    ʎ    ʟ  
Lateral Flap      ɺ    *    *    *    

Notes: Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ... Radical consonants are articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. ... In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum&#8212;that fleshy part of the palate near the back&#8212;is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The labiodental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The uvular nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless labiodental plosive is a consonant sound produced like a [p], but with the lower lip contacting the upper teeth, as in [f]. This can be represented in the IPA as . ... The voiced labiodental plosive is a consonant sound produced like a [b], but with the lower lip contacting the upper teeth, as in [v]. This can be represented in the IPA as . ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The epiglottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless epiglottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced epiglottal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The breathy-voiced glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The voiced bilabial approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... The velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... The bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages (such as Russian, Spanish, Armenian, and Polish). ... The retroflex trill has been reported from the Dravidian language Toda, and confirmed with laboratory measurements. ... The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Epiglottal consonants are often allophonically trilled, and in some languages the trill is the primary realization of the consonant. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a bilabial flap in the Banda and some neighboring languages. ... Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a labiodental flap in languages of the Central African Republic and neighboring countries, such as Margi and Kera, as well as in Zimbabwe. ... The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... An epiglottal flap is not known to exist as a phoneme in any language. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Toda language has a voiceless retroflex lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a retroflex lateral approximant. ... The Bura language of the Chadic family has a voiceless palatal lateral fricative that contrasts with both a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and a palatal lateral approximant. ... The Archi language of the Dagestani family has a voiceless velar lateral fricative that is clearly a fricated, although further forward than velars in many languages, and might better be called pre-velar. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The alveolar lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Iwaidja language of Australia has both alveolar and retroflex lateral flaps, and perhaps a palatal lateral flap as well. ... The palatal lateral flap is a rare type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The velar lateral flap is an allophone of the velar lateral approximant in some languages of New Guinea, such as Kanite and Melpa. ...

  • Asterisks (*) mark reported sounds that do not (yet) have official IPA symbols. See the articles for ad hoc symbols found in the literature.
  • Daggers (†) mark IPA symbols that do not yet have official Unicode support. Since May 2005, this is the case of the labiodental flap, symbolized by a right-hook v: Labiodental flap[32]. In the meantime the similarly shaped izhitsa (ѵ) is used here.
  • In rows where some symbols appear in pairs (the obstruents), the symbol to the right represents a voiced consonant (except breathy-voiced [ɦ]). However, [ʔ] cannot be voiced. In the other rows (the sonorants), the single symbol represents a voiced consonant.
  • Although there is a single symbol for the coronal places of articulation for all consonants but fricatives, when dealing with a particular language, the symbols are treated as specifically alveolar, post-alveolar, etc., as appropriate for that language.
  • Shaded areas indicate articulations judged to be impossible.
  • The symbols [ʁ, ʕ, ʢ] represent either voiced fricatives or approximants.
  • It is primarily the shape of the tongue rather than its position that distinguishes the fricatives [ʃ ʒ], [ɕ ʑ], and [ʂ ʐ].

Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a labiodental flap in languages of the Central African Republic and neighboring countries, such as Margi and Kera, as well as in Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Labiodental_flap_(Gentium). ... Izhitsa (Ѵ, ѵ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ...

Coarticulation

Coarticulated consonants are sounds in which two individual consonants are pronounced at the same time. In English, the [w] in “went” is a coarticulated consonant, as the lips are rounded while the back of the tongue is raised simultaneously. Other languages, such as French and Swedish, have different coarticulated consonants. Co-articulated consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation. ...

View this table as an image
ʍ Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w Voiced labialized velar approximant
ɥ Voiced labialized palatal approximant
ɕ Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
ʑ Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
ɧ Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative

Notes: The voiceless labial-velar approximant (traditionally called a fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The labial-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages. ... The labial-palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative or laminal postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolo-palatal voiceless or laminal postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal-velar fricative (also voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative, voiceless coarticulated velar and palatoalveolar fricative) is a term used for a range of similar sounds used in most dialects of Swedish to realize the phoneme . ...

  • [ɧ] is described as a “simultaneous [ʃ] and [x]”.[33] However, this analysis is disputed. See voiceless palatal-velar fricative for discussion.

The voiceless palatal-velar fricative (also voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative, voiceless coarticulated velar and palatoalveolar fricative) is a term used for a range of similar sounds used in most dialects of Swedish to realize the phoneme . ...

Affricates and double articulation

Affricates and doubly articulated stops are represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar, either above or below the symbols. The six most common affricates are optionally represented by ligatures, though this is no longer official IPA usage, due to the great number of ligatures that would be required to represent all affricates this way. A third affricate transcription sometimes seen uses the superscript notation for a consonant release, for example for t​͡s, paralleling ~ k͡x. The symbols for the palatal plosives, <c ɟ>, are often used as a convenience for [t​͡ʃ d͡ʒ] or similar affricates, even in official IPA publications, so they must be interpreted with care. An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Doubly articulated consonants are consonants with two simultaneous primary places of articulation of the same manner (both plosive, or both nasal, etc. ...

View this table as an image.
Tie bar Ligature Description
t​͡s ʦ voiceless alveolar affricate
d​͡z ʣ voiced alveolar affricate
t​͡ʃ ʧ voiceless postalveolar affricate
d​͡ʒ ʤ voiced postalveolar affricate
t​͡ɕ ʨ voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
d​͡ʑ ʥ voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
t​͡ɬ  – voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
k͡p  – voiceless labial-velar plosive
ɡ͡b  – voiced labial-velar plosive
ŋ͡m  – labial-velar nasal stop

Note: The voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is a common sound in the languages of western North America. ... The voiceless labial-velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced labial-velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The labial-velar nasal stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

  • If your browser uses Arial Unicode MS to display IPA characters, the following incorrectly formed sequences may look better due to a bug in that font: ts͡, tʃ͡, tɕ͡, dz͡, dʒ͡, dʑ͡, tɬ͡, kp͡, ɡb͡, ŋm͡.

In digital typography, Arial Unicode MS is an extended version of the OpenType font Arial. ...

Consonants (non-pulmonic)

Non-pulmonic consonants are sounds which are made without the lungs. These include clicks (found in the Khoisan languages of Africa) and implosives (found in languages such as Swahili). Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see below for derivation) is a Bantu language. ...

View this table as an image
Click releases Implosives Ejectives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial ʼ For example:
ǀ Laminal alveolar ("dental") ɗ Alveolar Bilabial
ǃ Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") ʄ Palatal Alveolar
ǂ Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") ɠ Velar Velar
ǁ Lateral coronal ("lateral") ʛ Uvular Alveolar fricative

Notes: Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... The bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants found only in the Southern Khoisan family, the &#8225;Hõã language of Botswana, and the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. ... The voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The dental click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The bilabial ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The postalveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The velar ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced uvular implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar ejective fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

  • All clicks are doubly articulated and require two symbols: a velar or uvular stop, plus a symbol for the anterior release: [k͡ǂ, ɡ͡ǂ, ŋ͡ǂ, q͡ǂ, ɢ͡ǂ, ɴ͡ǂ] etc., or [ǂ͡k, ǂ͡ɡ, ǂ͡ŋ, ǂ͡q, ǂ͡ɢ, ǂ͡ɴ]. When the dorsal articulation is omitted, a [k] may usually be assumed.
  • Symbols for the voiceless implosives [ƥ, ƭ, ƈ, ƙ, ʠ] are no longer supported by the IPA, though they remain in Unicode. Instead, the IPA uses the voiced equivalent with a voiceless diacritic: [ɓ̥, ʛ̥], etc.
  • Although not confirmed from any language, and therefore not "explicitly recognized" by the IPA, a retroflex implosive, [ᶑ], is supported in the Unicode Phonetic Extensions Supplement, added in version 4.1 of the Unicode Standard, or can be created as a composite [ɗ̢].
  • The ejective symbol is often seen for glottalized but pulmonic sonorants, such as [mʼ], [lʼ], [wʼ], [aʼ], but these are more properly transcribed as creaky ([m̰], [l̰], [w̰], [a̰]).

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Retroflex implosives have not been confirmed to exist in any language, though one has been claimed for Ngada, an Austronesian language spoken in Flores. ... A glottalic consonant is a consonant produced with some important contribution (a movement, a closure) of the glottis (the opening that leads from the nose and mouth cavities into the larynx and the lungs). ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ...

Vowels

Main article: Vowel
An X-Ray shows the sounds [i, u, a, ɑ]
An X-Ray shows the sounds [i, u, a, ɑ]

The IPA defines a vowel as a sound which occurs at a syllable center.[34] Below is a chart depicting the vowels of the IPA. The IPA maps the vowels according to the position of the tongue. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The vertical axis of the chart is mapped by vowel height. Vowels pronounced with the tongue lowered are at the bottom, and vowels pronounced with the tongue raised are at the top. For example, [ɑ] (said as the "a" in "palm") is at the bottom because the tongue is lowered in this position. However, [i] (said as the vowel in "meet") is at the top because the sound is said with the tongue raised to the roof of the mouth. In phonetics, vowel height refers to the position of the tongue relative to the roof of the mouth in a vowel sound. ...


In a similar fashion, the horizontal axis of the chart is determined by vowel backness. Vowels with the tongue moved towards the front of the mouth (such as [ɛ], the vowel in "met") are to the left in the chart, while those in which it is moved to the back (such as [ʌ], the vowel in "but") are placed to the right in the chart. In phonetics, vowel backness is the position of the tongue relative to the back of the mouth in a vowel sound. ...


In places where vowels are paired, the right represents a rounded vowel while the left is its unrounded counterpart. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...

Edit - 2× Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
• ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ
ɐ
a • ɶ
ɑ • ɒ
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open

Notes: Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here On this page is a version of the IPA vowel chart designed for browsers currently set to display large text sizes. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A near-front vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A near-back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x700, 5 KB) Blank vowel trapezoid, for use with the International Phonetic Alphabet. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The close back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The close-mid central rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... In linguistics and phonology, schwa is the neutral, mid central unrounded vowel sound, exactly in the middle of the International Phonetic Alphabet vowel chart. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...

  • [a] is officially a front vowel, but there is little distinction between front and central open vowels, and [a] is frequently used for an open central vowel.
  • [ʊ] and [ɪ] are written as <ɷ> and <ɩ> respectively in older versions of the IPA.

Diacritics

Diacritics are small markings which are placed around the IPA letter in order to show a certain alteration or more specific description in the letter's pronunciation.[35] Sub-diacritics (markings normally placed below a letter or symbol) may be placed above a symbol having a descender (informally called a tail), e.g. ŋ̊.[36]


The dotless i, <ı>, is used when the dot would interfere with the diacritic. Other IPA symbols may appear as diacritics to represent phonetic detail: (fricative release), (breathy voice), ˀa (glottal onset), (epenthetic schwa), oʊ (diphthongization). More advanced diacritcs were developed in the Extended IPA for more specific pronunciation encoding. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ...

View the diacritic table as an image
Syllabicity diacritics
ɹ̩ n̩ Syllabic e̯ ʊ̯ Non-syllabic
Consonant-release diacritics
tʰ dʰ Aspirated 2 No audible release
dⁿ Nasal release Lateral release
Phonation diacritics
n̥ d̥ Voiceless s̬ t̬ Voiced
b̤ a̤ Breathy voiced 1 b̰ a̰ Creaky voiced
Articulation diacritics
t̪ d̪ Dental t̼ d̼ Linguolabial
t̺ d̺ Apical t̻ d̻ Laminal
u̟ t̟ Advanced i̠ t̠ Retracted
ë ä Centralized e̽ ɯ̽ Mid-centralized
e̝ ɹ̝ ˔ Raised (ɹ̝ = voiced alveolar nonsibilant fricative)
e̞ β̞ ˕ Lowered (β̞ = bilabial approximant)
Co-articulation diacritics
ɔ̹ x̹ More rounded ɔ̜ x̜ʷ Less rounded
tʷ dʷ Labialized tʲ dʲ Palatalized
tˠ dˠ Velarized tˁ dˁ Pharyngealized
ɫ Velarized or pharyngealized
e̘ o̘ Advanced tongue root e̙ o̙ Retracted tongue root
ẽ z̃ Nasalized ɚ ɝ Rhotacized

Notes: A syllabic consonant is a consonant which constitutes either a syllable of its own, or is the nucleus of a syllable. ... A non-syllabic vowel is a vowel-like sound that is not the nucleus of a syllable or mora (ie. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... An unreleased stop or plosive is a plosive consonant without an audible release burst. ... In phonetics, a nasal release is the release of a plosive consonant into a nasal stop. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... Creaky voice (also called laryngealisation or vocal fry, especially in the US), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Linguolabials are consonants articulated by putting the tongue tip or tongue blade against the upper lip. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... In phonetics, a fronted or advanced sound is one that is pronounced further to the front of the vocal tract than some reference point. ... In phonetics, a retracted or backed sound is one that is pronounced further to the back of the vocal tract than some reference point. ... Centralization in phonetics may refer to central vowels central or medial consonants This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... In phonetics, a raised sound is articulated with the tongue or lip raised higher than some reference point. ... The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... In phonetics, a lowered sound is articulated with the tongue or lip lowered (the mouth more open) than some reference point. ... The voiced bilabial approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... The velarized alveolar lateral approximant, which may actually be uvularized or pharyngealized, also known as dark l, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics, advanced tongue root, abbreviated ATR or +ATR, or expanded, is the expansion of the pharyngeal cavity by moving the base of the tongue forward, and often lowering the larynx, during the pronunciation of a vowel. ... In phonetics, retracted tongue root, abbreviated RTR or –ATR, is the retraction of the base of the tongue in the pharynx during the pronunciation of a vowel. ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ...   In phonetics, an r-colored vowel or rhotacized vowel is a vowel either with the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue...

  1. Some linguists restrict this breathy-voice diacritic to sonorants, and transcribe obstruents as .
  2. With aspirated voiced consonants, the aspiration is also voiced. Many linguists prefer one of the diacritics dedicated to breathy voice.

The state of the glottis can be finely transcribed with diacritics. A series of alveolar plosives ranging from an open to a closed glottis phonation are: In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...

[t] voiceless [d̤] breathy voice, also called murmured
[d̥] slack voice [d] modal voice
[d̬] stiff voice [d̰] creaky voice
[ʔ͡t] glottal closure

In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... The term slack voice (or lax voice) describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening slightly wider than that occurring in normal full voice. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal cords stiffer, than what occurs in normal (modal) voice. ... Creaky voice (also called laryngealisation or vocal fry, especially in the US), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating...

Suprasegmentals

Further information: Prosody (linguistics)

These symbols describe the suprasegmental features of a language, collectively known as a language's prosody. Suprasegmentals show the length, stress, pitch, and rhythm of a language.[37] Many suprasegmentals are often reserved for very specific transcriptions intended to convey the differences in speech between individuals or dialects. They are usually used to indicate a word's stress and length of vowels and consonants. The IPA also has a series of suprasegmentals which are used to indicate intonation in language. Certain languages, such as Japanese and Norwegian, possess intonation. IPA allows for the use of either tone diacritics or tone letters to indicate tones.[38] These are used in tonal languages such as Chinese. In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... An idiolect is a variety of a language unique to an individual. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tone (linguistics). ...

View this table as an image
Length, stress, and rhythm
ˈ Primary stress ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long (long vowel or
geminate consonant)
ˑ Half-long
˘ Extra-short . Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
Intonation
| Minor (foot) break Major (intonation) break
Global rise Global fall
Tones
e̋ or ˥ Extra high é or ˦ High
ē or ˧ Mid è or ˨ Low
ȅ or ˩ Extra low ě Rise
ê Fall e Downstep
e Upstep

In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that are distinctively longer than other sounds. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet uses a breve, , to indicate a vowel with less than nomal duration. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... Downstep is a phonemic or phonetic downward shift of tone between the syllables or words of a tonal language. ... In phonetics, upstep is a phonemic or phonetic upward shift of tone between the syllables or words of a tonal language. ...

Obsolete symbols, nonstandard symbols, and capital variants

The IPA inherited alternate symbols from various traditions, but eventually settled on one for each sound. The other symbols are now considered obsolete. An example is ɷ which has been standardised to ʊ. Several symbols indicating secondary articulation have been dropped altogether, with the idea that such things should be indicated with diacritics: ƍ for is one. In addition, the rare voiceless implosive series ƥ ƭ ƈ ƙ ʠ has been dropped; they can now be written ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ʄ̥ ɠ̥ ʛ̥ respectively. The International Phonetic Alphabet inherited alternate symbols from various traditions, but eventually settled on one for each sound. ...


There are also unsupported or ad hoc symbols from local traditions that find their way into publications that otherwise use the standard IPA. This is especially common with affricates such as ƛ (the "tl" in "Nahuatl"). Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ...


While the IPA does not itself have a set of capital letters, languages have adopted symbols from the IPA as part of their orthographies, and in such cases they have invented capital variants of these. This is especially common in Africa. An example is Kabye of northern Togo, which has Ɔ Ɛ Ŋ Ɣ Ʃ (capital ʃ). Other IPA-inspired capitals supported by Unicode are Ɓ/Ƃ Ƈ Ɗ/Ƌ Ə/Ǝ Ɠ Ħ Ɯ Ɲ Ɵ Ʈ Ʊ Ʋ Ʒ. Kabye is the name for both the language and peoples of the northern plains of Togo. ...


Extended IPA

Main article: Extended IPA

The Extended IPA, also often abbreviated as ExtIPA, is a group of symbols whose original purpose was to accurately transcribe disordered speech. At the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989, a group of linguists drew up the initial set of symbols for the Extended IPA. The Extended IPA was first published in 1990, and modified over the next few years before its official publication in the Journal of the International Phonetic Association in 1994 allowed it to be officially adopted by the ICPLA.[39] While its original purpose was to transcribe disordered speech, linguists have used it to designate a number of unique sounds within standard communication, such as hushing, gnashing teeth, and smacking lips. The Extended IPA has also been used to record certain peculiarities in an individual's voice, such as nasalized voicing and whispering.[3] The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... The IPA Kiel Convention was an event maintained by the International Phonetic Association in 1989 held in Kiel, Germany. ...


Sounds that have no symbols in the IPA

The remaining blank cells on the IPA chart can be filled without too much difficulty if the need arises. Some ad hoc symbols have appeared in the literature, for example for the lateral flaps and voiceless lateral fricatives, the epiglottal trill, and the labiodental plosives. Diacritics can supply much of the remainder, which would indeed be appropriate if the sounds were allophones. For example, the Spanish bilabial approximant is commonly written as a lowered fricative, [β̞]. Similarly, voiced lateral fricatives would be written as raised lateral approximants, [ɭ˔ ʎ̝ ʟ̝]. A few languages such as Banda have a bilabial flap as the preferred allophone of what is elsewhere a labiodental flap. It has been suggested that this be written with the labiodental flap symbol and the advanced diacritic, [v̛̟]. Similarly, a labiodental trill would be written [ʙ̪] (bilabial trill and the dental sign). Palatal and uvular taps, if they exist, and the epiglottal tap could be written as extra-short plosives, [ɟ˘ ɢ˘ ʡ˘]. A retroflex trill can be written as a retracted [r̠], just as retroflex fricatives sometimes are. The remaining consonants, the uvular laterals and the palatal trill, while not strictly impossible, are very difficult to pronounce and are unlikely to occur even as allophones in the world's languages. Banda is a group of languages spoken by the Banda in central Africa. ...


The vowels are similarly manageable by using diacritics for raising, lowering, fronting, backing, centering, and mid-centering. For example, the unrounded equivalent of [ʊ] can be transcribed as mid-centered [ɯ̽], and the rounded equivalent of [æ] as raised [ɶ̝]. True mid vowels are lowered [e̞ ø̞ ɘ̞ ɵ̞ ɤ̞ o̞], while centered [ɪ̈ ʊ̈] and [ä] are near-close and open central vowels, respectively. The vowels that aren't representable in this scheme are the compressed vowels, which would require a dedicated diacritic. Exolabial and endolabial [&#655;] in Swedish. ...


Symbol names

An IPA symbol is often distinguished from the sound it is intended to represent since there is not a one-to-one correspondence between symbol and sound in broad transcription. While the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association states that no official names exist for symbols, it admits the presence of one or two common names for each character that are commonly used.[40] The symbols also have nonce names in the Unicode standard. In some cases, the Unicode names and the IPA names do not agree. For example, IPA calls ɛ "epsilon", but Unicode calls it "small letter open E". The International Phonetic Alphabet requires specific names for the symbols and diacritcs used in the alphabet. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...


The traditional names of the Latin and Greek letters are usually used for unmodified symbols.[41] Letters which are not directly derived from these alphabets, such as [ʕ], may have a variety of names, sometimes based on the appearance of the symbol, and sometimes based on the sound that it represents. In Unicode, some of the symbols of Greek origin have Latin forms for use in IPA; the others use the symbols from the Greek section. The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


For diacritics, there are two methods of naming. For traditional diacritics, the IPA uses the name of the symbol from a certain language, for example, é is acute, based on the name of the symbol in English and French. In non-traditional diacritics, the IPA often names a symbol according to an object it resembles, as is called bridge. The acute accent (  ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ...


Other phonetic notation

See also: Unicode and HTML

The IPA is not the only phonetic transcription system in use. The other common Latin-based system is the Americanist phonetic notation, devised for representing American languages, but used by some US linguists as an alternative to the IPA. There are also sets of symbols specific to Slavic, Indic, Finno-Ugric, and Caucasian linguistics, as well as other regional specialties. The differences between these alphabets and IPA are relatively small, although often the special characters of the IPA are abandoned in favour of diacritics or digraphs. The relationship between Unicode and HTML tends to be a difficult topic for many computer professionals, document authors, and web users alike. ... Americanist phonetic notation (also Americanist Phonetic Alphabet, American Phonetic Alphabet, sometimes abbreviated APA) is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and Euro-American anthropologists and language scientists (former Neo-grammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of Native American and European languages. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ...


Other alphabets, such as Hangul, may have their own phonetic extensions. There also exist featural phonetic transcription systems, such as Alexander Melville Bell's Visible Speech and its derivatives. Jamo redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Visible speech is the name of the system used by Alexander Melville Bell, who was known internationally as a teacher of speech and proper elocution and an author of books on the subject. ...


Aside from the ExtIPA, another set of symbols is used for voice quality (VoQS). There are also many personal or idiosyncratic extensions, such as Luciano Canepari's canIPA.


Since the IPA uses symbols that are outside the ASCII character set, several systems have been developed that map the IPA symbols to ASCII characters. Notable systems include Kirshenbaum, SAMPA, and X-SAMPA. The usage of mapping systems has been declining as technical support for Unicode spreads. There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci. ... The Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (SAMPA) is a computer-readable phonetic script using 7-bit printable ASCII characters, based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). ... The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...


See also

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... TIPA is a free software package providing IPA and other phonetic character capabilities for TeX and LaTeX. Written by Rei Fukui, TIPA is based upon the authors previous work in TSIPA. TIPA characters are placed within a LaTeX document using any of the following commands: textipa{...}, {tipaencoding . ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ... The Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (SAMPA) is a computer-readable phonetic script using 7-bit printable ASCII characters, based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). ... The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. ... Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci. ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Acoustic phonetics Affricate Airstream mechanism Alfred C. Gimson Allophone Alveolar approximant Alveolar consonant Alveolar ejective fricative Alveolar ejective Alveolar flap Alveolar nasal Alveolar ridge Alveolar trill Alveolo-palatal consonant Apical consonant Approximant consonant Articulatory phonetics aspiration Auditory phonetics Back vowel Bilabial click Bilabial consonant Bilabial ejective Bilabial nasal Bilabial trill... The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA), also known as Finno-Ugric Transcription (FUT), is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Unicode ranges encoding phonetic notation. ... Semyon Novgorodov Semyon Andreyevich Novgorodov (February 13, 1892 – 28 February 1924) was a Yakut democrat, Yakut linguist and the creator of a national written language for the masses. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Laver, John (1994). Principles of Phonetics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 561. ISBN 0-521-45031-4 (hb); ISBN 0-521-45655-X (pb). “The acronym ‘IPA’ strictly refers…to the ‘International Phonetic Association’. But it is now such a common practice to use the acronym also to refer to the alphabet itself (from the phrase ‘International Phonetic Alphabet’) that resistance seems pedantic. Context usually serves to disambiguate the two usages.” 
  2. ^ a b c d International Phonetic Association (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65236-7 (hb); ISBN 0-521-63751-1 (pb). 
  3. ^ a b c d e f MacMahon, Michael K. C. (1996). "Phonetic Notation", in P. T. Daniels and W. Bright (eds.): The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 821–846. ISBN 0-19-507993-0. 
  4. ^ International Phonetic Association (2006-05-05). The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005) (GIF). Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  5. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 3) “Segments can usefully be divided into two major categories, consonants and vowels.”
  6. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 195-196). “Originally, the aim was to make available a set of phonetic symbols which would be given different articulatory values, if necessary, in different languages.”
  7. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 196). “…‘c’ stood for the [ʃ] in the English word sheep, but the French chat was represented by [sic] an ‘x’.”
  8. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 196). "When any sound is found in several languages, the same sign should be used in all. This applies also to very similar shades of sound."
  9. ^ Passy, Paul (1888). "Our revised alphabet". The Phonetic Teacher: 57–60. 
  10. ^ Sweet, Henry (1880–1881). "Sound notation". Transactions of the Philological Society: 177–235. 
  11. ^ Sweet, Henry (1971). in Henderson, Eugénie J. A. (ed.): The indispensable foundation: A selection from the writings of Henry Sweet, Language and language learning. London: Oxford University Press. 
  12. ^ Kelly, John (1981). "The 1847 alphabet: An episode of phonotypy", in R. E. Asher and E. J. A. Henderson (eds.): Towards a history of phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-85224-374-X. 
  13. ^ a b Pullum, Geoffrey K.; William Allen Ladusaw (1996). Phonetic Symbol Guide. University of Chicago Press, 152 & 209. ISBN 0-226-68535-7. 
  14. ^ Nicolaidis, Katerina (September 2005). Approval of New IPA Sound: The Labiodental Flap. International Phonetic Association. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  15. ^ Ball, Martin J.; Esling, John H. & Dickson, B. Craig (1995). "The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality". Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet 25 (2): 71–80. 
  16. ^ In contrast, English sometimes uses combinations of two letters to represent single sounds, such as the digraphs sh and th for the sounds [ʃ] and [θ]/[ð], respectively.
  17. ^ For instance, flaps and taps are two different kinds of articulation, but since no language has (yet) been found to make a distinction between, say, an alveolar flap and an alveolar tap, the IPA does not provide such sounds with dedicated symbols. Instead, it provides a single symbol (in this case, [ɾ]) for both sounds.
  18. ^ Strictly speaking, this makes the IPA a phonemic alphabet, not a phonetic one. See Canepari, Luciano (2005). A Handbook of Phonetics (PDF), Lincom Europea. 
  19. ^ International Phonetic Association (1949). The principles of the International Phonetic Association, being a description of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the manner of using it, illustrated by texts in 51 languages. London: University College, Department of Phonetics. “The non-roman letters of the International Phonetic Alphabet have been designed as far as possible to harmonize well with the roman letters. The Association does not recognise makeshift letters; It recognises only letters which have been carefully cut so as to be in harmony with the other letters.” 
  20. ^ Technically, the symbol [ʔ] could be considered Latin-derived, since the question mark may have originated as “Qo”, an abbreviation of the Latin word quæstio, “question”.
  21. ^ Laver, John. op. cit., 174–175
  22. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 196). "The alphabet should consist as much as possible of the ordinary letters of the roman alphabet; as few new letters as possible being used."
  23. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 196). "In assigning values to the roman letters, international usage should decide."
  24. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 196). "The new letters should be suggestive of the sounds they represent, by their resemblance to the old ones."
  25. ^ Phonetics. Cambridge University Press (2002). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  26. ^ (1999) in Michael Agnes: Webster's New World College Dictionary. New York, NY: Macmillan USA, xxiii. ISBN 0-02-863119-6. 
  27. ^ "Pronunciation Key". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). (2000). Ed. Pickett, Joseph P. et al. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-82517-2. Retrieved on 2006-09-19. 
  28. ^ Fronek, J. [2006]. Velký anglicko-český slovník (in Czech). Praha: Leda. ISBN 80-7335-022-X. “In accordace with long-established Czech lexicographical tradition, a modified version of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is adopted in which letters of the Czech alphabet are employed.” 
  29. ^ (2004) "format = PDF Information Development News" (in English). Information Development 20 (4). DOI: 10.1177/0266666904049421. Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  30. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 6).
  31. ^ Fromkin, Victoria; Rodman, Robert [1974] (1998). An Introduction to Language, 6th edition, Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 
  32. ^ Proposal Summary Form for adding new characters to ISO 15924. Accessed 11 April 2007.
  33. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 329–330. “The most well-known case [of a possible multiply-articulated fricative] is the Swedish segment that has been described as a doubly-articulated voiceless palato-alveolar-velar fricative, i.e., [ʃ͡x]. The IPA even goes so far as to provide a separate symbol for this sound on its chart, namely <ɧ>.” 
  34. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 10).
  35. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 15)
  36. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 15). "Some diacritics may be placed above a symbol when a descender on the symbol would interfere with legibility."
  37. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 13).
  38. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 14-15).
  39. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999). "Extensions to the IPA: An ExtIPA Chart", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 186-187. ISBN 0-521-65236-7 (hb); ISBN 0-521-63751-1 (pb). 
  40. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 31). "...the International Phonetic Association has never officially approved a set of names..."
  41. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999, 176). For example, [p] is called "Lower-case P" and [χ] is "Chi."

The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ... The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ... The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Henry Sweet (1845-1912) was a philologist, and is also considered to be an early linguist. ... Henry Sweet (1845-1912) was a philologist, and is also considered to be an early linguist. ... Professor Geoffrey K. Pullum (born in 1945 in Irvine, Scotland) is a linguist specialising in the study of English. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Digraph has several meanings: directed graph, or digraph Digraph (orthography) Digraph (computing) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Articulation may refer to several topics: In speech, linguistics, and communication: Topic-focus articulation Articulation score Place of articulation Manner of articulation In music: Musical articulations (staccato, legato, etc) In education: Articulation (education) In sociology: Articulation (sociology) This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages... The alveolar tap/flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ... ? redirects here. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Victoria Fromkin (16 May 1923 - 19 January 2000) was a linguist working at UCLA. She was the author and coauthor of several popular introductory linguistics textbooks. ... ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). ... The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ...

References

  • Ball, Martin J.; Esling, John H.; & Dickson, B. Craig. (1995). The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality. Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet, 25 (2), 71-80.
  • Canepari, Luciano. (2005a). "A Handbook of Phonetics: ‹Natural› Phonetics." München: Lincom Europa, pp. 518. ISBN 3-89586-480-3 (hb).
  • Canepari, Luciano. (2005b) "A Handbook of Pronunciation: English, Italian, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, Hindi, Chinese, Japanese, Esperanto." München: Lincom Europa, pp. 436. ISBN 3-89586-481-1 (hb).
  • Duckworth, M.; Allen, G.; Hardcastle, W.; & Ball, M. J. (1990). Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for the transcription of atypical speech. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 4, 273-280.
  • Hill, Kenneth C. (1988). [Review of Phonetic symbol guide by G. K. Pullum & W. Ladusaw]. Language, 64 (1), 143-144.
  • International Phonetic Association. (1989). Report on the 1989 Kiel convention. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 19 (2), 67-80.
  • Jones, Daniel. (1989). English pronouncing dictionary (14 ed.). London: Dent.
  • Ladefoged, Peter. (1990). The revised International Phonetic Alphabet. Language, 66 (3), 550-552.
  • Ladefoged, Peter; & Halle, Morris. (1988). Some major features of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Language, 64 (3), 577-582.
  • Pullum, Geoffrey K.; & Laduslaw, William A. (1986). Phonetic symbol guide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-68532-2.

Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (September 17, 1925 – January 24, 2006) was a British-American linguist phonetician who traveled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data. ... Professor Geoffrey K. Pullum (born in 1945 in Irvine, Scotland) is a linguist specialising in the study of English. ...

External links

General

Free IPA font downloads

  • Gentium, a professionally designed international font (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic) in roman and italic typefaces that includes the IPA, but not yet tone letters or the new labiodental flap.
  • Charis SIL, a very complete international font (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic) in roman, italic, and bold typefaces that includes tone letters and pre-composed tone diacritics on IPA vowels, the new labiodental flap, and many non-standard phonetic symbols. Based on Bitstream Charter, this font suffers from extremely bad hinting when rendered by Freetype on Linux.
  • Doulos SIL, a Times/Times New Roman style font. It contains the same characters as Charis SIL, but only in a single face, roman.
  • SIL93 the legacy SIL IPA93 fonts (Manuscript and Sophia) recoded in Unicode.
  • DejaVu fonts, an open source font family derived from the Bitstream Vera fonts.
  • TIPA, a font and system for entering IPA phonetic transcriptions in LaTeX documents.
  • Using IPA fonts with Mac OS X: The Comprehensive Guide, an article explaining how to install and use freeware fonts and keyboard layouts to type in the International Phonetic Alphabet on OS X.

Keyboards

Sound files

Charts

  • IPA chart source page official IPA chart itself (c) 2005 This includes non-English phonemes.
  • IPA Chart in Unicode and XHTML/CSS
  • IPA number chartPDF (29.3 KiB), at University of Victoria.

Unicode

Personal extensions of the IPA

  • canIPA Natural Phonetics : Luciano Canepari's extended version of IPA (500 basic, 300 complementary, and 200 supplementary symbols)


  Results from FactBites:
 
India, Indian States, India States, Indian hotels, Indian News and Indian Tourism, India Travel (3569 words)
The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet are divided into three categories: letters, diacritics, and suprasegmentals (symbols that indicate such things as the tone and inflection of a spoken utterance).
The development of the IPA began in 1886, when a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known as the International Phonetic Association.
The symbols chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet.
International Phonetic Alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4631 words)
The general principle of the IPA is to provide a separate symbol for each speech segment, avoiding letter combinations (digraphs) such as sh and th in English orthography, and avoiding ambiguity such as that of c in English.
The letters chosen for the IPA are generally drawn from the Latin and Greek alphabets, or are modifications of Latin or Greek letters.
While the IPA does not itself have a set of capital letters (the ones that look like capitals are actually small capitals), many languages have adopted symbols from the IPA as part of their orthographies, and in such cases they have invented capital variants of these.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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