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Encyclopedia > International Narcotics Control Board
Mr. Madan Mohan Bhatnagar and Dr. Robert JJCH Lousberg, members of the International Narcotics Control Board, Vienna, Austria, and party.
Mr. Madan Mohan Bhatnagar and Dr. Robert JJCH Lousberg, members of the International Narcotics Control Board, Vienna, Austria, and party.

The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB or Board) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions. It plays an important role in monitoring enforcement of restrictions on narcotics and psychotropics and in deciding which precursors should be regulated. Mr. ... Mr. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word narkoticos, meaning benumbing or deadening, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... // General In generic terms, a precursor is something that existed before and was incorporated into something that came later. ...

Contents


History

The Board had predecessors under the former drug conventions since the time of the League of Nations. The International Opium Convention of 1925 established the Permanent Central Board (first known as the Permanent Central Opium Board and then as the Permanent Central Narcotics Board)[1]. That Board started its work in 1929. After the dissolution of the League, the 1946Protocol Amending the Agreements, Conventions and Protocols on Narcotic Drugs concluded at The Hague on 23 January 1912, at Geneva on 11 February 1925 and 19 February 1925, and 13 July 1931, at Bangkok on 27 November 1931 and at Geneva on 26 June 1936 created a Supervisory Body to administer the estimate system. The functions of both bodies were merged into the Board by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The composition of the Board under the Single Convention was strongly influenced by the 1946 treaty. The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the First World War at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. ... Opium article from The Daily Picayune, February 24, 1912, New Orleans, Louisiana. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Protocol Amending the Agreements, Conventions and Protocols on Narcotic Drugs concluded at The Hague on 23 January 1912, at Geneva on 11 February 1925 and 19 February 1925, and 13 July 1931, at Bangkok on 27 November 1931 and at Geneva on 26 June 1936 Opened for signature December 11... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Since 1949, the Bulletin on Narcotics has reported on the activity of the INCB and other drug control bodies. 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The Bulletin on Narcotics is a publication of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. ...


Responsibilities

Article 9 of the Single Convention provides that the Board shall endeavour to:

  • Limit the cultivation, production, manufacture and use of drugs to an adequate amount required for medical and scientific purposes;
  • Ensure their availability for such purposes; and
  • Prevent illicit cultivation, production and manufacture of, and illicit trafficking in and use of, drugs.

Thus, the Single Convention seeks to allow medical and scientific use of psychoactive drugs while preventing recreational use. Accordingly, Article 12 gives the Board the responsibility of allocating quotas among Parties concerning licit cultivation, production, manufacture, export, import, distribution and trade in an attempt to prevent leakage of drugs from licit sources into the illicit traffic. The Board establishes estimates for all nations, including non-Parties to the Single Convention.


Article 18 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances requires the Board to issue annual reports on its work. Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 at Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and LSD. During the...


Article 12 of the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances requires the Board to report annually to the Commission on the implementation of the Convention's restrictions on chemicals in Table I and Table II, the treaty's two categories of precursor substances in illicit drug manufacture. In the case of a precursor substance not yet regulated, the Convention also requires the Board to communicate to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs an assessment of the substance if it finds that: United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature December 20, 1988[1] at Vienna Entered into force November 11, 1990[2] Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 170[3] The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and... At the presiding table, from left to right: Mr. ...

  • The substance is frequently used in the illicit manufacture of a narcotic drug or psychotropic substance; and
  • The volume and extent of the illicit manufacture of a narcotic drug or psychotropic substance creates serious public health or social problems, so as to warrant international action.

The Convention requires the Board to notify the United Nations Secretary-General whenever it has information which, in its opinion, may justify adding a substance to, deleting a substance from, or transferring a substance between, the Tables. The Secretary-General then transmits that information to the Parties and the Commission, and the Commission makes the decision, "taking into account the comments submitted by the Parties and the comments and recommendations of the Board, whose assessment shall be determinative as to scientific matters, and also taking into due consideration any other relevant factors". The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ...


Enforcement powers

Article 14 of the Single Convention, Article 19 of the Convention on Psychotropic Drugs, and Article 22 of the Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances give the Board the authority to investigate the failure of any country or region to carry out the Convention's provisions. This includes countries that are not Parties to the Conventions. The Board can ask for explanations from the Government in question, propose that a study of the matter be carried out in its territory, and call upon the Government to adopt remedial measures.


If the Board finds that the Government has failed to give satisfactory explanations, or has failed to adopt remedial measures that it has been called upon to take, the Board can call the attention of the Parties, the Council, and the Commission to the matter. The Board can also publish a report on the matter for communication to all Parties. Under some circumstances, it can penalize a violator by reducing its export quota of opium, under the provisions of Article 21 bis[2]. The Board can even "recommend to the Parties that they stop the export, import, or both, of particular psychotropic substances, from or to the country or region concerned, either for a designated period or until the Board shall be satisfied as to the situation in that country or region." The Commentary to the Convention on Narcotic Drugs points out, "This is a very serious measure, and it cannot be assumed that the Board has that authority except in very grave situations"[3]. Decisions under Article 19 require a two-thirds vote of the Board.


The Commentary to the Convention on Psychotropic Substances notes, "Since the Board is not in continuous session and in fact meets only a few weeks each year, it has to delegate to its secretariat the required authority in order to maintain between its sessions 'the mechanism for a continuing dialogue' with Governments"[4].


Membership

Article 9 of the Single Convention specifies that the Board shall be made up of thirteen members elected by the UN Economic and Social Council, including: The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ...

  • Three members with medical, pharmacological or pharmaceutical experience from a list of at least five persons nominated by the World Health Organization; and
  • Ten members from a list of persons nominated by the Members of the United Nations and by Parties which are not Members of the United Nations.

The Article requires the Council to make arrangements to ensure the Board's independence. Article 10 specifies that "[t]he members of the Board shall serve for a period of five years, and may be re-elected." The lengthy terms, and the fact that the Board is made up of individuals rather than nation-states, help buffer the Board from political pressure. The requirement that members with "medical, pharmacological or pharmaceutical experience" be placed on the Board was the result of lobbying by the pharmaceuticals industry. The provision that three members would be WHO nominees is similar to the 1946 treaty's provision that two of the four members of the Supervisory Body would be appointed by the WHO. The requirement that nominees be appointed by ECOSOC is similar to the 1946 treaty's provision that one of the four members of the Supervisory Body be appointed by ECOSOC's Commission on Narcotic Drugs. The WHO flag: similar to the flag of the United Nations, augmented with the symbolic staff and serpent of Asklepios, Greek god of medicine and healing. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Controversy

The Board has issued unfavorable reports against several governments that proposed relaxing their drug laws. In particular, the Board publicly chastized Great Britain for its plan to transfer cannabis from Class B to the less-restrictive Class C. Parliamentary Under Secretary of State Bob Ainsworth responded[5]: Species Cannabis indica Cannabis ruderalis Cannabis sativa Cannabis is a genus of flowering plant that includes one or more species. ...

The comments made in your report, your selective and inaccurate use of statistics, and failure to refer to the scientific basis on which the UK Government's decision was based all add up to an ill-informed and potentially damaging message. This was compounded by the way in which the Board presented the cannabis reclassification decision to the media at the launch of its annual report on 26 February. For example, the Board representative is quoted as having said that we might end up in the next 10 or 20 years with our psychiatric hospitals filled with people who have problems with cannabis, and that a recent study by the British Lung Foundation found smoking three cannabis joints caused the same damage to the linings of the airways as 20 cigarettes. These are totally misleading statements.

In April 2003, former United Nations Drug Control Programme Chief of Demand Reduction Cindy Fazey penned a scathing review of the Board, accusing it of overstepping its bounds[6]: 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP) are part of the United Nations Office for Drug Control & Crime Prevention (ODCCP). ... Cindy Fazey is a criminologist and former Chief of Demand Reduction for the United Nations Drug Control Programme. ...

Unfortunately these individuals also see their role not only as the guardians of the conventions, but also the interpreters of them as well. In their annual report they have criticised many governments, such as Canada for permitting the medicinal use of cannabis, Australia for providing injecting rooms and the United Kingdom for proposing to downgrade the classification of cannabis, which would entail less serious penalties than at present. These criticisms go far beyond their remit, and indeed it is hubris to criticise the Canadian Supreme Court.

In a move sure to arouse the wrath of cannabis reform activists, the INCB issued a press release in the wake of Gonzales v. Raich that "The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) welcomes the decision of the United States Supreme Court, made on 6 June, reaffirming that the cultivation and use of cannabis, even if it is for 'medical' use, should be prohibited." The Board's President, Hamid Ghodse, opined[7]: Gonzales v. ... Hamid Ghodse has been President of the International Narcotics Control Board since 2004. ...

INCB has for many years pointed out that the evidence that cannabis might be useful as a medicine is insufficient. Countries should not authorise the use of cannabis as a medicine until conclusive results based on research are available. Sound scientific evidence for its safety, efficacy and usefulness is required to justify its use in medical practice. Any research into cannabis as a medicine should involve the World Health Organization, as the responsible international health agency.

See also

Cannabis reclassification in the United Kingdom refers to the transfer of cannabis to a different Class of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. ... Protocol Amending the Agreements, Conventions and Protocols on Narcotic Drugs concluded at The Hague on 23 January 1912, at Geneva on 11 February 1925 and 19 February 1925, and 13 July 1931, at Bangkok on 27 November 1931 and at Geneva on 26 June 1936 Opened for signature December 11...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
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International Narcotics Control Board - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1257 words)
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB or Board) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.
The composition of the Board under the Single Convention was strongly influenced by the 1946 treaty.
Protocol Amending the Agreements, Conventions and Protocols on Narcotic Drugs concluded at The Hague on 23 January 1912, at Geneva on 11 February 1925 and 19 February 1925, and 13 July 1931, at Bangkok on 27 November 1931 and at Geneva on 26 June 1936.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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