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Encyclopedia > International Grandmaster

The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from "World Champion", Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. Chess (Sanskrit: Chaturanga) is an abstract strategy board game and mental sport for two players. ... The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world. ...


It is a lifetime title, in chess literature usually abbreviated as GM (this is in contrast to FM for FIDE Master and IM for International Master). FIDE Master (FM) is a title awarded by the world chess governing body, Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE). ... The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. ...


GM, IM, and FM are open to both men and women. A separate gender-segregated title, WGM for Woman Grandmaster, is also available, but is something of a misnomer. It is awarded for a level of skill between that of a FIDE Master and an International Master. In 1991 Susan Polgar became the first woman to earn the GM title under the same conditions as the men, and these days most of the top 10 women hold the GM title. Woman Grandmaster (WGM) is the highest-ranking chess title restricted to women aside from Womens World Champion. ... Look up Misnomer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Susan Polgar Grandmaster Susan Polgar (born April 19, 1969 as Polgár Zsuzsanna) is a Hungarian-American chess player, and one of the strongest female players ever, having been Womens World Chess Champion from 1996 until 1999. ...


International Grandmaster titles are also awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems, and to correspondence chess players (by the International Correspondence Chess Federation). Sam Loyd, London Era, 1861 Excelsior by Sam Loyd. ... Correspondence chess is chess played by various forms of long-distance correspondence, usually through a correspondence chess server, through e-mail or by the postal system; less common methods which have been employed include fax and homing pigeon. ... International Correspondence Chess Federation ICCF is the International Correspondence Chess Federation. ...

Contents

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Current Regulations

The requirements for becoming a Grandmaster are somewhat complex. A player must have an ELO chess rating of at least 2500 at one time (although they need not maintain this level to keep the title). A rating of 2400 or higher is required to become an International Master. In addition, two favorable results (called norms) in tournaments involving other Grandmasters, including some from countries other than the applicant's, are usually required before FIDE will confer the title on a player. There are other milestones a player can achieve to get the title, such as winning the World Junior Championship. Current regulations may be found in the FIDE Handbook [1]. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

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Origin and Current Statistics

The title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who in 1914 awarded it to five players (Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall), who were finalists of a tournament in Saint Petersburg which he had partially funded. The tournament was won by Lasker ahead of Capablanca. Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player and mathematician, born at Berlinchen in Brandenburg (now Barlinek in Poland). ... José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (November 19, 1888 - March 8, 1942) was a famous Cuban chess player in the early to mid twentieth century. ... Alexander Alekhine Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine (sometimes spelled Aljechin or Alechin) (IPA: , Russian: Александр Александрович Алéхин) (October 31 or November 1, 1892 – March 24, 1946) was a chess master and a former World Chess Champion. ... Siegbert Tarrasch Siegbert Tarrasch (March 5, 1862 – February 17, 1934) was one of the strongest chess players of the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... This article is about the early 20th century chess champion. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


FIDE first awarded the International Grandmaster title in 1950 to 27 players. These players were Bernstein, Boleslavsky, Bondarevsky, Botvinnik, Bronstein, Duras, Euwe, Fine, Flohr, Grünfeld, Keres, Kostić, Kotov, Levenfish, Lilienthal, Maroczy, Mieses, Najdorf, Ragozin, Reshevsky, Rubinstein, Sämisch, Smyslov, Stahlberg, Szabó, Tartakower, and Vidmar. Ossip Samoilovitch Bernstein, (1882 to 1962), born in Imperial Russia in 1882 to a family of Jewish heritage, his family grew up in the anti-semitic atmosphere of pre-revolutionary Russia. ... Isaac Yefremovich Boleslavsky (1919 – February 15, 1977) was a Ukrainian-Jewish chess grandmaster. ... Igor Zakharovich Bondarevsky (May 12, 1913, Rostov-on-the-Don, Russia – June 14, 1979, Piatigorsk) was a Soviet Russian chess grandmaster in both over the board and correspondence chess, International Judge, trainer and author of chess books. ... Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (IPA: ; Russian: ) (August 17, 1911 [O.S. August 4] - May 5, 1995) was a Jewish Russian International Grandmaster and long-time World Champion of chess. ... David Ionovich Bronstein (born February 19, 1924) is renowned as a leading chess grandmaster and writer. ... Oldřich Duras (October 30, 1882 - January 5, 1957) was a leading Czech chess master of the early 20th century. ... Machgielis (Max) Euwe (last name is pronounced /ø:wÉ™/) (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess player. ... Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 - March 26, 1993) was one of the best chess players in the world during the 1930s. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ernst Franz Grünfeld (November 21, 1893 – April 3, 1962), chess player specializing in opening theory and author, was for a brief period after the First World War one of the strongest chess players in the world. ... Paul Keres Paul Keres (born January 7, 1916, in Narva, Estonia; died June 5, 1975, in Helsinki, Finland) was an Estonian chess grandmaster and one of the strongest chess players of all time, apart from the World chess champions. ... Borislav Kostić (aka Boris or Bora Kostic) (February 24, 1887 - November 3, 1963) was a professional chess player from Vrsac in Yugoslavia (now Serbia & Montenegro), then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Alexander Kotov (Александр Александрович Котов) (August 12, 1913 – January 8, 1981) was a chess grandmaster and author. ... Grigory Yakovlevich Levenfish (March 9, 1889 - February 9, 1961) was a leading Jewish Russian chess grandmaster of the 1920s and 1930s. ... Andre Lilienthal (born 5 May 1911) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster. ... Geza Maroczy (1870-1951) was a leading Hungarian chess master. ... Jacques Mieses (1865–1954) was a German-born Jewish chess player and writer. ... Miguel Najdorf (born as Mieczysław Najdorf; 1910 - 1997) was a Polish-Argentine chess player. ... Viacheslav Vasilyevich Ragozin (October 8, 1908 – March 11, 1962) was a Soviet chess Grandmaster, an International Arbiter of chess, and a World Correspondence Chess Champion. ... Samuel Herman (Sammy) Reshevsky (born November 26, 1911, Ozorkow, Poland - died April 4, 1992, New York, USA) was a leading American chess Grandmaster. ... Akiba Rubinstein (born 12 December 1882, died 15 March 1961 in Antwerp) was a brilliant Polish chess master and a famous grandmaster at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Friedrich Sämisch (September 20, 1896, Berlin–August 16, 1975, Berlin) was a German chess grandmaster. ... Vasily Vasiliyevich Smyslov (Васи́лий Смысло́в) (born March 24, 1921) is a Russian chess grandmaster. ... Gideon Stahlberg (1908 - 1967) was a Swedish chess grandmaster. ... // Headline text László Szabó (March 19, 1917 – August 8, 1998) was a prominent Hungarian International Grandmaster of chess. ... Ksawery Tartakower (generally known as Saviely or Savielly in English, from Polish Sawielly meaning little Saul, less often Xavier Tartacover or Xavier Tartakover; 1887–1956) was a leading Polish and French chess Grandmaster. ... Milan Vidmar (June 22, 1885 – October 9, 1962) was a Slovene electrical engineer, chess player, chess theorist, philosopher and writer, born in Ljubljana, Austria-Hungary (now Slovenia). ...


In 1972 there were only 88 GMs with 33 being Russian. In July 2005, the FIDE ratings list included over 900 grandmasters; see list of chess players and chess grandmasters for some of them. The increase is at least partly due to the greater ease of travel, which makes it simpler to organize the international tournaments required to provide norm opportunities. This is a list of chess players. ...


The Grandmaster title retains its prestige because it represents a very high level of chess performance against other titled players. A chess master is typically in the top 2% of all tournament players. A Grandmaster is typically in the top 0.02% percent at the time he or she earns the title. [2]

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Title Inflation

Some people have argued that the players currently awarded the title of Grandmaster are not as dominant as those five original Grandmasters were in their day. Lasker, Capablanca and Alekhine were all World Champions, and both Tarrasch and Marshall were strong enough to play world title matches (both losing against Lasker). Tarrasch was regarded as the strongest player in the world in the period between the decline of Steinitz and the rise of Lasker.


This argument says that the title of Grandmaster ought to be reserved for those who, at some time in their lives, become serious contenders for the World Championship, or who have actually held that title. Otherwise, a "super-GM" designation becomes necessary in order to refer to that group, leading to an accumulation of superlatives.

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"Super-grandmasters"

A player whose ELO rating is over 2700 (this was 2600 in 1970) is sometimes informally called a "Super-GM". From 1970 when FIDE first adopted the ELO rating system to July 2006, there have been only 39 players who have achieved a peak rating of 2700 or more. This list, however, does not account for the inflation of ELO ratings over time, as is evident by the fact that almost all of these peak ratings are from recent years. As of October 2006, FIDE lists twenty active players rated 2700 or higher [3].

Rank Rating Player Date Country
1 2851 Garry Kasparov 1999-07 Russia
2 2813 Veselin Topalov 2006-07 Bulgaria
3 2811 Vladimir Kramnik 2002-01 Russia
4 2803 Viswanathan Anand 2006-04 India
5 2785 Bobby Fischer 1972-04 United States
6 2780 Anatoly Karpov 1994-07 Russia
7 2765 Peter Svidler 2006-01 Russia
8 2763 Péter Lékó 2005-04 Hungary
9 2761 Levon Aronian 2006-07 Armenia
10 2758 Alexander Morozevich 1999-07 Russia
11 2755 Michael Adams 2000-07 England
12 2752 Vasyl Ivanchuk 2005-07 Ukraine
13 2751 Alexei Shirov 2000-01 Spain
14 2745 Gata Kamsky 1996-07 United States
15 2743 Ruslan Ponomariov 2002-04 Ukraine
16 2739 Evgeny Bareev 2003-10 Russia
17 2735 Judit Polgar 2005-07 Hungary
18 2733 Boris Gelfand 2006-10 Israel
19 2732 Alexander Grischuk 2003-07 Russia
20 2731 Etienne Bacrot 2005-04 France
21 2729 Teimour Radjabov 2006-10 Azerbaijan
22 2728 Shakhriyar Mamedyarov 2006-10 Azerbaijan
23 2725 David Navara 2006-10 Czech Republic
24 2715 Valery Salov 1995-01 Russia
25 2714 Loek van Wely 2001-10 The Netherlands
26 2713 Vladimir Akopian 2005-10 Armenia
27 2712 Nigel Short 2004-04 England
28 2710 Alexander Beliavsky 1997-07 Slovenia
29 2707 Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu 2005-10 Romania
30 2706 Rustam Kasimdzhanov 2001-10 Uzbekistan
31 2706 Ivan Sokolov 2004-01 The Netherlands
32 2705 Mikhail Tal 1980-01 Latvia
33 2705 Alexey Dreev 2003-10 Russia
34 2702 Michal Krasenkow 2000-07 Poland
35 2702 Ilya Smirin 2001-07 Israel
36 2702 Alexander Khalifman 2001-10 Russia
37 2702 Zurab Azmaiparashvili 2003-07 Georgia
38 2700 Vladimir Malakhov 2004-01 Russia
39 2700 Victor Bologan 2005-04 Moldova
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Garry Kasparov Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian: ; IPA: ) (born April 13, 1963) is a chess grandmaster and former World Chess Champion. ... Veselin Topalov 2005 Veselin Topalov (IPA: ; Bulgarian: ) (born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and former FIDE world champion. ... Vladimir Kramnik at the 2005 Corus chess tournament. ... Viswanathan Anand (IPA: ) (born December 11, 1969 in Chennai (then called Madras), India) is an Indian chess grandmaster. ... Bobby Fischer. ... Anatoly Karpov Anatoli Yevgenyevich Karpov (Russian: ) (born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. ... Peter Svidler Peter Svidler (Пётр Свидлер; Pyotr Svidler, born June 17, 1976 in Leningrad) is a Russian chess grandmaster. ... Péter Lékó Péter Lékó (b. ... Levon Aronian (born October 6, 1982) is an Armenian chess player. ... Alexander Morozevich Alexander Morozevich (Александр Морозе́вич) (born July 18, 1977) is a Russian chess player. ... Michael Adams Michael Adams who was born on October 17, 1971 in Truro, Cornwall, England is an International Grandmaster of chess. ... Vassily Ivanchuk Vasyl Ivanchuk (Василь Іванчук), born March 18, 1969 in Berezhany, Ukraine, is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster. ... Alexei Shirov Alexei Shirov (Aleksejs Širovs, Алексе́й Широв) (born July 4, 1972 in Riga, Latvia), is one of the top chess grandmasters in the world today. ... Gata Kamsky (Tatar:Ğataulla Kamski) (born June 2, 1974) is an American chess grandmaster. ... Ruslan Ponomariov (Ukrainian: Руслан Пономарьов; Russian: Русла́н Пономарёв) (born October 11, 1983) is a Ukrainian chess player. ... Evgeny Bareev (b. ... Judit Polgár (born July 23, 1976) is a Hungarian chess player. ... Boris Gelfand (born 24 June 1968) is a chess grandmaster. ... Alexander Grischuk Alexander Grischuk (b. ... Etienne Bacrot (born January 22, 1983) is a French chess grandmaster. ... Teimour Radjabov Teimour Radjabov (b. ... Shakhriyar Mamedyarov Shakhriyar Mamedyarov was born on the 12th of April 1985 in Sumgait, Azerbaijan. ... David Navara (born March 27, 1985) is an International Grandmaster of chess from the Czech Republic. ... Valery Salov (born May 26, 1964) is a Russian chess grandmaster. ... Loek van Wely (b. ... Vladimir Akopian (born December 7, 1971) is a leading Armenian chess Grandmaster. ... Nigel Short (born June 1, 1965 in Leigh, Lancashire) is widely regarded as the greatest British chess player of the 20th century. ... A. Beliavsky, at 35th chess olympiad Bled 2002 Alexander Beliavsky (born December 17, 1953) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster. ... Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu (born August 1, 1976) is a Romanian chess player. ... (Rustam Qosimjonov in Uzbek, Рустам Касымджанов in Russian born December 5, 1979) is a chess grandmaster from Uzbekistan. ... Ivan Sokolov is a chess grandmaster from Yugoslavia, currently playing for the Netherlands. ... Mikhail Tal Mikhail Nekhemievich Tal (Latvian: Mihails Tāls, Russian: Михаил Нехемьевич Таль) (November 9, 1936 - June 28, 1992), born in Riga, Latvia, was the eighth World Chess Champion. ... Alexey Dreev is a chess grandmaster from Russia. ... Polands strongest chess player after World War II, of Russian origin (formerly Mikhail Krasenkov) He was born in Moscow on November, 14, 1963. ... Ilya Smirin (or Ilia) (born January 21, 1968 in Belarus) is a Soviet-Israeli chess grandmaster. ... Alexander Valeryevich Khalifman (born January 18, 1966) is a Russian chess player. ... Zurab Azmaiparashvili (born March 16, 1960) is a chess Grandmaster from Georgia. ... Vladimir Malakhov is a chess Grandmaster from Russia. ... Victor Viorel Bologan (born December 14, 1971) is a chess grandmaster. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
International Grandmaster - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (735 words)
International Grandmaster titles are also awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems, and to correspondence chess players (by the International Correspondence Chess Federation).
The title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who in 1914 awarded it to five players (Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall), who were finalists of a tournament in Saint Petersburg which he had partially funded.
A Grandmaster is typically in the top 0.02% percent at the time he or she earns the title.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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