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Encyclopedia > International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
Org type: UN agency
Acronyms: ILO
Head: Juan Somavia, Director-General
Status: active
Established: 1919
Website: www.ilo.org
Portal: Portal:United Nations United Nations Portal

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1919, it was formed through the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, and was initially an agency of the League of Nations. It became a member of the UN system after the demise of the League and the formation of the UN at the end of World War II. Its Constitution, as amended to date, includes the Declaration of Philadelphia (1944) on the aims and purposes of the Organization. Its secretariat is known as the International Labour Office and its current Director-General is Juan Somavia (since 1999). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Juan Somavía (b. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1150x1150, 77 KB) Summary square version of Image:Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Declaration of Philadelphia, adopted in 1944, is the current charter of the International Labour Organization. ... Secretariat may refer to: A racehorse who won the Triple Crown in 1973, see Secretariat (horse) In a Communist Party, a Secretariat is a key body that controls the central administration of the party, and if it is a ruling party, the country. ... Juan Somavía (b. ...


As stated by its Director-General, "the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity."[1] In working towards this goal, the organization seeks to promote employment creation, strengthen fundamental principles and rights at work - workers' rights, improve social protection, and promote social dialogue as well as provide relevant information, training and technical assistance. At present, the ILO's work is organized into four thematic groupings or sectors: (1) Standards and fundamental principles and rights at work; (2) Employment; (3) Social Protection; and (4) Social Dialogue. For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... A social dialogue can be any communication activity involving social partners intended to influence the arrangement and development of work related issues. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Social protection refers to a set of benefits available (or not available) from the state, market, civil society and households, or through a combination of these agencies, to the individual/households to reduce multi-dimensional deprivation. ...

Contents

International Labour Conference

The ILO hosts the International Labour Conference in Geneva every year in June. At the Conference, Conventions and Recommendations are crafted and adopted by majority decision. The Conference also makes decisions on the ILO's general policy, work programme and budget. The International Labour Conference is a yearly event, held each June in Geneva, Switzerland, and is hosted by the International Labour Organization. ...


Each member state is represented at the International Labour Conference by four delegates: two government delegates, an employer delegate and a worker delegate. All delegates have individual voting rights, and all votes are equal, regardless of the population of the delegate's member state. The employer and worker delegates are normally chosen in agreement with the most representative national organizations of employers and workers. Usually, the workers' delegates coordinate their voting, as do the employers' delegates.


Adoption of Conventions

One of the principal functions of the ILO involves setting international labour standards through the adoption of Conventions and Recommendations covering a broad spectrum of labour-related subjects and which, together, are sometimes referred to as the International Labour Code.


Adoption of a Convention by the International Labour Conference allows governments to ratify it, and the Convention then becomes a treaty in international law when a specified number of governments have ratified it.


Ratification of Conventions

The coming into force of a Convention results in a legal obligation to apply its provisions by the nations that have ratified it. Ratification of a Convention is voluntary. Conventions that have not been ratified by member states have the same legal force as Recommendations. Governments are required to submit reports detailing their compliance with the obligations of the Conventions they have ratified. Every year the International Labour Conference's Committee on the Application of Standards examines a number of alleged breaches of international labour standards. In recent years, one of the member states that has received the most attention is Myanmar / Burma, as the country has repeatedly been criticized for its failure to protect its citizens against forced labour exacted by the army.


Subjects of Conventions

All adopted ILO Conventions are considered international labour standards regardless of how many national governments have ratified them. The topics covered by them cover a wide range of issues, from freedom of association to health and safety at work, working conditions in the maritime sector, night work, discrimination, child labour and forced labour.


1998 Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work

In 1998 the International Labour Conference adopted the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. This Declaration identified four issue areas as "core" or fundamental international labour standards, meaning that any ILO member state should have ratified at least the eight key Conventions, which concern freedom of association, the right to organize and collective bargaining; discrimination; forced labour; and child labour. These core or fundamental standards have all been ratified by the overwhelming majority of ILO member states.


Criticism of the establishment of core or fundamental labour standards

Despite the rapid ratification by many countries of the eight Conventions identified as fundamental, a number of academics and activists have criticized the ILO for creating a false division between different international labour standards, many of which cover specific and concrete human rights topics but were excluded from the 1998 Declaration, such as those on health and safety and working hours. To add further confusion, the new core conventions are often exclusively referred to as being human rights, whereas before all international labour standards were viewed as human rights. Philip Alston, John Norton Pomeroy Professor of Law at New York University, has written on this narrowing of international labour standards in the name of human rights advocacy.


Recommendations

Recommendations do not have the binding force of Conventions, and are not subject to ratification by member countries. Recommendations may be adopted at the same time as Conventions to supplement the latter with additional or more detailed provisions. The intent of these recommendations is often to more precisely detail the principles of related Conventions.


In other cases Recommendations may be adopted separately, and address issues not covered by, or unrelated to any particular Convention.


Child labour

The ILO has a specialist programme addressing child labour, the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) is a programme that the International Labour Organisation has run from 1992. ...


HIV/AIDS

Under the name ILOAIDS, the ILO created the Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work as a document providing principles for "policy development and practical guidelines for programmes at enterprise, community and national levels." Including:[2]

  • prevention of HIV
  • management and mitigation of the impact of AIDS on the world of work
  • care and support of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS
  • elimination of stigma and discrimination on the basis of real or perceived HIV status.

Nobel Peace Prize

The organization received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969.[3] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize Image:Nobel-medal. ...


International Training Centre

The ILO maintains an International Training Centre in Turin, Italy. Location Region Piedmont Province Torino Area   – Total   – Water 130 km² (50 mi²) ##.# km² (#.# mi²) #.##% Population   – Total (2002)   – Density 857,433 6,596/km² Time zone CET: UTC+1 Latitude Longitude   45°04N 7°40E (##.#######, -##.#######)1. ...


Personnel Policy

The International Labour Organization is an agency belonging to the United Nations system, and as such shares common conditions of employment with other agencies. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


See also

Organized Labour Portal
This article has a
Translation summary:
Portal:United Nations
United Nations Portal

The International Labour Conference is a yearly event, held each June in Geneva, Switzerland, and is hosted by the International Labour Organization. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1150x1150, 77 KB) Summary square version of Image:Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ...

References

  1. ^ Decent Work. Report by the Director General for the International Labour Conference 87th Session, 1999. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  2. ^ The ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work. ILOAIDS. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  3. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 1969. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Official site of the International Labour Organization
  • About the International Labour Organization
  • Constitution of the International Labour Organization
  • International Labour Conference
  • ILO Conventions
  • ILO Recommendations
  • NATLEX Database of national labour, social security and related human rights legislation
  • ILO Photo Library
  • The International Labour Organization: A Handbook for Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, London, Minority Rights Group, 2002



  Results from FactBites:
 
International Labour Law (6122 words)
International labour law is one category of international law.
In addition to the international commitments to which they may give rise, international labour standards can serve as a general guide and as a source of inspiration to governments by virtue of their authority as texts adopted by an assembly composed of representatives of governments, employers and workers of nearly all countries of the world.
ILO sources of international labour law can be found in the Constitution of the Organization, and in its numerous Conventions and Recommendations.
International Labour Organization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (782 words)
The International Labour Organization is an agency of the United Nations and as such shares a core of common personnel policy with other agencies.
Despite their independence in matters of personnel policy, the International Labour Organization and other agencies of the United Nations voluntarily discriminate between opposite-sex marriages and same-sex marriages, as well as discriminating between employees on the basis of nationality.
In 2004, an employee of the ILO unsuccessfully challenged the organization's stance on recognition of same-sex marriage.
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