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Encyclopedia > International Organization for Standardization
Logo of the DEPP Organization for Standardization/Normalization

The International Organization for Standardization (French: Organisation internationale de normalisation), widely known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promulgates world-wide industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.[1] Look up ISO, iso, iso-, Iso in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links ISO_english_logo. ... Image File history File links ISO_French_logo. ... Standards Organizations are bodies, organizations and institutions that produce, and in some cases measure, standards. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


While ISO defines itself as a non-governmental organization, its ability to set standards that often become law, either through treaties or national standards, makes it more powerful than most NGOs. In practice, ISO acts as a consortium with strong links to governments.[1] A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a private institution that is independent of the government although many NGOs, particular in the global South, are funded by Northern governments. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ...

Contents

Name and abbreviation

The organization's logos in its two official languages, English and French, include the letters ISO, and it is usually referred to by these letters. ISO is not, however, an acronym or initialism for the organization's full name in either official language. Rather, the organization adopted ISO based on the Greek word ἴσος (isos), which means equal. Recognizing that the organization’s initials would be different in different languages, the organization's founders chose ISO as the universal short form of its name. This, in itself, reflects the aim of the organization: to equalize and standardize across cultures.[2][3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


International Standards and other publications

ISO's main products are the International Standards. ISO also publishes Technical Reports, Technical Specifications, Publicly Available Specifications, Technical Corrigenda, and Guides.[4]


International Standards are identified in the format ISO[/IEC][/ASTM] [IS] nnnnn[:yyyy] Title, where nnnnn is the number of the standard , yyyy is the year published, and Title describes the subject. IEC is included if the standard results from the work of JTC1 (the Joint Technical Committee). ASTM is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. The date and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard, and may under some circumstances be left off the title of a published work. ASTM International is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ...


Technical Reports can be issued when "a technical committee or subcommittee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard",[4] such as references and explanations. The naming conventions for these are the same as for standards, except TR prepended instead IS in the report's name. Examples:

  • ISO/IEC TR 17799:2000 Code of Practice for Information Security Management
  • ISO/TR 19033:2000 Technical product documentation — Metadata for construction documentation

Technical Specifications can be produced when "the subject in question is still under development or where for any other reason there is the future but not immediate possibility of an agreement to publish an International Standard". Publicly Available Specifications may be "an intermediate specification, published prior to the development of a full International Standard, or, in IEC may be a 'dual logo' publication published in collaboration with an external organization".[4] Both are named by convention similar to Technical Reports, for example:

  • ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation — Reference designation system — Part 1: General application rules
  • ISO/PAS 11154:2006 Road vehicles — Roof load carriers

ISO sometimes issues a Technical Corrigendum. These are amendments to existing standards because of minor technical flaws, usability improvements, or to extend applicability in a limited way. Generally, these are issued with the expectation that the affected standard will be updated or withdrawn at its next scheduled review.[4]


ISO Guides are meta-standards covering "matters related to international standardization".[4] They are named in the format "ISO[/IEC] Guide N:yyyy: Title", for example:

  • ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004 Standardization and related activities — General vocabulary
  • ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996 General requirements for bodies operating product certification
See also: List of ISO standards

This is an incomplete list of ISO standards. ...

ISO document copyright

ISO documents are copyrighted and ISO charges for copies of most. ISO does not, however, charge for most draft copies of documents in electronic format. Although useful, care must be taken using these drafts as there is the possibility of substantial change before it becomes finalized as a standard. Some standards by ISO and its official U.S. representative (and the IEC's via the U.S. National Committee) ANSI[5] are made freely available.[6][7] The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ...


Members

A map of standards bodies who are ISO membersKey:     members      correspondent members      subscriber members      other places with an ISO 3166-1 code who aren't members of ISO
A map of standards bodies who are ISO members
Key:
     members      correspondent members      subscriber members      other places with an ISO 3166-1 code who aren't members of ISO

ISO has 157 national members,[8] out of the 195 total countries in the world. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a map of of standards groups that are in ISO. The list given in the CIA Factbook: [1] was used as reference. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a map of of standards groups that are in ISO. The list given in the CIA Factbook: [1] was used as reference. ... Countries in International Organization for Standardization is a list of the members in ISO. // Does not have representation in ISO under any membership class as of January 2007. ...


ISO has three membership categories:

  • Member bodies are national bodies that are considered to be the most representative standards body in each country. These are the only members of ISO that have voting rights.
  • Correspondent members are countries that do not have their own standards organization. These members are informed about ISO's work, but do not participate in standards promulgation.
  • Subscriber members are countries with small economies. They reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards.

Products named after ISO

Still, the fact that many of the ISO-created standards are ubiquitous has led, on occasion, to common usage of "ISO" to describe the actual product that conforms to a standard. Some examples of this are:

  • CD images end in the file extension "ISO" to signify that they are using the ISO 9660 standard filesystem as opposed to another file system - hence CD images are commonly referred to as "ISOs". Virtually all computers with CD-ROM drives can read CDs that use this standard. Some DVD-ROMs also use ISO 9660 filesystems.
  • Photographic film's sensitivity to light, its "film speed," is described by ISO 5800:1987. Hence, the film's speed is often referred to as its "ISO number."

A disk image is a computer file containing the complete contents and structure of a data storage device. ... A filename extension or filename suffix is an extra set of (usually) alphanumeric characters that is appended to the end of a filename to allow computer users (as well as various pieces of software on the computer system) to quickly determine the type of data stored in the file. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Film speed is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light. ...

ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1

To deal with the consequences of substantial overlap in areas of standardization and work related to information technology, ISO and IEC formed a Joint Technical Committee known as the ISO/IEC JTC1. It was the first such committee, and to date remains the only one. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ...


Its official mandate is to develop, maintain, promote and facilitate IT standards required by global markets meeting business and user requirements concerning

  • the design and development of IT systems and tools
  • the performance and quality of IT products and systems
  • the security of IT systems and information
  • the portability of application programs
  • the interoperability of IT products and systems
  • the unified tools and environments
  • the harmonized IT vocabulary, and
  • the user-friendly and ergonomically-designed user interfaces.

There are currently 18 sub-committees:

  • SC 02 - Coded Character Sets
  • SC 06 - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems
  • SC 07 - Software and System Engineering
  • SC 17 - Cards and Personal Identification
  • SC 22 - Programming Languages, their Environments and Systems Software Interfaces
  • SC 23 - Removable Digital Storage Media Utilizing Optical and/or Magnetic Recording * Technology for Digital
  • SC 24 - Computer Graphics and Image Processing
  • SC 25 - Interconnection of Information Technology Equipment
  • SC 27 - IT Security Techniques
  • SC 28 - Office Equipment
  • SC 29 - Coding of Audio, Picture, and Multimedia and Hypermedia Information
  • SC 31 - Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques
  • SC 32 - Data Management and Interchange
  • SC 34 - Document Description and Processing Languages
  • SC 35 - User Interfaces
  • SC 36 - Information Technology for Learning, Education, and Training
  • SC 37 - Biometrics

Membership in ISO/IEC JTC1 is restricted in much the same way as membership in either of the two parent organizations. A member can be either participating (P) or observing (O) and the difference is mainly the ability to vote on proposed standards and other products. There is no requirement for any member body to maintain either (or any) status on all of the sub-committees. Although rare, sub-committees can be created to deal with new situations (SC 37 was approved in 2002) or disbanded if the area of work is no longer relevant. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34 is a subcommittee of the ISO/IEC JTC 1 joint technical committee, which is a collaborative effort of both the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission. ...


IWA document

Like ISO/TS, International Workshop Agreement (IWA) is another armoury of ISO for providing rapid response to requirements for standardization in areas where the technical structures and expertise are not currently in place. The utility harmonizes technical urgency industrial wide.


See also

BSI Kite Mark Logo - Made up of the letters B & S BSI British Standards is a division of BSI Group which also includes BSI Management Systems, a management systems registrar and BSI Product Services, a testing organisation. ... This is an incomplete list of ISO standards. ... Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... A comparison of different paper sizes A4 is a standard paper size, defined by the international standard ISO 216 as 210×297 mm (roughly 8. ... International Classification for Standards (ICS) is an international classification system for technical standards. ... Countries in International Organization for Standardization is a list of the members in ISO. // Does not have representation in ISO under any membership class as of January 2007. ... ISO country code can refer to ISO 3166-1 for countries that currently exist ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 ISO 3166-1 numeric ISO 3166-3 for countries that do not exist anymore Generally, its the two letter country code of ISO 3166-1... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... A Publicly Available Specification (PAS) (sometimes inaccurately referred to as a Publicly Available Standard) is a formal standards document produced by the British Standards Institution (BSI) under sponsorship from a commissioning body. ... A standards organization, also sometimes referred to as a standards body, a standards development organization or SDO (depending on what is being referenced), is any entity whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise maintaining standards that address the interests of a wide base of... Terminology planning is a planning activity for developing domain communication largely according to the needs and requirements of knowledge representation. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Discover ISO – Meet ISO. ISO (© 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  2. ^ ISO's name. ISO (© 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  3. ^ Discover ISO – ISO's name. ISO (© 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  4. ^ a b c d e The ISO directives are published in two distinct parts:
    * ISO Directives, Part 1: Procedures for the Technical Work. 5th Edition (pdf). ISO/IEC (2004). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
    * ISO Directives, Part 2: Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards. 5th Edition (pdf). ISO/IEC (2004). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  5. ^ About American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI (© 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  6. ^ Freely Available ISO Standards. ISO (Last updated 2007-08-08). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  7. ^ Free ANSI Standards. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  8. ^ General information on ISO. ISO (© 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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International Organization for Standardization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1232 words)
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies.
In English, the organization’s long-form name is "International Organization for Standardization", while in French it is called "Organisation internationale de normalisation." These initials would result in different acronyms in ISO’s two official languages, English (IOS) and French (OIN), thus the founders of the organization chose "ISO" as the universal short form of its name.
Aside from standards, ISO also creates Technical Reports for documents that cannot or should not become International Standards such as references, explanations, etc. The naming conventions for these are the same as for standards with the exception of having TR prepended in the place of IS in the standard's name.
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