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Encyclopedia > International Olympic Committee
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The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. Its membership is 203 National Olympic Committees. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 485 pixel Image in higher resolution (2254 × 1367 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 485 pixel Image in higher resolution (2254 × 1367 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ... His statue at the Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. ... Demetrius Vikelas, also known as Bikelas (February 15, 1835 – July 20, 1908) was a Greek businessman and the first president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1894 to 1896. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The IOC organizes the modern Olympic Games held in Summer and Winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics organized by the International Olympic Committee was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896; the first Winter Olympics in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Through 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics where held in the same year. Beginning in 1994, however, the IOC shifted the Winter Olympics to the even years between Summer Games, to help space the planning of the two events apart from one another. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... A runner carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics for short but more correctly The Olympic Winter Games, are the cold-weather counterpart to the Summer Olympic Games. ... Panorama of Chamonix valley Chamonix-Mont-Blanc or, more commonly, Chamonix is a town and commune in eastern France, in the Haute-Savoie département, at the foot of Mont Blanc. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Presentation

On June 23, 1894 the Olympic games were re-created by Pierre de Coubertin after a hiatus of 1500 years. The baron hoped to foster international communication and peace through the Olympic Games. The IOC is a parent organization intended to localize administration and authority for the Games, as well as to provide a single legal entity which owns copyrights, trademarks, and other intangible properties associated with the Olympic games. For example, the Olympic logos, the design of the Olympic flag, the motto, creed, and anthem are all owned and administered by the IOC. There are other organisations which the IOC coordinates as well, which are collectively called the Olympic Movement. The IOC President is responsible for representing the IOC as a whole, and there are members of the IOC which represent the IOC in their respective countries. is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The copyright symbol is used to give notice that a work is covered by copyright. ... The Bass Red Triangle, was the first trademark registered in Britain in 1876. ...


Professor David C. Young of the University of Florida has conducted research suggesting that the revival of the modern Olympic Games were planted firmly in both Greece and the United Kingdom by Evangelos Zappas and Dr William Penny Brookes respectively. [1] Evangelos Zappas (1800–1865) was a Greek businessman and financier. ...


Mission and role

Also see Olympic Charter.

The mission of the IOC is to promote Olympism throughout the world and to lead the Olympic Movement. Olympic torch The Olympic Charter, last updated September 1, 2004, is a set of rules and guidelines for the organization of the Olympic Games, and for governing the Olympic Movement. ... Olympic torch The Olympic Charter, last updated September 1, 2004, is a set of rules and guidelines for the organization of the Olympic Games, and for governing the Olympic Movement. ...


The IOC’s role is:

  1. to encourage and support the promotion of ethics in sport as well as education of youth through sport and to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned;
  2. to encourage and support the organisation, development and coordination of sport and sports competitions;
  3. to ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games;
  4. to cooperate with the competent public or private organizations and authorities in the endeavour to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promote peace;
  5. to take action in order to strengthen the unity and to protect the independence of the Olympic Movement;
  6. to act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement;
  7. to encourage and support the promotion of women in sport at all levels and in all structures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men and women;
  8. to lead the fight against doping in sport;
  9. to encourage and support measures protecting the health of athletes;
  10. to oppose any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes;
  11. to encourage and support the efforts of sports organisations and public authorities to provide for the social and professional future of athletes;
  12. to encourage and support the development of sport for all;
  13. to encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly;
  14. to promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities and host countries;
  15. to encourage and support initiatives blending sport with culture and education;
  16. to encourage and support the activities of the International Olympic Academy (“IOA”) and other institutions which dedicate themselves to Olympic education.

Organization

The IOC Session

The Session is the general meeting of the members of the IOC, held once a year in which each member has one vote. It is the IOC’s supreme organ and its decisions are final.


Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members.


Among others, the powers of the Session are:

  • To adopt or amend the Olympic Charter.
  • To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President and the honorary members.
  • To elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board.
  • To elect the host city of the Olympic Games.

The IOC Executive Board

The IOC Executive Board consists of the President, four Vice-Presidents and ten other members. All members of the IOC Executive Board are elected by the Session, in a secret ballot, by a majority of the votes cast. The IOC Executive Board assumes the general overall responsibility for the administration of the IOC and the management of its affairs.


The IOC Session elects, by secret ballot, the IOC President from among its members for a term of eight years renewable once for four years. The next President election will then take place in 2009. The President represents the IOC and presides over all its activities. Former President Juan Antonio Samaranch has been elected Honorary President For Life. Juan Antonio Samaranch Juan Antonio Samaranch, Marquess de Samaranch (also known as Torello) (born July 17, 1920 in Barcelona) is a Spanish sports official and was president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1980 to 2001. ...


Publications

The IOC publishes Olympic Review and Revue Olympique since 1894. [2]


IOC Members

Further information: List of members of the International Olympic Committee

For most of its existence, the IOC was controlled by members who were co-opted, which means they were selected by other members. Countries that had hosted the Games were allowed two members, others one or none. When named, they became not representatives of their respective countries to the IOC, but rather to opposite, IOC members in their respective countries. // Current Members of the International Olympic Committee Honorary Members of the International Olympic Committee Former Members of the International Olympic Committee Categories: Olympics ...


For a long time, members of royalty have been members of co-option, such as Prince Albert de Monaco, as have former athletes. These last 10 years, the composition has evolved, in order to get a better representation of the sports world. Members seats have been allocated specifically to athletes, International Federations leaders and National Olympic Committees leaders.


Membership

The total number of IOC members may not exceed 115. Each member of the IOC is elected for a term of eight years and may be re-elected for one or several further terms.

  1. A majority of members whose memberships are not linked to any specific function or office; their total number may not exceed 70; there may be no more than one such member national of any given country;
  2. Active athletes, the total number of whom may not exceed 15, elected for eight years by their peers during the Olympic Games;
  3. Presidents or persons holding an executive or senior leadership position within IFs, associations of IFs or other organisations recognised by the IOC, the total number of whom may not exceed 15;
  4. Presidents or persons holding an executive or senior leadership position within NOCs, or world or continental associations of NOCs, the total number of whom may not exceed 15; there may be no more than one such member national of any given country within the IOC.

Cessation of membership

The membership of IOC members ceases in the following circumstances:

  1. Resignation: any IOC member may cease his membership at any time by delivering his written resignation to the President.
  2. Non re-election: any IOC member ceases to be a member without further formality if he is not re-elected.
  3. Age limit: any IOC member ceases to be a member at the end of the calendar year during which he reaches the age of 70.
  4. Failure to attend Sessions or take active part in IOC work for two consecutive years.
  5. Transfer of domicile or of main centre of interests to a country other than the country that was his at the time of his election.
  6. Members elected as active athletes cease to be a member upon ceasing to be a member of the IOC Athletes’ Commission.
  7. Presidents and persons holding an executive or senior leadership position within NOCs, world or continental associations of NOCs, IFs or associations of IFs or other organisations recognised by the IOC cease to be a member upon ceasing to exercise the function he was exercising at the time of his election.
  8. Expulsion: an IOC member may be expelled by decision of the Session if such member has betrayed his oath or if the Session considers that such member has neglected or knowingly jeopardised the interests of the IOC or acted in a way which is unworthy of the IOC.

See Olympic Charter, in force as from 1 September 2004


Olympic marketing

Revenue

The Olympic Movement generates revenue through five major programmes. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) manages broadcast partnerships and the TOP worldwide sponsorship programme. The Organising Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs) manage domestic sponsorship, ticketing and licensing programmes within the host country under the direction of the IOC.


The Olympic Movement generated a total of more than US$4 billion in revenue during the most recent Olympic quadrennium (2001 – 2004). The following chart provides details of the revenue generated from each major programme managed by the IOC and the OCOGs during this period.


Revenue distribution

The IOC distributes approximately 92% of Olympic marketing revenue to organisations throughout the Olympic Movement to support the staging of the Olympic Games and to promote the worldwide development of sport. The IOC retains approximately 8% of Olympic marketing revenue for the operational and administrative costs of governing the Olympic Movement.


The Organising Committees of the Olympic Games (OCOGs)

The IOC provides TOP programme contributions and Olympic broadcast revenue to the OCOGs to support the staging of the Olympic Games and Olympic Winter Games:

  • TOP Programme Revenue to OCOGs; the two OCOGs of each Olympic quadrennium generally share approximately 50% of TOP programme revenue and value-in-kind contributions, with approximately 30% provided to the summer OCOG and 20% provided to the winter OCOG.
  • Broadcast Revenue to OCOGs; the IOC contributes 49% of the Olympic broadcast revenue for each Games to the OCOG. During the 2001 - 2004 Olympic quadrennium, the Salt Lake 2002 Organising Committee received US$443 million in broadcast revenue from the IOC, and the Athens 2004 Organising Committee received US$732 million.
  • Domestic Programme Revenue to OCOGs; the OCOGs generate substantial revenue from the domestic marketing programmes that they manage within the host country, including domestic sponsorship, ticketing and licensing.

National Olympic Committees (NOCs)

The NOCs receive financial support for the training and development of Olympic teams, Olympic athletes and Olympic hopefuls. The IOC distributes TOP programme revenue to each of the NOCs throughout the world. The IOC also contributes Olympic broadcast revenue to Olympic Solidarity, an IOC organisation that provides financial support to NOCs with the greatest need.


The continued success of the TOP programme and Olympic broadcast agreements has enabled the IOC to provide increased support for the NOCs with each Olympic quadrennium. The IOC provided approximately US$318.5 million to NOCs for the 2001 - 2004 quadrennium.


International Olympic Sports Federations (IFs)

The IOC is now the largest single revenue source for the majority of IFs, with its contributions of Olympic broadcast revenue that assist the IFs in the development of their respective sports worldwide. The IOC provides financial support from Olympic broadcast revenue to the 28 IFs of Olympic summer sports and the seven IFs of Olympic winter sports after the completion of the Olympic Games and the Olympic Winter Games, respectively.


The continually increasing value of Olympic broadcast partnership has enabled the IOC to deliver substantially increased financial support to the IFs with each successive Games. The seven winter sports IFs shared US$85.8 million in Salt Lake 2002 broadcast revenue. The contribution to the 28 summer sports IFs from Athens 2004 broadcast revenue has not yet been determined, but the contribution is expected to mark a significant increase over the US$190 million that the IOC provided to the summer IFs following Sydney 2000.


Other organisations

The IOC contributes Olympic marketing revenue to the programmes of various recognised international sports organisations, including the International Paralympic Committee, the Paralympic Organising Committee, and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) is an international non-profit organisation of elite sports for athletes with disabilities. ... The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ...


Bidding to host the games

Countries bid to host the Summer Olympic Games or the Winter Olympic Games compete aggressively to have their bid accepted by the IOC. The IOC members, representing most of the member countries, vote to decide where the Games will take place. Members from countries which have cities bidding to host the games are excluded from the voting process, up until the point where their city drops out of the contest. Sochi, Russia, was elected as the host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics on July 4, 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) Session in Guatemala City, Guatemala.[3] Bids for Summer Olympics The ballots (Summer Olympics) Bids for Winter Olympics The ballots (Winter Olympics ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games or the Olympic Winter Games, are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... Sochi (Russian: ) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games, is an international winter multiple sports event that will be celebrated from February 7 to February 23, 2014. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This is the list of International Olympic Committee (IOC) meetings. ... Guatemala City (in full, La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or Guate) is the capital and largest city of the nation of Guatemala. ...


In recent years, the contest for the right to host the games has grown increasingly fierce. In 2002, Salt Lake City was involved in a bribery scandal but earlier stories, reported by British journalists Vyv Simson and Andrew Jennings, date back decades. After the Salt Lake City scandal in which a number of IOC members were expelled following an extensive investigation, efforts were made to clamp down on abuses of the bid city process. More stringent rules were introduced and an advisory board of recently retired former athletes was set up. Critics of the organisation believe more fundamental reform is required, for instance replacing the self-perpetuating system of delegate selection with a more democratic process. The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... The 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal was a scandal involving allegations of bribery to obtain the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Even legal attempts to sway the IOC to accept a city's bid can spark controversy, such as Beijing's successful bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics. Several human rights organizations spoke out against the deplorable human rights condition of China, in conflict with the Olympic Charter of the IOC[4]. Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Five cities made the shortlist with their bids to host the 2008 Summer Olympics (formally known as Games of the XXIX Olympiad), which were awarded to Beijing, on July 13, 2001. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, were awarded to Beijing, China after an exhaustive ballot of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on July 13, 2001. ...


Criticism of the 2008 Olympic Games host selection

Both Chinese and international groups attempted to pressure the IOC to reject Beijing's bid in protest of the state of human rights in the People's Republic of China. At least one Chinese dissident who expressed similar sentiments was arrested and sentenced to two years in prison for calling on the IOC to do just that at the same time that IOC inspectors were touring the city. [5] Amnesty International expressed concern in 2006 regarding the Olympic Games to be held in China in 2008, likewise expressing concerns over the human rights situation. The second principle in the Fundamental Principles of Olympism, Olympic Charter states that The goal of Olympism is to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of man, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of human dignity.[6] Amnesty International considers the policies and practices of the People's Republic as failing to meet that principle, and urged the IOC to press China to immediately enact human rights reform. [7] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


See also

// Current Members of the International Olympic Committee Honorary Members of the International Olympic Committee Former Members of the International Olympic Committee Categories: Olympics ... This is the list of International Olympic Committee (IOC) meetings. ... The Olympic Congress is a vast gathering of the Olympic Movement, which happens on an irregular basis, but generally every ten years or so during the last few decades. ... The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) is an international non-profit organisation of elite sports for athletes with disabilities. ... The International Olympic Committee (IOC) allocates three-letter country codes to all National Olympic Committees and other groups competing in the Olympic Games. ... The Olympic Order is the highest award of the Olympic Movement, created by the International Olympic Committee in May 1975 as a successor to the Olympic Certificate previously awarded. ...

Reference

  1. ^ David C. Young. The Modern Olympics - A Struggle for Revival. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5374-5. 
  2. ^ Olympic Review and Revue Olympique. AAFLA. Retrieved on April 11, 2006.
  3. ^ 119th IOC Session in Guatemala City - Information for the Media (see Schedule pdf). International Olympic Committee (30 April 2007).
  4. ^ http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_122.pdf "Olympic Charter, in force as from 1 September 2004", International Olympic Committee
  5. ^ Beijing opens itself up to Olympic inspectors Chicago Sun-Times, Feb 25, 2001 by CHRISTOPHER BODEEN http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_20010225/ai_n13899744
  6. ^ http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_122.pdf "Olympic Charter, in force as from 1 September 2004", International Olympic Committee
  7. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engASA170462006?open&of=eng-CHN "People’s Republic of China: The Olympics countdown – failing to keep human rights promises" Amnesty International, 21 September, 2006
  1. Simson & Jennings. The Lord of The Rings. Power, Money and Drugs in the Modern Olympics.. Shuster & Shuster. ISBN 0-671-71122-9. 

is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

  • IOC Official Website
  • Olympic Watch
  • Overview of IOC-elections of hosting cities
  • The Olympic Games - Facts and figures


Presidents of the IOC

Demetrius Vikelas (1894–1896) | Pierre de Coubertin (1896–1925) | Godefroy de Blonay (acting 1916–1919) | Henri de Baillet-Latour (1925–1942) | Sigfrid Edström (1942–1952) | Avery Brundage (1952–1972) | Lord Killanin (1972–1980) | Juan Antonio Samaranch (1980–2001) | Jacques Rogge (2001–current) | Demetrius Vikelas (February 15, 1835 – July 20, 1908) was the first president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1894 to 1896. ... His statue at the Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. ... Godefroy de Blonay (born July 25, 1869 in Niederschönthal, died February 14, 1937 in Biskra) was a Swiss baron. ... Belgian Count Henri de Baillet-Latour (March 1, 1876-January 6, 1942) was the third president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ... Johannes Sigfrid Edström (November 21, 1870-March 18, 1964) was a Swedish industrial and sports official. ... Avery Brundage (September 28, 1887 – May 8, 1975) was an American athlete, sports official, art collector and philanthropist. ... The Right Honourable Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, MBE (30 July 1914–25 April 1999) was an Irish journalist and sports official, the sixth president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ... Juan Antonio Samaranch Juan Antonio Samaranch, Marquess de Samaranch (also known as Torello) (born July 17, 1920 in Barcelona) is a Spanish sports official and was president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1980 to 2001. ... Jacques Rogge (born May 2, 1942) is a Belgian orthopaedic surgeon and has been the president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) since 2001. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Presidents of the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) (3699 words)
Avery Brundage was born on September 28, 1887 and was elected fifth President of the International Olympic Committee at its meeting in Helsinki in 1952.
Brundage became a member of the International Olympic Committee he was elected to the Executiv Board and in 1946 he was also throughout the word as the apostle of amateurism and one of the world`s leading exponents of fair play and good sportsmanship.
Juan Antonio Samaranch, elected as head of the International Olympic Committee in 1980 (the seventh to hold the post since the IOC was established in 1894), was one of the most influential Spaniards in the last two decades of the 20th century.
International Olympic Committee (296 words)
The International Olympic Committee is an organization created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organise this sports event every four years.
The IOC is a parent organisation intended to localise administration and authority for the Games, as well as to provide a single legal entity which owns copyrights, trademarks, and other intangible properties associated with the Olympic games.
The IOC President is an individual responsible for representing the IOC as a whole, and there are members of the IOC which represent the IOC in their respective countries.
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